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on Inveraray, where Argyll was, at the time making arrangements for a meeting of his retainers, whom ho called together. He declared that lie would rather lose a hundred thousand crowns than that any mortal should know the passes hy which an armed force could penetrate his county, even in the middle of summer. The month of December was now far advanced, and to his utter amazement and terror the herds and shepherds rushed from the mountain pastures with the astounding intelligence that Montrose and the Highlanders were within a few miles of the Castle of Inveraray. The Earl immediately escaped to sea by a fishing boat, leaving his friends and the whole county to the mercy of the enemy. The town ot Inveraray was burnt to ashes. The army marched in three divisions, one under Montrose himself, one under Alexander Macdonald, his LieutGeneral, and the third under Clanranald. "Thus he traversed, by separate routes, the whole district; which was wasted—even as Argyll had wasted Athole and the Braes of Angus, and burnt the 'Bonny house of Airlie.' The clans laid the whole face of the country in ashes, killing all whom they met marching to Inveraray (amounting, it is said, to 895 men-atarms), sweeping oft' its flocks and herds from every valley, glen, and mountain that owned the sway of MacCailinmor."* A contemporary writer states that the Highlanders plundered and destroyed wherever they came, and " spared none that were fit to carry arms, and, in particular, they put to the sword all the men whom they met going in arms to the rendezvous appointed by Argyll; nor did they desist till they had driven all the men who were fit for service out of the country, or at least obliged them to retire to lurking holes known to none but themselves. They drove all their cattle, and burnt their villages and cottages to the ground; thus retaliating upon Argyll the treatment lie had given to others, he himself being the first who had practised tliis cruel method of waging war against the innocent country people, by fire and devastation. Nor did they deal more gently with the people of Lorn, and the neighbouring parts who acknowledged Argyll's authority."t This expedition must have been of an atrocious character. Another contemporary writer informs us that they burnt and slew throughout the whole country, "and left no house or hold, except impregnable strengths, unburnt, their corns, goods, and gear, and left not a four-footed beast in his [Argyll's] haill lands j and such as would not drive, they houghed and slew, that they should never make stead."} The Clanranald and Athole men returned home with the booty from Argyle, promising to return to Montrose whenever they were called upon to do so.

We again find them, soon after, on the 2d of February 1645, taking a prominent part in the battle of Inverlochy, where, according to the last quoted authority, "the Captain of Clanranald, Maclean, and Glengarie was in the middle," round the Royal Standard, under the immediato command of Montrose himself, who commanded the centre. They took a distinguished share in the battle at Auldearn, victoriously fought on the 9th of May 1645, where "the brave, hardy Clan Macdonald, and the equally brave and hardy Clanranalds, all fought bike true heroes without the least fear of strokes or shot,"|| The Clanranalds, with the other Mac

* Napier's Life and Times of Montrose, 289-291.

+ Wishart's Memoirs of Montrose.

J Spalding's "History of the Troubles in Scotland," vol. ii., p, 269—1792 Ed.

|| Bed Book of Cliuiron.-ld.

donalds, were at Montrose's last great victory at Kilsyth, where, as usual, they greatly distinguished themselves, under the immediate command of their chief, who had just returned from a recruiting expedition in the Highlands, bringing with him 700 Macleans and 500 of his own clan. He was accompanied by his son Donald, already referred to, a youth at this date of only twenty years of age, who greatly distinguished himself throughout the whole campaign. On this occasion Montrose unfortunately stated, in presence of many of his officers, that, though Clanranald had brought a great addition to the camp, he had provided nothing to maintain them, while all the other clans had. Clanranald indignantly replied that the swords of his men could supply them with everything necessary for their maintenance at all times and in any circumstances. This did not quite satisfy Montrose, and dispute would have followed had not Alexander Macdonald (MacColla) intervened, stating that he knew the Clanranald men well, and would become personally responsible that by next evening they would bring in as much provender as any of the other claus. He then turned to young Clanranald, directing him to get his men ready by themselves, and to prepare for a foray next morning. Donald was not slow in executing these orders. He marched his men to the lands of the Earl Marischall, and, though they had been pretty well wasted on previous occasions by others, "he brought back with him a booty, not only surpassing that furnished b}' any other, but one that served the whole army for months. This bravo action pleased Montrose, and induced him to apologise for his hasty expression." The author of the Red Book informs us that " Young Donald and his men brought more creachs to the camp than any others. Many of the Highlanders, when sent to drive a prey, drove it on to their own countries without asking the general's leave. John of Moidart would allow none of his men to leave him; but there was another reason for this, namely, that it was not easy for the men from 1 lie Islands to drive their prey home from the low country; hence the raising of creachs fell to their share all summer. Young Donald to<^k a large prey from the Lord MarischaH's country, and from the Mearns and Angus; an old man, whom they met there, told them that the Mearns had not been used so since Donald of the Isles creached, the year he fought the battle of Harlaw." The same chronicler, after describing various preliminaries of the battle, states that "Montrose held a Council of War, ;md referred it to his wholo army whether to fight or retreat. All declared they would rather fight than retreat. Yet the troops had been long without food. Montrose sent his trumpet with a challenge, at which t he great army gave a shout, and drew out in order of battle, 3,000 pikemen and 11,000 in battalions behind these, and you may think it w;is hard work for our small numbers to face. The fight was hard. The Highlanders had 4000 foot and 500 horses; and they fixed their shirts between their legs. The horsemen had white shirts over their armour. We advanced gallantly against a battery of great guns. Battle commenced by an excellent regiment of Scotch and Irish good marksmen; Major Lauchlin and Mac Coll directing and exhorting them. Donald, son of the Captain of Clanranald, and Donald MacEachain Oig Maclean, strove who should first engage. Donald and his men, and Patrick Caoch Macgregor and his men, in one regiment—Clanranald gave the assault, and young Donald was the first man who leaped the intrenchments, and hi3 people after him. The enemy was completely routed." Napier explains as to the " white shirts above their armour," that it would rather seem that Montrose had ordered them to disencumber themselves of their heavy armour that was over their shirts, for they had to charge up hill in the middle of a hot August. In the retreat from Perth, leading up to the battle of Kilsyth, we are told that "Donald, the son of the Captain of Clanranald, had the honour of bringing up the rear, which was under the immediate command of Sir Alexander Macdonald. Many individual feats of bravery were performed, and those of young Donald were not the least conspicuous. At one time, by a gallant manoeuvre, he cut off the entire advance of the enemy; at another time he opposed his chosen band against ten times their number, who obstinately defended a ford, and was successful" At the battle of Kilsyth a slight difference arose between Donald and Maclean as to who should assume chief command of their immediate followers. It is thus related in the Clanranald Family History :—" The action commenced by a fire of cannon and musketry from the Covenanters, and the attack by the King's forces, with a regiment of Irish commanded by Major Macdonald, and directed by Sir Alexander Macdonald. The gallant regiment commanded by Donald, son of the Captain of Clanranald, and by Maclean, were ordered to their relief. An unfortunate difference had existed between these two as to precedency. Each maintained that he was entitled to command the other; on this occasion Maclean desired Donald to place himself under his command. From Donald's situation he was rather in the rear, but, regardless of disputes of this kind, he pushed through Maclean's regiment with his men, and was himself the first who gained the trenches of the enemy. His men followed and drove all before them, striking terror wherever they went. By this bold and decisive action the battle of Kilsyth was in a great measure gained. It was fought on the 14th of August 1645. The Covenanters lost nearly 4000 men, while the loss of Montrose did not amount to 100. After the battle of Kilsyth Montrose marched to Hamilton; and nearly the whole of Scotland submitted to him. While thero the Captain of Clanranald and his son retired to their own country exhausted by the many engagements they had been in." At the same time all the Western Highlanders left Montrose, and marched westward under their brilliant name-sake, Alexander Macdonald, son of Colla Ciotach, now Captain-General of the whole army, immediately next in rank to Montrose himself, and a warrior-knight of great renown. From that day, the moment on which he lost the active support of the Highlanders in the held, the star of the great Montrose began to wane, and the end is already known to every school-boy, but the Clanranald were as true to him in his misfortunes as they had been in the days of his great victories. Wishart describes the departure of the Highlanders thus:—Many of them, "being loaded with spoil, deserted privately, and soon after returned to their own country; their officers and leaders also openly demanded liberty to go. home for a short time. They pretended that, as the Covenanters had at that time no army within the kingdom, there was the less occasion for their presence; and as their corns had been all destroyed and their houses burnt by the enemy, there was an absolute necessity for their going home, tho' but for a few weeks, in order to repair their habitations, and lay up some winter provisions for their wives and


families; therefore they earnestly begged a short furlough; and, as an inducement to obtain it, they solemnly promised to return in less than torty days in greater strength and numbers. Montrose, perceiving that they were fully resolved to leave him, and that it was not in his power to detain them, as they were all volunteers, and served without pay, thought it most expedient to dismiss them with a good grace, in order to ingratiate himself the more with them, and encourage them to return. He praised the bravery of the soldiers, and in the King's name returned, his thanks to the officers for their services; and entreated them to be as expeditious in settling their domestic affairs as possible, so that they might return against the appointed day, under the couduct of Alexander Macdonald, whom, at his own earnest desire, he appointed their captain. Macdonald, in a formal oration, returned thanks in all their names to the Lord-Governor for his great condescention, and gave his solemn promise as a security for their speedy return. However, he had secretly resolved not to return, and actually never after saw Montrose. He carried off with him above three thousand Highlanders, all very brave men, and the flower of the army; and not satisfied with these, ho privately seduced a hundred and twenty of the very best of the Irish, and carried them along with him also as a life-guard."*

After the army was disbanded in May 1645, and peace made with the Scottish army at Newark, the Committee of Estates instructed General Middleton to grant remission on certain conditions to those who still held out. Among theso was Clanranald, who refused to accept the terms offered; but retired sullenly to his stronghold of Castletirrim, where, although General Leslie and the Marquis of Argyll over-ran and wasted the greater portion of the adjoining country, he was loft undisturbed. Here he for a time remained "firmly attached to his Sovereign, whose Bou he had afterwards the happiness to see restored to the throne of his ancestors." When the Earl of Antrim, in October 1646, proposed a new levy by the Koyalist leaders for the rescue of the King, Clanranald pledged himself to raise 1300 men, of the proposed army of 30,000.t

On the 15th of August 1645 Clanranald entered into a bond of fidelity with Allan MacAlastair, Laird of Morar, who bound and obliged himself, his heirs and successors, to be bondsman and true servant to Clanranald, "fiar of Moydart," and to obey any of his heirs and successors, while Clanranald and his son, on the other hand, bound and obliged themselves and their heirs and successors "to stand be him in any where he will cause do, as his chief should do." Shortly after the landing of Charles II. at Garmouth, in Moray, on the 23d June 1650, John went and paid his respects to him, after which he retired to his Island possessions in Uist, where he continued to reside for the remainder of his life.

John married Moir, or Marion, daughter ot Sir Roderick Macleod of Macleod, known as " Euari Mor," and by this alliance terminated a feud which arose out of a previous marriage, and long existed between the two families. By her ho had issue—

1. Donald, his heir.

2. Moir, or Marion, who married Lauchlan Maclean, eighth of Coll.

3. Catharine, who married Macneill of Barra,

* Memoirs of Montrose, pp. 137-138.
t Macdonellu of Antrim, p. 274.

4. Anne, who married Ranald Macdonald, second of Benbeeula, whoso son Donald, afterwards, on the failure of John's male issue, succeeded as head of the house of Clanranald.

Pie died in 1070,at a very advanced age, in the Island of Eriska, South Uist, and was buried at Tomar, when he was succeeded by his only son,

XVIII. Donald Macdonald, eleventh of Clanranald, with whom the reader is already acquainted, he having taken, during his father's life, a prominent and distinguished share in the wars of Montrose. After the disastrous battle of Philipshaugh, Montrose returned to the Xorth. The Earl of Antrim soon after landed at Kintyre, where he met Montrose. Many of the clans, among others the Clanranald, agreed to join him, but the King's order to disband the army put an end to further proceedings at that time. Donald was instructed by his father to proceed to Isla, and dispossess the Campbells. He was at the same time invited by the Earl of Antrim to join him in assisting the troops of King Charles in Ireland; whereupon, Donald, with 300 men, embarked at Uist in 1G48; proceeded through the Sound of Mull to Colonsay, and thenco to the Sound of Isla, where ho captured a large vessel belonging to the Estates of Scotland, laden with barley. He then proceeded to Ireland, and quartered his men at Kilkenny, where he met Glengarry and a large body of Highlanders, who afterwards took part in several engagements, including the capture of Belfast, Knockfergus, Coleraine, and Londonderry. Jn all these proceedings Donald of Clanranald, who held high rank in the Highland regiment, took a distinguished share. He remained with the King's army until its final overthrow, when both Clanranald and Glengarry were taken prisoners and sent to Kilkenny. Here they were kept in durance for a considerable time. They, however, ultimately secured their liberty through the influence and intercession of the Duchess of Buckingham, who was married to the Earl of Antrim, after which they returned to the Highlands; Clanranald, in due course, landing safely in Uist.

Soon after the death of his father he made up titles to the property, but the part he and his famUy had taken in the recent wars involved him deeply in debt, in consequence of which he was obliged, to raise money, to grant a wadset of Moydart and Arasaig to Sir James Macdonald, for 4000 meTks. It was, however, afterwards redeemed. On the !)th of January 1674, he passed a signature of resignation and confirmation of the lands of Arasaig, Moydart, Skirrough, Benbeeula, and the Island of Eigg, on which a charter afterwards followed. In April 1G84 he obtained, from the Bishop of Lismore, a charter of the Island of Carina, in the signature to which be designated himself "Donald Macdonald of Moydart, Captain and Chief of ye family of Clanranald." In the charter itself he is described as "Capitono seu principi fauidite de Clanranald.''

He married his cousin, Moir, or Marion, daughter of John Macleod, XIV. of Macleod, and sister of Roderick Macleod, XV,, and of John Macleod, XVI. of Macleod, all three of whom followed each other in succession as Chiefs of Macleod. By her he had issue—

1. John, who died in infancy.

2. Allan, who succeeded his father as XHth of the family.

3. Ranald, who succeeded his brother Allan as XLtlth chief.

4. Margaret, married Donald Macdonald, third of Benbeeula, who afterwards became head of the clan, and succeeded to the estates as XIV, of Clanranald, and nearest male heir, on the death of Ranald.

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