New Cosmic Horizons: Space Astronomy from the V2 to the Hubble Space Telescope

Capa
Cambridge University Press, 2000 - 507 páginas
New Cosmic Horizons tells the extraordinary story of space-based astronomy since the Second World War. Starting with the launch of the V2 rocket in 1946, this book explores the triumphs of space experiments and spacecraft designs and the amazing astronomical results that they have produced. David Leverington examines the fascinating way in which the changing political imperatives of the United States, USSR/Russia and Western Europe have modified their space astronomy programs. He covers all major astronomy missions of the first fifty years of space research: the Soviet Sputnik and American Explorer projects, the subsequent race to the moon, solar and planetary missions, and the wonders of modern astrophysics culminating in the exciting results of the Hubble Space Telescope. Extensively illustrated, New Cosmic Horizons offers amateur and professional astronomers an unusual perspective on the history of astronomy in our time. David Leverington was Design Manager of the GEOS Spacecraft and Meteosat Program Manager for ESA in the 1970s. During his tenure as Engineering Director at British Aerospace in the 1980s, he was responsible for the Giotto spacecraft that intercepted Halley's comet, and the Photon Detector Assembly and solar arrays for the Hubble Space Telescope. He is a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society. He lives in Essex, England.
 

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Conteúdo

The Sounding Rocket Era
1
12 Solar XRays and the Earths Ionosphere
4
13 NonSolar XRay Sources
9
The Start of the Space Race
17
22 The American Programme PreSputnik
18
23 The Soviet Programme
21
24 Early Scientific Results
23
25 The Formation of NASA
29
107 Solar Max
255
108 The Solar Constant
261
109 Yohkoh
270
1010 Ulysses
272
1011 SOHO
280
1012 Summary
287
Early Spacecraft Observations of NonSolar System Sources
289
112 Explorer 11 and Gamma Rays
291

Initial Exploration of the Solar System
31
32 The First Missions to Mars and Venus
37
Lunar Exploration
46
42 Korolev and the Russian Programme
52
43 Surveyor Orbiter and Apollo
55
44 The Soviet Response
65
Mars and Venus Early Results
67
52 Russian Disasters
72
53 Venera 4
74
54 Mariner 5 to Venus
75
55 Veneras 5 and 6
76
56 American Funding Problems
77
57 Mariners 6 and 7
80
58 Summary
82
Mars and Venus The Middle Period
84
62 Veneras 7 and 8
86
63 Mariner 10
90
64 Mariner 9 Mars 2 and 3 and the Great Martian Dust Storm of 1971
92
65 Mars 4 to 7
99
66 Viking
100
67 Veneras 9 and 10
110
68 PioneerVenus
113
69 Veneras 11 and 12
116
Venus Mars and Cometary Spacecraft Post1980
120
72 Veneras 13 to 16
121
73 Planning The Halley Encounters
125
74 Vegas 1 and 2 at Venus
132
75 The Halley Intercepts
133
76 Magellan
141
77 The Phobos Spacecraft
150
78 Mars Observer
152
Early Missions to the Outer Planets
155
82 Pioneers 10 and 11
159
The Voyager Missions to the Outer Planets
168
92 Voyager 1 at Jupiter
170
93 Voyager 2 at Jupiter
178
94 Voyager 1 at Saturn
182
95 Voyager 2 at Saturn
191
96 Voyager 2 at Uranus
196
97 Voyager 2 at Neptune
209
The Sun
226
102 The Solar Wind
232
103 Flares
239
104 The Corona
246
105 Skylab
247
106 Summary
254
114 Xrays
293
115 Pulsars
296
116 Uhuru
298
A Period of Rapid Growth
307
122 The European Dimension
312
123 TD1
314
124 Dwarf Novae
317
125 ANS
318
126 Ariel 5
320
127 AM Herculis The First Polar
324
128 Gammarays
325
129 Summary
328
The High Energy Astronomy Observatory Programme
330
132 HEAO1
332
133 HEAO2 or the Einstein Observatory
336
134 SS 433
344
135 HEAO3
352
136 Summary
353
IUE IRAS and Exosat Spacecraft for the Early 1980s
355
142 The Infrared Astronomical Satellite
362
143 Exosat
369
144 Summary
377
Hiatus
379
152 Supernova 1987A
386
Business as Usual
392
162 The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory
400
163 Geminga
405
164 Gamma Ray Bursts
406
165 The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer
411
166 The Infrared Space Observatory
414
The hubba Space Telescope
420
172 The Spacecraft and its Instruments
432
173 Launch and PostLaunch Checkout
437
174 Scientific Results The First Three Years
440
175 Hardware Problems and the First Servicing Mission
447
176 The Second Three Years
450
177 Concluding Remarks
465
Appendix
466
Glossary
470
Bibliography
476
Units
482
Abbreviations
483
Name Index
486
Spacecraft Index
492
Subject Index
496
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Sobre o autor (2000)

David Leverington received his degree in Physics from the University of Oxford in 1963. Six years later he became design manager of a multinational industrial consortium building Geos, Europe's first geosynchronous scientific spacecraft, for the European Space Agency (ESA). In 1977 he joined ESA, Toulouse as programme manager of Meteosat, the meteorological satellite system of the European Space Agency. He was successively head of Spacecraft Engineering and Engineering Director at British Aerospace, Bristol from 1981-9 during which time he was responsible, amongst other things, for the Giotto spacecraft that intercepted Halley's comet, and the Photon Detector Assembly and solar arrays for the Hubble Space Telescope. In 1989 he was made Project Director of the mobile phone system, now called 'Orange', and in 1991 became Deputy Managing Director of British Aerospace Communications.

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