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old incubus," the brooding wing of Night," hung lowering as ever over society and all human affairs. He had been a learned critic in literature, a scientific student of nature, and a comprehensive and very profound philosopher, and he had now become a wise man, a seer, a prophet, and certainly one of the greatest of poets.

Still bearing in mind what has been said of these illustrative examples, we shall have occasion, also, to remember that pattern of a natural story, and model of an institution “ for the interpreting of nature, and the production of great and marvellous works for the benefit of men,” in the New Atlantis. Solomon's House, which was instituted " for the finding out of the true nature of all things, whereby God might have the more glory in the workmanship of them," and which was to be “ the noblest foundation that ever was upon the earth,” and “ the eye” and “the lantern of this kingdom," is introduced with an allusion to the poetical fable of “ the inhabitants of the great Atlantis,” who were " the descendants of Neptune," with their “magnificent temple, palace, city, and hill ; and the manifold streams of goodly navigable rivers, which, as so many chains, environed the same site and temple ; and the several degrees of ascent, whereby men did climb up the same, as if it had been a Scala Cæli.” This island, moreover, was

a land of magicians.” There was in it, too, “ something supernatural, but yet rather as angelical than magical.” And it is further said : “ God surely is manifested in this land.” Said the Strangers, on arriving there, “ It seemed to us, that we were come into a land of angels.”

Let it be observed, also, that there was, in this island, a most natural, pious, and reverend custom of the feast of the family,” showing the nation to be “compounded of all goodness.” The strangers who had arrived there, went abroad to see “ the city and places adjacent,” and made the acquaintance of many “pot of the meanest quality.” The people were full of “piety and humanity," and for


“chastity,” this nation " the virgin of the world.” In their own country, “such humanity” was never seen. There was no “confusion” among this people. Their “manners and conditions” were well-ordered. Indeed, “ if there be a mirrour of the world worthy to hold men's eyes, it is that country.” It was granted to the father of a family of thirty persons, called the Tirsan, to make “a feast” at the cost of the state. He is assisted by “the governor,” and also 6 taketh three of such friends as he liketh to choose.” The persons of the family are summoned to attend. Two days the Tirsan sits in “consultation concerning the good estate of the family.” Order is taken for the relief of the distressed and decayed, and “competent means to live ” are provided for them. Vice and ill-courses are censured. They have no stews, no dissolute houses, no courtezans, nor anything of that kind.” Direction is given “ touching marriages.” Marriage,“ without consent of parents,” they “mulct in the inheritors.” There is not “such chastity in any people”: and they say, “That whosoever is unchaste cannot reverence himself”: and they say, “ That the reverence of a man's self is, next religion, the chiefest bridle of all vices.” The “ orders and decrees” of the Tirsan are obeyed : “such reverence and obedience they give to the order of nature.”

At the feast, the Tirsan comes forth from divine service into “the large room where the feast is celebrated,” and takes his chair of state on a raised“ half-pace,” at the upper end. All the lineage place themselves around “ against the wall," and the room below the half-pace is full of company, “the friends of the family.” On the sides are tables for the guests that are bidden. A herald takes in his hand a scroll, which is the king's charter containing gift of revenue, and many privileges, exemptions, and points of honor, directed “ To such a one our well beloved friend and creditor.” And there is an acclamation, “ Happy are the people of Bensalem !” Toward the end of dinner, hymns of “excellent

poesy” are sung ; and “ dinner being done,” the Tirsan calls out two of his “sons of eminent merit and virtue," and bestows on each“ a jewel,” which they ever after

wear in the frorrt of their turban or hat.” This done, “they fall to music and dances and other recreations.” So much for the feast, which may be compared a little, below, with “ the feast of Lord Timon."

Now, turning to the play, the scene is “ Athens; and the woods adjoining.” For, in this model, we are to emerge from the woods, again, to “the foot of the mountains," and thence, to ascend toward the height of things in the commonwealth of Athens”; in which we shall see, also,“ how the culture and cure of the mind of man” depend upon “ points of nature ” and “points of fortune.”i The first act opens with a scene, in which the poet, the painter, the merchant, the jeweller, and the philosopher, are brought upon the stage together, and the principal topic seems to be our very subject here, namely, “ true art." Each one brings an offering of service to the great Lord Timon. In the beginning of the dialogue, the ideas and expressions which are used so forcibly call to mind, not only the teachings of Bacon on poesy, nature, and art, but also the manner and diction of the Dedication and Preface to the Folio of 1623, as to raise a strong suspicion, at least, that both were written by the same hand and at about the same time. Compare the sentences as follows:

“Act I. Sc. 1. Athens. A Hall in Timon's House.


How goes the world?
Paint. It wears, sir, as it grows.

Ay, that's well known;
But what particular rarety? what strange,

Which manifold record not matches?
(“Whilst we study to be thankful in our particular.” Ded.]

Mer. O, 't is a worthy lord.

Nay, that's most fix'd
1 Adv. of Learn., Bk. II.

Mer. A most incomparable man; breath'd, as it were,

To an untirable and continuate goodness : [" To the most noble and incomparable paire of brethren, ... and our singular good lords.” – Dei.

“A king of incomparable clemency, and whose heart is inscrutable for wisdom and goodness." — Submission.]

Paint. You are rapt, sir, in some work, some dedication

To the great lord.” [" And while we name them trifles, we have deprived ourselves of the defence of our dedication." - Ded.] Poet.

A thing slipp'd idly from me.
Our poesy is as a gum, which oozes
From whence 't is nourished: The fire i' the flint
Shews not, till it be struck; our gentle flame
Provokes itself, and, like a current, flies

Each bound it chafes. What have you there? ["Country hands reach forth milke, creame, fruits, as what they have; and many Nations (we have heard) that had not gummes and incense, obtained their request with a leavened cake.” – Ded.

Lucian's Timon reads :“I come to bring you a new song of the lately-taught dithyrambics." 1

“There were under the Law (excellent King) both daily sacrifices and free-will offerings." Ded. of the Adv.]

Paint. A picture, sir. And when comes your book forth?

Poet. Upon the heels of my presentment, sir.

Let's see your piece. [" It hath been the highest of our care, who are the Presenters, to make the present worthy of your Highnesses by the perfection.” Ded.

“In like manner there belongeth to kings from their servants both tribute of duty and presents of affection.” – Ded. of the Adv.] Paint.

'Tis a good piece.
Poet. So 't is; this comes off well, and excellent.
Paint, Indifferent.

Admirable! How this grace
Speaks his own standing; what a mental power
This eye shoots forth; how big imagination
Moves in this lip; to the dumbness of the gesture

One might interpret. [If he were a good “interpreter of nature": and “if it be true that the principal part of beauty is in decent motion." Essay.]

1 Luciani Opera (Tauchnitz, Lipsiæ, 1858,) I. 30.

Paint. It is a pretty mocking of the life.
Here is a touch; Is 't good ?

I'll say of it,
It tutors nature: artificial strife

Lives in these touches, livelier than life. [-"(for I must ascribe your commendation to affection, being above my merit,) as I must do contrary to that that painters do; for they desire to make the picture to the life, and I must endeavour to make the life to the picture.” Letter, 1619.

_"as if art were some different thing from nature, and artificial from natural." — Adv.

“But because there be so many good painters, both for hand and colours, it needeth but encouragement and instructions to give life unto it.". Letter to Chan.

-“Who, as he was a happie imitator of nature, was a most gentle expresser of it."


Tim. Good morrow to thee, gentle Apemantus!' There are some indications in this play that the “gentle Apemantus,” under the covert garb of a “churlish philosopher," was rather intended to speak, under cover, for the “gentle Shakespeare ” himself. “ What Shakespeare's thoughts on God, Nature, and Art, would have been,” says Carlyle, “especially had he lived to number fourscore years, were curious to know.” Most certainly so; but, in the course of this play, assuredly, something may be gathered, by close inspection, as to what were the ideas of the author on some points in art and philosophy; and they seem to have a remarkable agreement, in respect of some particulars of idea and expression, with Bacon's notions on the subject, as may be seen in this passage from the Essay of Beauty (1612):

“ In beauty, that of favour is more than that of colour ; and that of decent and gracious motion more than that of favour. That is the best part of beauty, which a picture cannot express ; nor the first sight of life. There is no excellent beauty that hath not some strangeness in the proportion. A man cannot tell whether Apelles or Albert Durer were the more trifler; whereof the one would

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