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shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both houses or either of them, and in case of disagreement betvween them with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithlully executed; and shall commission all the officers of the LI nited States.

Sec. 4. The President, Vice-President, and all civil officers of the United States, shall be removed from olhce on impeachment tor, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.


Sec. 1. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one supreme court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may, from tune to time, oruain and establish. The judges, both ol the supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behaviour, and shall, at stated times, receive lor their services, a compensation which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.

Sec. 2. The judicial power shall extend to all cases in law and equity, arising under this constitution, the laws of the United States and the treaties made, or which shall be made under their authority; to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which the United States shall be a party; to controversies between two or more states, between a state and citizens ol another stale, between citizens of different states, between citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants of different states, and between a state or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens or subjects.

In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a state shall be party, the supreme court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned, tue supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and under such legulations as the Congress shah' make.

The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury; and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crime shall have been committed; but when not committed within any state, the trial shall he at such place or places as the Congress may by law have directed.

Sec. 3. Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason, unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on the confession in open court.

The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture, except during the life of the person attainted.


Sec 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each state, to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state. And the Congress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in which such acts, records, and proceedings, shall be proved, and the effect thereof.

Sec 2. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several states.

A person charged in any state with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall flee from justice, and be found in another state,' shall, on demand of the executive authority of the state from which he fled, be delivered up to be removed to the state having jurisdiction of the crime.

No person held to service or iabor in one state, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due.

Sec 3. New states may be admitted by the Congress into this union; but no new state shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other state; nor


any state be formed by the junction of two or more states, or parts of states, without the consent of the legislature of the states concerned as well as of the Congress.

The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations, respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular state.

Sec. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every state in this union, a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion; and on application of the legislature, or of the executive (when the legislature cannot be convened) against domestic violence.


The Congress, whenever two thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this constitution, or, on ihe application of the legislatures of two thirds of the several states, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of three fourths of the several states, or by conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress ; provided, that no amendment which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article ; and that no state, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate.


All debts contracted and engagements entered into, before the adoption of this constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this constitution, as under the confederation.

This constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby;— *ny thing in the constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding.

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several state legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by oath or affirmation, to support this constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.


The ratification of the conventions of nine state s, shall be sufficient for the establishment of this constitution betweettthe states so ratifying the same.

Done in convention by the unanimous consent of the states present, the seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eightyseven, and of the independence of the United States of America, the twelfth. In witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names.

GEORGE WASHINGTON, President, and Deputy from Virginia.

New-hampshire. Delaware.

John Langdon, George Reed,

Nicholas Gilman. Gunning Bedford, jun.

Massachusetts. John Dickinson,'

Nathaniel Gorham, Richard Bassett,

Rufus King. Jacob Broom.

Connecticut. Maryland.

"William Samuel Johnson, James M'Henry,

Roger Sherman. Daniel of St. Tho. Jenifer,

New-York. - Daniel Carroll. Alexander Hamilton. Virginia.

New-jersey. John Blair,

William Livingston, James Madison jun.
David Brearley, North-carolina.

William Patterson,' William Blount,

Jonathan Dayton. Richard Dobbs Spaight,

Hugh Williamson.

Pennsylvania. South-carolina.

Benjamin Franklin, John Rutledge,

Thomas Mifflin, Charles C. Pinckney,

Robert Morris, Charles Pinckney,

George Clymer, Pierce Buttler.
Thomas Fitzsimons, Georgia.

Jared Ingersoll, William Few,

James Wilson, Abraham Baldwin.
Gouverneur Morris,
Attest, WILLIAM JACKSON, Secretary.


Monday, September 17th, 1778. PRESENT, The States of New-hampshire, Massachusetts, ConNecticut, Mr. Hamilton from New-york, New-jer, Sey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia,

North-carolina, South-carolina, and Georgia: RESOLVED,

That the preceding constitution be laid before the United States in Congress assembled, and that it is the opinion of this convention, that it should afterwards be submitted to a convention of delegates chosen in each state by the people thereof, under the recommendation of its legislature, for their assent and ratification; and that each convention assenting to and ratifying the.same, should give notice thereof to the United States in Congress assembled.

Resolved, That it is the opinion of this convention, that as soon as the conventions of nine states shall have ratified this constitution, the United States in Congress assembled, should fix a day on which electors should be appointed by the states which shall have ratified the came, and a day on which the electors should assemble to vote for the President, and the time and place for commencing proceedings under this constitution. That after such publication, the electors should be appointed, and the Senators and Representatives elected. That the electors should meet on the day fixed for the election

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