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RECORD OF PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS. The following is a list of the Presidents and Vice-Presidents of the United States, as well as those who were candidates for each office since the or. ganization of the Government:

1789.–George Washington and John Adams, two terms, no opposition,

1797.—John Adams, opposed by Thomas Jefferson, who, having the next highest electoral vote, became Vice-President.

1801.—Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr; beating John Adams and Charles C. Pinckney.

1805.—Thomas Jefferson and George Clinton; beating Charles C. Pinckney and Rufus King.

1809.—James Madison and George Clinton ; beating Charles C. Pinckney.

1813.-James Madison and Elbridge Gerry; beating De Witt Clinton. 1817.-James Monroe and Daniel D. Tompkins; beating Rufus King.

1821.-James Morroe and Daniel D. Tompkins; beating John Quincy Adams.

1825.—John Quincy Adams and John C. Calhoun; beating Andrew Jackson, Henry Clay, and Mr. Crawford—there being four candidates for President, and Albert Gallatin for Vice-President.

1829.-Andrew Jackson and John C. Calhoun; beating John Quincy Adams and Richard Rush.

1833.-Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren; beating Henry Clay, John Floyd, and William Wirt for President; and William Wilkins, John Sergeant, and Henry Lee for Vice President.

1837.-Martin Van Buren and Richard M. Johnson; beating Wm. H. Harrison, Hugh L. White, and Daniel Webster for President, and John Tyler for Vice-President.

1841.- Wm. H. Harrison and John Tyler; beating Martin Van Buren and Littleton W. Tazewell. Harrison died one month after his inauguration, and John Tyler became President for the remainder of the term.

1845.-James K. Polk and George M. Dallas; beating, Henry Clay and Theodore Frelinghuysen.

1849.-Zachary Taylor and Millard Fillmore; beating Lewis Cass and Martin Van Buren for President, and William 0. Butler, and Charles F. Adams for Vice-President. Taylor died July 9th, 1850, and Fillmore became President.

* 1853.–Franklin Pierce and William R. King; beating Winfield Scott and W. A. Grabam.

1857.-James Buchanan and John C. Breckinridge; beating John C. Fremont and Millard Fillmore for President, and William L. Dayton and A. J. Donelson for Vice-President.

1860.-Abraham Lincoln and Hannibal Hamlin; beating John Bell, Stephen A. Douglass, and John C. Breckinridge for President; and Edward Everett, Herschel V. Johnson, and Joseph Lane for Vice-President.

1864.- Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson; beating George B. McClellan and George H. Pendleton.

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Mothers often greatly err in undervaluing the little griefs and disappointments of childhood. The trifles which give them pain and trouble would be nothing to us; so we unreasonably exact of them the same indifference. Did you reflect how different the same scene looks at your own height, from that point your little child must view it? If not, you will realize it by stooping down beside him and taking in a view of the same landscape. So mothers should learn to place themselves at the child's mental stand-point in all their dealings with them.

A lady of great strength of mind and fine sensibilities once told a friend that she never suffered more acutely than once in childhood, when her mother carelessly swept into the fire some of the shining silk of the milkweed plant. She had found it for the first time in some of her little walks, and was greatly delighted with her treasure, laying it out in parcels, thinking what enjoyment she would have over it with her little companions, assigning its various uses in her simple domestic economy. Her mother entered, and finding the litter on the carpet, hastily and coldly swept it all into the fire, despite the child's entreaties. The poor, grieved little thing fled away almost distracted, and for several days could scarcely bear to look in her mother's face. To her it was a real source of anguish, as for the millionaire to see all his choice possessions swept away by the devouring flame.

O mother! learn to reverence every tender, loving little thing in your child's nature. The world will harden it soon enough, without your

hand aiding in the work. Enter feelingly into its little joys, and add to them the double pleasure of your approving smile. Sympathize with its little griefs, and comfort with cheering words of tender love the little sobbing bosom.


1st. Eating too fast, and swallowing food imperfectly masticated 2d. Taking too much fluid during meals. 3d. Drinking poisonous whiskey and other intoxicating liquors. 4th. Keeping Iate hours at night, and sleeping too late in the morning. 5th. Wearing the clothes too tight to impede circulation. 6th. Wearing thin shoes. 7th. Neglecting to take sufficient exercise to keep the hands and feet


8th. Neglecting to wash the body sufficiently to keep the pores of the

skin open.

9th. Exchanging the warm clothing worn in a warm room during the day for the light costumes and exposures incident to evening parties. 10th. Starving the stomach to gratify a vain and foolish passion for dress. 11th. Keeping up a constant excitement by fretting the mind with borrowed troubles. 12th. Taking the meals at irregular intervals.

The Guardian.

VOL. XVI.-FEBRUARY, 1865.-No. 2.



We hope no one will be prejudiced against this article from the caption. Though much has been said on this subject, ALL has not been said. We shall at least attempt not to be prosy; but shall rather endeavor to interest the reader, and if possible make some good, if not some sharp points.

In this country, where Church and State stand separately, the salaries of pastors depend upon the good will of the people. Much has been said to the praise of the voluntary system, as it is called. It is said facts show that Christianity may safely intrust itself for support upon the free liberality of the people. It certainly may; but still it is possible that it may

in this way be poorly supported. Yet still it is more in accordance with its spirit and taste to be poorly supported than to be sustained unwillingly and by force of law. We desire no change of system. It is contrary to the genius and spirit of Christianity to accept any other than a free and willing support.

But even Christians may abuse this freedom. Their views and their willingness may fall far short of what plain duty requires. It is said, that a certain congregation concluded in public assembly, after due discussion and deliberation, that to prescribe a fixed salary for the pastor militates against the spirit of free liberality—that for each member to subscribe and pay a certain sum is to make offerings to the Lord's cause unduly publicand that in future, each one should give according to the Scripture mode of not letting the left hand know what the right hand doeth. Accordingly the pastor was to receive, in a purely scriptural way, what the Christian spirit of each one would prompt him to give. This plan was accordingly tried for a year, and it is said that the pastor at least had every reason to believe at the end of the year, that not only had the left hand been



kept uninformed of what the right hand did, but that both hands had been kept strictly ignorant of any giving that had been done! The right hand, it seems, was so over-anxious to keep the left hand from trumpeting its liberal deeds, that, out of a pure desire to give scripturally, it felt itself obliged in self-defence not to give at all! It is to be supposed that the good pastor, who was blest with the care of such a scriptural people, had reason to think of the truth of the proverb: “What is every body's business is nobody's business."

It is beginning to be extensively felt that pastors are not provided for as they should be. Why should it not? The case is perfectly plain. No profession is so barely supported. Clerks, foremen, salesman, and first-rate mechanics, all—even in country towns, receive larger salaries than the majority of pastors. Yet in neither case has the same amount of capital or time been applied in the necessary preparation. If one man in his business operations can afford to pay a respectable salary, what should hinder the many who compose a Christian congregation from doing the same? It is more than a shame to them, if they fail to do it.

A certain thought has frequently been upon our mind, and we venture to express it. We verily believe, that the main reason why some congregations fail to prosper, is the injustice which they suffer their pastor dure. What but leanness can they expect who stint their pastor, and suffer him to be tormented day by day with harassing cares for temporal subsistence ? Can God bless those with mildness and mercy, who, can complacently see him vexed with worldly cares, whom He has sent to labor for their good ? It is palpable wickedness, and every member of the Church, who does not protest against its continuance, is guilty. With this Achan in the camp unrighteously nursing the golden wedge, the hand of the Lord must lie heavily like a curse upon all. Will God hear the prayers

of a

people who have no ears to listen to the poverty-groans of a distressed pastor and pastor's family?

There are congregations in which men familiarly handle their thousands, and many members of which never think of curtailing a whit of their expenditures on luxuries and vanities, while the pastor's devoted wife-not from penuriousness, but from stern necessity-patiently and earnestly unakes calculations of economy in regard to every dime that passes through her hands! Shame, we say! God will mark the sin !

One author has written a book on pastoral experiences called “Sunny Side,” and another has given us “Shady Side;" but when we write on this subject, we shall call it “ Inside ;” and in it we shall give such a picture of the patient and unconscious, but true martyrdom, that is going on inside of many parsonages, as shall make your ears tingle. To us there is not a more touching reality than poverty in a parsonage! Poverty among the lowly is comparatively endurable, because it is not expected to be any thing else than poverty. But to impose it upon those, who by their education and position are expected to move in a different sphere, is cruel. To be doomed to live in a way which the means furnished will not warrant—to be expected to hide what cannot be hid—to be forced into a current of social life only to stand in palpable and painful contrast with it—this is the extreme of cruelty!

What justice, what principle of Christianity warrants a people to demand the services of an educated man for a pittance, out of which he can barely,

year after year, meet the most necessary expenses of his family—dooming him to an almost niggardly economy? What right thus to receive his labors during the best and most vigorous years of his life, when meanwhile his children are growing up to find him without the means of affording them a respectable education. Yet are not these the terms on which many congregations accept the labor and the lives of pastors ? Is not the question nine times out of ten when the subject of fixing a salary comes up, “What can he live on?”—and the calculation is closely made, so that he may receive barely what will support him from year to year. That his furniture wears out and will some day need to be replenished—that his library needs increase—that his children are growing up and must be educatedthese are items left wholly out of view when the calculation is made as to • What can he live on?

Of late years it is becoming customary to make occasional gifts and donations to pastors. To this we have nothing to object. Yet we fear that this is in reality more a matter of conscience than of kindness. To our mind it seems to betray the feeling that the salary is not at its proper standard. In plain English it means this much : “We feel that our pastor is too scantily provided for by us. We feel that justice is not done him. We will make up what is lacking; but we will do it in which will make it look like a gift instead of doing it in a way which will make it look like justice." Would it not be better to raise the pastor's salary to such a figure as justice demands, and then add the gifts as a further evidence of kindness and good will ? We almost fear to say it, but we think it possible for a congregation to make their pastor poor by withholding what is due him before God and man, and then in addition making him feel his poverty under the holy guise of charity and kindness!

We are always glad to hear of pastors receiving gifts from their people. Let them be a thousand fold more than they are. But let not the anise, mint, and cummin cause Christians to forget the weightier matters of mercy and justice. Your pastor is your best friend ; treat him as such. Let the

parsonage be a place of cheerful freedom from earthly want and care. Let the leisure hours of its inmates be spent, not in painful financiering to make long enough what is hopelessly too short; but rather in pouring forth from grateful and contented hearts a perpetual benediction upon a kindhearted, considerate, and generous people.

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THE CONDITION OF RICHES.—How few rich men are or will be persuaded that the law of Christ permits them not to heap up riches forever, nor perpetually add house to house, and land to land, though by lawful means; but

requires of them thus much charity at least, that ever, while they are providing for their wives and children, they should, out of the increase wherewith God hath blessed their industry, allot the poor a just and free proportion ? And when they have provided for them in a convenient manner (such as they themselves shall judge sufficient and convenient in others), that then they should give over making purchase after purchase ; but, with the surplusage of their revenue, beyond their expenses, procure, as much as lies in them, that no Christian remain miserably poor; few rich men, I fear, are or will be thus persuaded, and their daily actions show as much.-Chillingworth.

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