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the great Earls of Moray and Ross and the Lords of the Isles retained their power the clans remained in abeyance and are not heard of, but with the destruction of their power the chiefs became independent, and from that time to 1745 they and tliuir clans were potent facts.

The question as to how these clans originated and as to the tie which bound them together is one of very great interest. Skene does not anywhere discuss it fully, but he indicates the opinion that the clan represented the sept, either consisting of a whole tuath or tribe where no subordinate sept had arisen within it, or of the septs which had so arisen within a tribe. As we have before stated he does not discuss the question whether we may not look tor the captains of groups of clans in the Toseich of the Tuath within which the various septs arose; but he appears to have abandoned the theory advanced in his Highland Clans, that the title of captain was given as distinct from chief in cases where the head of the oldest cadet family became the leader of the clan. As we have seen, he holds that these septs had a territorial basis, but as we have also seen they tended more and more to consist of the descendants and relatives of the chief, and it is beyond all question that in the Highland clans the belief in a common origin was universal, and was the main bond of union. On the other hand it is, we think, clear that this belief could not in all cases have been well founded. Many clans arose quite within historic times,—as the Frasers and the numerous clans which traced their descent from Somerled, the Celtic ruler of Argyle, and ancestor of the Lord of the Isles,—and acquired great power within a period which rendered it impossible that all the clansmen could be of the blood of the chief.

The author devotes a very interesting chapter to the genealogies of the clans. Since he wrote his Highland Clans, it has been found that the genealogies contained in the manuscript of 1467 discovered by him in the Advocates' Library, are compiled from the same sources as those contained in the Book of Ballimote, compiled about 1383, and the Book of Leccan compiled in 1407; and after a certain period he seems inclined to consider these Irish pedigrees as genuine. Into this most interesting subject, did space permit, we should wish to enter somewhat fully, but we have already exceeded the space at our command, and must here content ourselves by saying that Mr Skene holds strongly by the pure Celtic origin of the principal clans. In the case of the Mackenzies he takes the same view as that maintained by the editor in his history of that powerful clan, •where we would fain hope the question is finally set at rest The Eva of the Mackintoshes and the lady of the same name in the pedigree of the C;impbells as given in the Clan histories are treated as entirely legendary persons; and the Norwegian Aulan grandt of the Grants, and Cambro, the Dane of the Cameron*, are relegated to the same category. In the view which Mr Skene takes of these pedigrees, we fear he will hurt the susceptibilities of many Highlanders who are wedded to their clan traditions. We would distinctly wish to guard ourselves against expressing entire concurrence in his views, in every instance. But in any future controversy on the subject, there can be no doubt that the mature opinion of a man like Skene must be a potent factor, and that written pedigrees of such an early date as those referred to cannot easily be set aside.

In the last chapter, Mi Skene gives a short account of Land Tenure in the Highlands subsequent to the sixteenth century, and concludes the work with a most interesting account of three townships in the Outer Hebrides, compiled by Mr Alexander Carinichael, officer of Inland Kevenue at Lochmaddy, whose knowledge of Highland history and antiquities is well known. This account is of the deepest interest, and it probably gives a glimpse of the social condition of our ancestors as it existed a thousand years ago.

We have now accomplished, however imperfectly, the object we set before us at the commencement of this paper. We are conscious that we have passed over many matters of the deepest interest, and we can only hope that we have given an intelligible account of some of the conclusions which may be drawn from the learned work with which we have been dealing. To all who wish really to study the subject, we must commend the volume itself, premising that it is not a book to be lightly taken in hand, but one to be studied with care and labour. It is a nut with a hard shell, but the kernel is worth the labour of cracking it.

A NEW GAELIC SOCIETY IN DUNEDIN, NEW ZEALAND.

We cut the following advertisement from the Dunedin Herald of 12th January:—

"An la a chVi nach fhaic."—Two hundred and forty gentlemen have intimated their intention of becoming members of a Literary Gaelic Society in Dunedin, which will be conducted upon similar principles to those of the Gaelic Society of Inverness. Gentlemen desirous of becoming members (and only those who speak the Gaelic language) are requested to send their names and addresses to Mr John MaocaUum Jamieson, City Treasurer, Town Hall, Dunedin; or to Mr Donald Macgregor, Lochaber Cottage, London Street, Dunedin.

We are delighted to see such a prominent part taken in this patriotic movement by an old friend, Mr Donald Macgregor, long a prominent member of the Gaelic Society of London, and one of the ablest and most enthusiastic of that noble band who had for so many years, under such, serious difficulties, kept the Celtic lamp burning so brightly in the British Metropolis. Mr Macgregor is not unknown to the readers of the Otitic Magazine; and we shall be much mistaken if his ability, eloquence, and enthusiasm do not secure for him the best position among the Highlanders of New Zealand. In 1867, when Mr Colin Chisholm was elected President of the Gaelic Society of London, Mr Macgregor became Vice-President, and his speech on that occasion, quoted at p, 357, vol. ii., of the Celtic Magazine, in the advocacy of Celtic literature and the establishment of a Professorship of Celtic in the University of Edinburgh, was one of the best as well as one of the earliest in favour of that now virtually accomplished fact. We are glad to see our old friend again engaged in the good cause, and have much pleasure in extending to him, and, through him, to all the members of the Gaelic Society of Dunedin, the right hand of fellowship, and wishing him and them every possible Buccess. Buaidh ague piseach art a' Dhomh'uill choir.

KINMYLIES: ITS OWNERS AND TITLES—1232-1780.
By Charles Fraser-mackintosh, M.P., F.S.A. Scot

n.

After the sale to Kinneries, the lands of Kinmylies were broken up, and before continuing the observations, which were intended to concern Kinmylies proper rather than the other portions, some account of the other two chief properties will be given.

Muirtown was sold to Thomas Scheviz, by Simon, Master of Lovat, with consent of his father, Hugh, ninth Lord Lovat, and James Fraser, his brother, probably in 1637, as Scheviz was infeft 17th May 1638. This Thomas Scheviz was succeeded by his son, also Thomas Scheviz, whose signature as "younger of Muirtown" we find witness in a deed dated in 1652. This Thomas Scheviz the second is probably the same person found as proprietor in 1691. In 1744 is found Robert Scheviz, who gave such damaging evidence in the trial of Simon, Lord Lovat Scheviz's character stands out unfavourably, as he retails the import of conversations at Lord Lovat's table from 1733 to 1744. Lord Lovat in his defence says of him—" The only opportunity he had of hearing them (the facts sworn to by Scheviz) was at my table, when he must have starved and perished for cold, unless my money had furnished him with clothes. In evidence of this, I was till very lately possessed of many of his accepted notes for greater sums than I am afraid he is able to pay." Lord Lovat was very free in his remarks, and the trial is altogether so interesting that it is matter of surprise it has never been published separately. Lord Lovat habitually spoke Gaelic One of his favourite toasts, after being deprived of his offices was, "Confusion to the White Horse and all

their generations," and he very frequently d d the Reformation, and

the Revolution.

Robert Scheviz in 1746-7 was in desperate circumstances, and tho estate was soon thereafter seized by creditors, ultimately falling into tho possession of the Duffs, offshoots of the family of Drummuir.

Another portion of Kinmylies was acquired by the family of Fairfield, who had the two Ballifearies and lands near the Meikle Green. Tho Frasers of Fairfield were of the family of Phopachie, and the house erected by the founder is a conspicuous object in Slezer's view of Inverness, published in 1693. The walls of this house, with the red crow steps, were only removed within the last few years. The Fairfield property was gradually dispersed, the last portion being acquired by the late Mackintosh of Raigmore.

Reverting to Kinmylies proper, it would be seen that it and the superiority of Muirtown was acquired by Colonel Hugh Fraser of Kinneries, in 1647.

Though this person bulks largely in the history of the time, it is not clear who his parents were. All that is certain about him is that he was of the family of Culbockie or Guisachan, Mr Hugh C. Fraser, accountant, Inverness, who has made great collections in reference to the Frasers of Lovat, and the various cadets and branches of the family, and to whom the writer is much indebted for the present information regarding the family of Kinneriea, conjectures that Colonel Hugh Eraser was son of Alexander Eraser of Culbockie, who sold Guisachan in 1590 to his brother Hugh, fourth of Culbockie. But as Alexander's son was alive in 1590, we are inclined to think that Colonel Hugh was the grandson of Alexander. Be this as it may, Colonel Eraser within a very short period made great purchases of land in the north. He purchased Kinneries, Dalcattaig, Kinmylies, and Abriachan. Ho is doubtless the Major, afterwards Colonel Eraser who fought under Cromwell, and iu particular distinguished himself, with his Scots Regiment of Dragoons, at the battle of Marston Moor, 2d July 1644. Many of Cromwell's officers gathered a good deal of wealth in those unhappy times, and it must have been from this source Colonel Eraser was able to make these large purchases, because if the son or grandson of Alexander Eraser, who had to sell Guisachan, he could not have inherited anything.

The Wardlaw Manuscript mentions that the day prior to the battle of Auldearn (3d May 1G45) Colonel Fraser embarked with his lady, Christian Baillie, at Inverness, for London, in the largest ship ever built at Inververness, and as his eldest son was in minority in 1665, it would seem that Colonel Fraser had just married. Notwithstanding his Roundhead proclivities, Colonel Fraser took part in the rising at Inverness for Charles the Second, under Mackenzie of Pluscardine. He died shortly after, his son Hugh, second of Kinmylies, being retoiired in Kinmylies, at Inverness, 16th April 1650, as heir in special to his father. Upon the 22d May 1666, ho is served heir in the lands of Kinneries. His contract of marriage with Barbara, second daughter of Kenneth Mackenzie, sixth of Gairloch, is dated 30th March 1677. Upon the 26th May 1676, he had feued the Mill of Bught to Ihomas Scheviz of Muirtown. The estates appear by 1678 to have been greatly encumbered, and Alexander Fraser of Kinneries, apparently a brother of Hugh Eraser, from this period appears as proprietor. He sold all the Kinmylies estate to David Poison and others. The sasine on the disposition to Poison is dated 11 th January 1688. The following deeds refer to David Poison's acquisitions :—

Sasine in favour of David Poison of the lands of Ballifoaries, Balblair, Dallanach, Muirtown, Mill of Bught, &c, dated Uth January 1688.

Charter, William, Bishop of Moray, in favour of David Poison, of said lands, dated 27th July 1688.

The acquisition of a pew in the High Church of Inverness was of old a serious affair, and attended with great iormalities. On the 19th November 1689 the Kirk-Session of Inverness confirmed a disposition byAlexander Fraser of Kinneries, in favour of David Poison, residenter in Inverness, to a seat or pew of the two pews heritably belonging to him, the said Alexander Fraser, lying within the New Kirk of Inverness, on the west side thereof, betwixt the second pew disponed to Hugh Baillie, Sheriff-Clerk of Ross, on the north, and John Fraser, merchant in Inverress, on the south parts respective. Kinneries' disposition of the pew to Hugh Baillie is in similar terms, and is described as bounded by the pew disponed to David Poison on the south, and Mr William Robertson of Inshes' seat or pew on the north parts respective,

This Hugh Baillie had some transactions with Kinneries, for a charter of confirmation and novodamus by Colin, Bishop of Moray, in his favour of Easter and Wester Kinmylies is found of date 20th October 1685.

The lauds of Kinmylies remained with the family of Poison for two or at most three generations, and were sold about the middle of last century to Mr George lioss, a wealthy merchant in London, in whose time great improvements were made. The estate was subdivided, roads made, a large garden and hedges formod, and a considerable portion planted. On the subject of plantations in the neighbourhood of Inverness some particulars may be interesting, and it is also of importance that they be recorded while the facts are known. The first to begin planting was President Forbes, but little was done for thirty years after the battle of Culloden. One of the first was George Ross, as appears by the advertisement after quoted, showing that in 1784 there were on Kinmylies "several hundred acres of well grown planting." When the Islands in the Ness were first planted cannot be precisely ascertained. But we find in Peter May's plan, formerly referred to, dated June 1765, the following marginal reference :—" The true extent and local situation of the island is accurately laid down as it stands at present covered with large trees and underwood." We also know that the framers of the Statistical Account of 1791 write of the Islands as having been planted thirty years before, and from this it may be deduced that the trees referred to by Peter May must have been cut soon after 1765, and that as he describes them then as large trees, they would have been planted perhaps as early as the usurpation, if not actually by Cromwell's soldiers. Prom May's map there does not appear to have been a tree on Toi vean, fiught, Altnaskiach, or Drummond in 1765.

Lieutenant Alexander Godsman, Doer for the Puke of Gordon over the castle lands, writes to the unfortunate Colonel William Baillie of Dunain (who died at Seringapatam), under date Dochfour, 23d September 1775 (doquetted, "received the 1st May 1776, at Madras")—"We have got the craig to the northward of the House of Dunain enclosed, and mean to have it planted directly with firs; and as some few places will be fit to receive ash, beech, birch, elm, or any other kind of wood, we are to plant them accordingly where it is thought they will grow. The enclosure is a dyke and ditch very well execute, and measures 3184^ Scotch ells, at 3d per ell, which amounts to £39 16s Ojd. There is besides a little bit of enclosure round Tomalnack, which is not yet finished. I imagine what ground is comprehended in the enclosure of the craig will be considerably above 100 Scots acres. The acre generally plants about 5000 firs. Planting and the price of plants will be about two shillings the thousand, so that the expense of planting a hundred acres with firs would bo about £50, besides any utensils that may be necessary. I fancy the expense of this job will be about 100 guineas or something above it, but this is only my conjecture at present. When this planting is grown up it will be a most beautiful ornament to the place, as well as very useful."

One of the elms referred to by Godsman still remains, situated near the garden, and is one of the largest and shapeliest in the north. When Colonel John Baillie (brother of Colonel William) returned to Dunain he completed the planting of the wester hill of Dunain, and many readers •will recollect with regret the disappearance of the bonnet on Craig-an-Eoin, which was a part of the original planting of 1776.

Godsman in the same letter says—" The spirit of planting has seized the neighbouring gentlemen to a high degree." Aud with reference to

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