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reputation of its scholars, and its comparative moderation in church politics, drew to it the sons of many a northern lord and laird who disliked the Covenant, and of some, perhaps, who cherished a lurking reverence for Episcopacy. There, too, without doubt, came many a youth seeking an education in good letters and Christian philosophy, though not designing to throw the energy of his after life into a struggle for the predominance of any sect or any shape of church government. All alike, it would seem, must have subseribed the formula of the Covenant, with such reservation and qualification as such tests usually produce.

When John Row had been placed in the principal's chair by Cromwell's five Colonels, he brought with him the discipline of his patron, no enemy certainly to Universities, and a great store of uncommon learning.1 We have evidence, in these records, of his attention to his duties while he presided over the College; and a few accounts kept by him show us somewhat of the domestic life of the students and masters of his day.

Hitherto, the Regents and founded masters, whether required or not, practised celibacy. It is noted, that in 1643, Alexander Middleton, the subprincipal, was married, "contrary to the foundation of the College, for he was the first Regent that entered into a marriage condition in this College."2 Some years later, it would appear, that there was an intention to enforce a rule against Regents marrying; but the attempt, if made, was defeated, as a similar one was evaded at Glasgow.3

11651.—He is still known for his Hebrew works, and the first half of his life was spent in teaching a very successful school at Perth. Orem's deicriptio* of Old Aberdeen.

'The following rhymes were found by Mr. D. Laing, in MS. in a hand about 1680, bound up a volume of tracts in the Kirkwall library. Such old Academic pasquils are so rare, notwithstanding the facility for

printing, that these, though apparently the
production of a wit of the sister College, have
been thought worth insertion here, in part:—

The Regents' humble supplication
Unto the Lords of visitation
Commissioned by our gracious King,
L's to reform in everie thing.

My Lords, we know you're hither sent,
\V ith power of a large extent,

Then, and for long afterwards, the unendowed students, as well as the endowed members of the College, all lived within the walls of the College, and ate at a common table. The Economus kept the accounts and managed the housekeeping. It might be possible to guess at the expense of the College life, from the whole outlay compared with the number of inmates; but we have better means of learning the actual expense of students (much of which did not go through the hands of the Economus), from the chance which has preserved the accounts of a young man who studied at King's College at that time. Hugh Rose of Kilravock, having finished his elementary education at the parish school of Auldearn, left his old tower on the Nairn for the University, on the 8th November, 1657, accompanied by his tutor, a young man who had taken his master's degree seven vears before, and now wrote himself 'Master William Geddes,' and * Jacobus Rose' his page. They rode the journey to College, and home again in May, on horseback. The expenses of all three, including journeys, and a visit to the young gentleman's

In all things ns to rectifie,
And oar foundation for to sie;
To try in all what is our rent,
How we the vacant stipends spent,
How we among ourselves agree.
And how Will Black is paid his fie:
How the Principall doth hector
Procnrator, Doctor, Rector:
How old Petrie, which is odd,
Lives by the purchase of a todd.
How Seaton with his fearful looks
Is payed for keeping of the books.
My Lords, since ye are men of wilt,
To yon these things we will suhmitt:
But yet that one thing which of late,
At Edinburgh was in debate,
And on both sides was handled hote,
Whither we wives should have or not,
'Oainst it to speak we would presume,
Since it a tenet is of Home.
Te know a doctrine it's of devills
Wives to forbear, though they be evills:

My Lords, cast not on ns the knotts,
Or else we'll quitt both Rowns and coatts:
For we are lustie lads indeed,
Who sitt at ease and stronglie feed:

By Jove we swear we will miscarrie,
If ye allow us not to marrie.

But pray how comes it to pass
That Principall may take a lass?
But Patersone's a Principall.
I wish we Patersones were all.
Who calculat exactly find
His mear can never be behind.
And Middletown was at the south,
There his transactions were uncouth;
If he advised this gelding act,
And brought it on the Regents' back,
The gentlewomen would be clear,
He was dispatcht into Tangier
If he restrain us, but no doubt
Be merciful as ye are stout,
Let it be but a year or two
That we this pennance undergo,
For a tedious eight years lent
Was ne're enjoyned by those of Trent.
My Lords, consider our regrate,
Or else expect poor Orpheus' fate;

Your Lordships are put to a push,
Your Clerk subscrives himself



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kinsfolk at Achlossen, amounted to little more than £420 Scots. This included board paid to the Economus for two quarters (£80 a quarter), furniture for chambers, fee to the Regent (£30 Scots), fire and candle, clothes (including a 'mulfe' and a 'four-tailed coat'), washing, and a few customary fees to servants, and "to the printer £6. 8s." 1

The change from the old academic economy has been gradual. For more than a century after Hugh Rose had occupied his simply furnished apartment, the students continued to lodge in chambers within the walls of the College, and to take their meals in the College hall; but as no imperative rule prevented those who pleased from having lodgings in the town, a class of boarding-houses seems to have grown up, which were preferred by the young men to the restraint of a college life; and the change was not discouraged by the masters. Gradually the number remaining within the College diminished, till, in 1788, the masters withdrew the salary which had hitherto induced the Economus to give his attention to the domestic arrangements of the College ;3 and, in the beginning of the present century, the ancient and honoured collegiate practice disappeared. It may be impossible to return to it, with the altered numbers of students, and after so long an interval; but some change, which should bring the students more under the master's eye, and establish something of a domestic relation between the teachers and the taught, would be of more importance in our Scotch Universities than any improvement in the mere teaching of classes.

It has been already mentioned that in Aberdeen, as in other universities of old, the student, entering under the Regent, continued under him during his whole course of study; and although the authors of the "new foundation," and subsequent reformers at

1" The family of Kilravock," Spalding 8th September, 1788. Some few students Club, p. 351. lived in Coilege down to 1820.

2 Minutes of Senatus, 25th August, 1779,

several times, sought to alter that system, it was maintained till the end of last century. The present practice, which gives to each master the province of teaching that to which he has peculiarly devoted himself, was introduced in 1798-9.' It seems not impossible to retain the manifest advantages of the present practice while recalling in part the old, which, like the system of tutors in the Colleges of the English Universities, established in each master a feeling of personal interest and responsibility in a limited number of students.

Of the course of study immediately before Rowe became Principal we derive some valuable information from the proceedings of a sort of University Court—an institution that might be imitated with great advantage at the present time.

In 164.7-8, the Commissioners appointed by the four Universities of Scotland—St. Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen, and Edinburgh—met at Edinburgh and adopted measures for promoting a correspondence among them and a uniform course of study. Some of their resolutions are worthy of notice.

"It was fund expedient to communicat to the generall assemblie 16<7.2sth A no more of our Universitie afaires but such as concerned religion or that had some evident ecclesiastick relatione.

That everie student subseryve the nationall covenant, with the 30th aue. League and Covenant.

It is fund necessar that ther be a cursus philosop/iicus drawin up be the four Universities and printed, to the end that the unprofitable and noxious paines in writeing be shunned; and that each Universitie contribute thair travellis thairto, and it is to be thocht upon, aganist the month of Merch ensewing, viz, that St Androis tak the metaphisicks ; that Glasgow tak the logicks; Aberdine the ethickis and mathematickis, and Edinburgh the physicks.

'Miuutcs 21st March, 1798, ICth March, and 23d March, 179'J.

It is thought convenient that quhat beis found behoveful for improving of learneing in schooles and colledgis be represented to the Parliament in Merch nixt."

ieis. i7th juij. «it is aggreid that all the Universities concur with and assist ane another in everie comone caus concerning the commonweill of all the Universities.

The former agreement is renewed, "that no delinquent in any College sall be received into another College befor he give testimony that he have given satisfaction to the College from quhich he came."

To facilitate the establishment of a uniform course, each University gave in a report of the studies actually followed. The statement of King's College is very short.

"Courses taught yeirly in the King's College of Aberdine:— The Colledge sitteth downe in the beginning of October, and for the space of a moneth till the studentis be weill convened, both masters and schollaris are exercised with repetitiones and examinationis, quhich being done, the courses are begun about the first or second day of November.

1. To the first classe is taught Clenard, Antesignanus; the greatest part of the New Testament; Basilius Magnus his epistle; ane oration of Isocrates; ane other of Demosthenes; a buik of Homer; Phocyllides: some of Nonni paraphrasis.

2. To the second classe, Rami dialectica; Vossii retorica; some elements of arithmetick; Porphyrie; Aristotill his categories, de interpretatione and prior analyticks, both text and questiones.

3. To the third classe, the rest of the logicks; twa first books of the ethicks; five chapteris of the third, with a compend of the particular writtis; the first fyve books of the generall phisicks, with some elements of geometric

4. To the fourt classe, the bookes de coelo, de ortu et interitu, de

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