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The intellectual society thus gathered round the Cathedral and University would have been incomplete without a printing press, and, to meet that want, the Bishop induced Edward Raban, an Englishman who had settled as a printer at St. Andrews, to quit the older University, and establish at Aberdeen the first press which had ever erossed the Grampian line.1 The chief inducement to the undertaking was, without doubt, the convenience of saving the endless dictation and writing required in teaching grammar and philosophy where there were no text-books; but the press served higher purposes also, and we not only owe to Raban's types the first editions of Arthur Johnston's Latin poetry, but to him and his successors we are indebted for a large mass of Academic literature, which must have been lost without them, and which furnishes the best materials (after the proper archives) of University history."

Dun, another physician, he describes as in great practice, and Gordon, "medicus et alehymista exiiuius." Andrew Strachan't "panegyricus inauguralis," spoken on the 26(A July, 1630, printed by Raban at Aberdeen, 1631.

1 Ule cum cernerct prelum esse bibliothecae fmvrlifin divinam illam et Jovis cerebro dignam artem typographicam (quee nunquaiu ante saltus Caledonios et juga Grampia salutarat) hue tanquam de ccelo devocavit; atque hac prcrogativa effert se Aeademia nostra super alias omnes nostrates. In tantis frigoribus nec prelum sudare cessat, idque haud absque opera pretio; non solum enim excuduntur hie libri qui omnium scholarum usibus descrviunt, sed etiam ii qui, cum genium habcant, nostris sche.lis earumquc Tectoribus ornnmento sunt; idque typis vplendidis qui lucem illustrissimarum regionam lerre possunt.—Strachan't panegyric, p. 37.

! It mav bo allowed to give the dates of >uch of these Academic prints as I have seen. The first is not from the Aberdeen press.

1620.—" Disputationcs theologicae dune habits in inclyta Aberdonensi Academia . . . mense Februario 1620. . . . pro publica S.S. Theologiae professione. Respondente Joanne Forbesio." Printed by Andrew Hart at Edinburgh. Prefixed is a proclamation which had been published in Universities and great towns in December,. 1619, calling on all learned in this kind " ut explorationi pro cathedroe hujus aditione instituenda vel se submittant vel intersint." The first disputation is '* de libcro arbitrio," the second, " de sacramentie." At the end is the "Approbatio synodica, ejusdemque ad publicam S.S. theologioc professionem solennis vocatio," 27th April, 1620.

1622.—" Theses philosophies quas adjutorio numinis adoleseentes pro magisterii gradu in publico Academ. Reg. Aberd. asceterio 10 kalend. August: i. 22 Julii 1622, horis pomeridianis sustinebunt

Pra?side Alexandra Lunano" (the names of nine candidates, one of whom, Alexander Wisch.nt. does not appear in the list printed at p. 307-) " Aberdouiis excud. The first book printed in Aberdeen bears the date of 1G22, being just a century after John Vaus erossed to Paris to have his grammar printed, and 115 years after Chepman and Miller established their printing press at Edinburgh.

Ed. Rabanus Univ. typogr. A.D. 1622." The theses are dedicated to Bishop Patrick, the Chancellor.

1623.—Masters' theses, pretide D. Out. Forbetio, (twelve candidates, one of whom, James Annand, is not given in the list printed at p. 207.) printed by Raban, dedicated "manibus beatissimis illustrissimi praesulis Gul. Elphinstoni Ac. Reg. Ab. fundatoris munificentissimi.

1623.—Oratio funebris in obitum tnaximi virorum Georgii Marischalli comitis . . . Academim Marischallanae Abredoniae fundatoris," delivered by W. Ogston, June 30, 1623, printed by Raban, dedicated to the Earl Marischal, Patron, the Bishop, Chancellor, and to the Town Council of Aberdeen.

1627.—Alexander Scrogie's thesis for his degree of D.D.—" De imperfectione sanctorum in hac vita."—Raban.

1631.—Andrew Strachan's (physiol. et inferiorum mathematum professor) "Panegyricus inauguralis quo autores vindices et euergetae illustris univcrsitatis Aberdonensis justis elogiis ornabantur," delivered at the laureation, 26 July, 1630.—Raban, 1631.

1631.—" Oratio eucharistica et encomiastica in benevolos univ. Aberd. benefactores fautores et patronos" by John Lundie, humanist.—Raban.

1634.—" Vindicioe cultus divinoe." Andrew Strachan's thesis for his degree of D.D. and professorship of divinity, dedicated to the Bishop.—Raban.

163d.—Thesis of John Gordon, "ecclesiaste Elginensis" for his degree of D.D., dedicated to his brother, W. Gordon, M.D., 'Medicus' in King's College.—Raban.

1635 "Funerals of Patrick Forbes of

Corse, Bishop of Abcrdene," "Aberdene

imprinted by Edward Raban." It is with reference to this book that Professor John Ker observes, after relating the death of the Bishop in 1635,—" Quam, desideratissimus autem obierit, indicio sunt orationes, conciones, elogia, epistolae, poemata in primis elegantissima, Latina et vernacula . . . Num tale extet monimentum literarium de obitu alicujus unius viri principis aut privati nos latet."—Donaides, p. 20.

1636.—" Canons and constitutions ecclesiasticall, gathered and put in form for the government of the Church of Scotland"— 4to., pp. 43.

1665.—" Vindiciae veritatis, sen disputatio theologies pro veracitate opposita locutionibus operose ambiguis et restrictionibus mentalibus Jesuitis aliisque sectariis usitatis, authore Gulielmo Douglasio theologiae in Aead. Abredon. professore. Excudebat Jacobus Brounus urbis et academiaj typographic, Aberdoniae, 1655.

1677-—"Vindicioe psalmodiae," the same author and printer. He rejects the use of organs.

1659.—" Academiarum vindiciae, in qui. bus novantium praejudicia contra academias etiam reformatas averruncantur ;" an oration delivered 19 November, 1658. The same author and printer. He censures the subtleties of the early schoolmen, the "irrefragabiles, angelici, subtiles, solennes. seraphici," etc.—narrates the paradoxes of Weigelius— that all academics are opposed to Christianity —" omncs academias exsortes esse Christi; Item, nullus doctor, nullus jurisconsultus, nullus astronomus, medicus, pbilosophus, neque artium ac literarum magister coelum ingredietur." He speaks of the use of Latin —totius Christianismi quasi commune vinculum—of Greek and Hebrew—" quid est honorificentius quam ut merito sis salutatus (addressing the University) trilinguis; quid jucundius quarn prophetas et apostolos sua lingua loquentes audire?" He dwells on the necessity of libraries, and shows he appreciated the fine printers—' Stephanos, Plantinos, Jansonios, Elziverios, Nortonos' etc. Rebuking the manners of the students, he says,—" Quid sibi volunt ludi tesserarum et rhartarumpictarum, her bae nicotians haustus immodicus, canes venatici imberbis juvenis, hospitium cum activnm tura et passivum male feriatorum ardelionum!" He rails at hair powder which already appeared among the students of Aberdeen. He notices "aureus iste libellus" of Volusenus our countryman "de animi tranquillitate." He intersperses his text excessively with Greek, and confines it rather too much to objects of theology and the ministry, but it is all very judicious.

1660.—Oratio panegyrica ad urtSim potentiasion monarchic Caroli II. . . . quam retitabat Gul. Douglassius S.S. Theol. prof, in auditorio maximo philosophico collegii Kcgii Uhivexsitatis Carolin.e Aberdonensis Junii 14, 1660. Edinburgi ex officina Sue. Stationariorum, 1660.

1660 "Eucharistia Basilica" of John

Row, Principal of King's College "in UniVersitatk Carolina." Aberdoniis Jacobus Brunus nrbis et Universitatis typotheta.

1660.—" Britannia rediviva," or a congratulatory sermon for his Majesty's safe arrival and happy restitution, by John Menzies, Professor oi Divinity, and preacher of the Gospel in Aberdene. James Brown.

1669.—" Philosophemata libera" thesis of twenty-two candidates for the degree of M.A. in Marischal College—" Lycei Maris

challani Universitatis Carolina. Aberdoniis Joh. Forbes, junior, urbis et academisa typotheta.

1674.—"Positiones aliquot theologicae de objecto cultus religiosi"—the theses of Henry Scougall, to be maintained on his election to be professor of theology in King's College. Jo. Forbes jun. urb. et univ. typotheta.

[1697.—A diploma of the degree of M.D. to "Patricius Foord Mercianus" 24 July, 1697, by P. Urquhart, M.D., prof, et actu regens et decanus in alma acidemia Rcgali Aberdonensi, ceterisque doctoribus, magistris et professoribus consentientibus, post multiplicia examina. sub magno sigillo Universitatis. M.S. pen. D. Laing.]

1702.—" Commemoratio Benefactorum Academiae Marischallanae," by William Smith. This was printed at the expense of the City, "in respect the same contains a full account of the antiquity of the Town, and benefactors of the College."— Council Register, vol. Ivij., p. 800. It is a very poor production.

1704.—Disputation of George Anderson, chosen professor of theology in King's College, for his degree of D.D., dedicated to Lord Haddo.

1711.—" Dissertatio theologica inauguralis, de peccato originali," by David Anderson, minister of Foveran, and chosen professor of theology in King's College. Excud. tuceet. soret Jo. Forbetii urb. et Univ. typographi. . . . Speaking of the heresy of the Pelagians and Gerard Yoss's opposition, he mentions the opinions also of "proelu stria nostras Joannes Forbesius a Corse . . . magnum hujus academioe decus, in cujus cathedra sessurus, qui hoec ponit, rubore suft'unditur totus," p. 16. Dr. David Au

The Bishop was fortunate in the time of his death,' escaping the storm which destroyed the Cathedral he had laboured to restore, and which threatened to involve his renovated University in the common ruin. With more feeling than he usually expresses, Gordon of Rothiemay concludes his account of the Assembly of 1640, which 'purged' the University. ** Thus the Assembly's errand was throughly done; thes eminent divynes of Aberdeen, either deade, deposed, or banished; in whom fell mor learning then wes left behynde in all Scotlande besyde at that tyme. Nor has that cittye, nor any cittye in Scotland, ever since seene so many learned divynes and scollers at one tyme together as wer immediatly befor this in Aberdeene. From that tyme fordwards, learning beganne to be discountenanced ; and such as wer knowing in antiqwitie and

derson was distinguished for his learning, and had the popular name of " Tongues." To him, along with George Gordon, professor of Oriental languages, Thomas Boston submitted his treatise on the Hebrew accents, which he "pursued like fire," as of divine origin and necessary for understanding the true meaning of the Hebrew text and the Holy Spirit.—Boston's Memoirs. Dr. David Anderson died in 1733, leaving descendants who still cherish the memory of his learning and virtue.

1714 "De rebus liturgicis oratio, pro

gradu D.D. in sacello Coll. Regii Univ. Aberd. in festo S. Epiphaniae a Jo. Sharp eccl. Angl. apud Americanos presbytero," dedicated to Charles, Earl of Errol, Chancellor, and the professors. Printed by the successors of John Forbes. The author is much in favour of liturgies. "Prater ecclesiam Orientalem et Komanam, omnes Reformati cujuscunque gentis, exeeptis schismaticis Britannicae ecclesiae, liturgias probant."

1725.—" Donaides sivc Musarum Aber

donensium de eximia Jacobi Fraserii J.U.D. in Academiam Regiam Abcrdonensem munificentia carmen eucharisticum, notis illustratum, quibus strirtim persnrib!tur historia Universitatis et Collegii Regii Aberdonensis. . . . Auctore Joanne Ker Gracarum literarurn professorc." Ruddiman, Edin., 1725. A set of very poor verses illustrated by most useful historical notes. David Malloch (afterwards, Mallet) wrote a short "Poem in imitation of' Donaides,'' printed, and sometimes bound along with it.

1732.—" Frascrcides sive funebris oratio et elegia in laudem . . . Jacobi Fraserii J.U.D. Col. Reg. Aberd. Maecenatis et patroni beneBcentissimi," by the same author. Aberd. exeud. Jacobus Nicjl urbis et Universitatis typographus. Professor Ker limits himself in this essay to an account of the family and life of Fraser, and of his benefactions to the College.

Both these little works of Ker are of some use for the University and College history.

1 1635.

in the wryttings of the fathers, wer had in suspitione as men who smelled of poperye; and he was most esteemed of who affected novellisme and singularitye most; and the very forme of preaching, as wealle as the materialls, was chainged for the most pairt. Learning was nicknamed human learning; and some ministers so farr eryed it doune in ther pulpitts, as they wer heard to saye, 'Downe doctrine and upp Chryste !'"1

It was in the year following2 that King Charles I. made the great experiment of uniting the two Colleges of Old and New Aberdeen under one University, to be called King Charles's University," and which, for a short time flourished under the title of Universitas Carolina. Unfortunately we learn nothing of the promoters of this measure, nor of the causes that induced one of the united bodies afterwards to dissolve a union, which, whether then legally effected or not, seems to us at the present day so reasonable and so expedient for the Colleges themselves, the public, and the cause of literature, that when it shall have come to pass, as it needs must, all men will wonder at the prejudice which so long delayed it.3

Even the sharp discipline of the General Assembly, enforced by Munro's musketeers, did not extinguish either the principles or the learning which had taken root in Aberdeen. The University continued to be well attended, and by a high class of students. The

1 Uislory of Scoti Affairs, p. 243. The 3 The act of Parliament ratifying the

Puritans now took the same ground with union of the Colleges fell, by its date, under

which the high Churchmen of the continent the general Act Rescissory passed after the

were reproached by the reforming party, a Restoration; but many measures of the

little before the era of our Reformation,— period included in that act, were either

"theologi non enrant grammaticam, quia tacitly continued in operation, or sanctioned

non est de sua facultate"—"Creditis quod by re-enactment of Parliament. We find the

Deus curat multum deisto Graeco?''—Epist. style of the united University still used by

Obsc. virorutn. Professor Douglas and Principal Row, while

28,14 November, 1641. Infra, p. 154. celebrating the Restoration of Charles II.,

Marischal College evidently was opposed to and even nine years later by the crraduates

the union,and impeded its being carried into of Marischal College, supra p. xlvii. effect Vide Infra, pp. 420,422.

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