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the Proprietary and Council and Assembly before his going to England to be in force until orders from England should be received, with the proviso or exception, however, that the Governor might issue commissions to the Provincial Judges under the lesser seal.

News had come about midnight of the 23rd of February of the great events in England up to December 23, when the person bringing the news had sailed out of the Downs. Little more was known for some time. In April, documents bore date “in the fifth year of the reign of King James the Second.” After hearing of the accession of William and Mary, the people of New Castle became dissatisfied that the new rulers were not proclaimed, but the Governor said that he had no orders for proclaiming them, and did not know how it was to be done, having never seen a proclamation for that purpose, and feared that he might exceed or fall short in giving the proper titles, which would be treason in either case. The Council, on 6mo. 29, unanimously agreed with the Governor.

On October 1, the Governor received a letter, dated Whitehall, 13 April, 1689, signed by the Earl of Shrewsbury, announcing, by the King's command, preparations for a war with France. The Councillors, after a long notice, were brought together on November 1st, to consider what was to be done, and then decided that it was time to make an acknowledgment of the authority of William and Mary, and to profess readiness to proclaim them upon receipt of orders or a form of proclamation. The next day, a declaration was signed by Blackwell and ten Councillors, acknowledging the new sovereigns, commanding all Justices and officers to act in the new names, and process to be so issued, and continuing all officers except Roman Catholics, and continuing all process previously issued. Then opened a debate upon arming the Province. The non-Quakers thought notice should be given to the people to get arms and powder and shot. The first Quakers who spoke, wished to await further news before putting the people to such expense, or said that there was no danger except from bears and wolves, or feared that the neighbouring Indians might take fright when they saw the population in arms, and might start hostilities: then Samuel Carpenter explained that he was not against those who would undertake to defend themselves, but, it being against the judgment of a great part of the people and his own, he could not advise it, or express approval of it, the King must know the judgment of Quakers, but, if they must be forced, he, Carpenter, supposed, that, rather than do it, they would suffer. Coppock agreed with him. Jones proposed it be left to the Governor's discretion. Simcock and Carpenter prevented such question from then being put, saying that it would be prejudicial to them to be otherwise than passive. At the next meeting, Blackwell gave his opinion as to the Frame limiting the Governor in the care of the safety of the Province by making him dependent upon the consent of the Council: he argued that, by Acts of Parliament passed in Charles II's reign, the King had the command of the militia, and not the Parliament, and much less could the Provincial Council of Pennsylvania claim command, when the King by letters patent had vested his authority in William Penn. Penn's Charter of 1683 to the people was in its very words limited "as far as in him lieth:” as it was not in the Proprietary's power to subject part of the King's dominions to the chance of being captured, therefore the said Charter of 1683 could not be so construed that the Governor without the Council could not use arms to defend the colony; furthermore his levying of troops and making war was a condition of the grant, and a failure to do it might work a forfeiture. Blackwell also reminded his hearers of the power in the Governor on sudden emergencies to make ordinances. All this, which could be stretched to a complete nullification of the Frame of government, and which might have caused a long argument at any other time, opened a way of escape to the Quakers, when Blackwell proposed that it be left to his discretion to execute the military powers conferred by Charles II upon the Proprietary as near as possible according to the laws of England and the laws of the Province made under the Duke of York. The five Quakers forming the majority present, did not question the Governor's power, Simcock saying: “It is a thing too hard for us to meddle with, and so we leave it." They expected the Governor to follow his conscience: they would follow theirs; and they declined to take such a part as voting. Carpenter, who was then or afterwards the richest man in the colony, said: “I had rather be ruined than violate my conscience.” The Governor now said that, as the matter seemed left to him by the general voice of the Councillors, he would act in the best manner he could for the preservation of the whole, without further pressing them on this occasion.

Blackwell had early asked to be relieved of office, and would have liked to go home before the end of the Summer, but awaited the convenience of the friend who had appointed him. At last, in 10th month, a number of belated letters and documents came from Penn. One, dated 6mo. 12, was to the Councillors, saying that he had thought fit to throw everything into their hands, and directing them to let the laws they might pass hold only so long as he should not declare his dissent. If they would prefer to have a Deputy-Governor, they were to name three or five persons, fixing on a proper salary, and the Proprietary would appoint one of them; this, however, not to be a precedent. This was modified by a letter to Blackwell inclosing two commissions dated 7, 25, 1689, explaining to Blackwell that the Councillors should choose whichever they preferred. One was empowering the Council to present three names to the Proprietary, and, until his choice were known, the person having most votes or first chosen was to act as Deputy according to the power and limitation of former commissions. The other was appointing the whole body as Deputy according to the power and limitation of former commissions, the body to elect a President. The Council, on 11mo. 2, accepted the latter of these two alternatives unanimously, cancelled the commission for choosing a single Deputy, and chose Lloyd as President. Penn's feeling towards Lloyd had been expressed to Blackwell thus: “I would be as little rigorous as possible, and do desire thee by all the obligation I and my present circumstances can have upon thee to desist ye prosecution of T. L. I entirely know ye person both in his weakness and accomplishment, and would thee end ye dispute between you two upon my single request and command and that former inconveniences be rather mended than punished. Salute me to ye people in generall, pray send for J. Simcock, A. Cook, John Eckley, and Samuel Carpenter, and let them dispose T. L. and Sa. Richardson to that complying temper that may tend to that loving and serious accord yt becomes such a government.” Blackwell remained some time in the province after leaving office, his age and constitution making it unfit that he should take at that season of the year so long a journey as to Boston. On 1mo. 31, 1690, Lloyd was unanimously reelected President, the Council having been changed by the election of Griffith Owen, Arthur Cooke, John Blunston, John Cann, John Brinckloe, and Thomas Clifton, in place of Carpenter, Growdon, Bristow, Alricks, Markham, and Hill respectively, and by the election of Thomas Duckett, in place of Eckley, who had died. Blunston declining, William Howell was elected on 2, 22, 1690, but declared himself incapable, and appears never to have served. The Council succeeded in having laws passed, and undid what they could of Blackwell's work. Nevertheless the feeling of the Quaker leaders against those who had acted against White and Lloyd, or had not supported the measures proposed in the House, was not appeased. The resolutions as to breaches of privilege were passed in 1690: while the acts complained of, being committed by those representing Delaware sentiment, had something to do with the breach of the following year.

The impost granted to William Penn in 1683, being 2d. per gal, on strong liquor, 1d. on cider, and one per cent. on all other goods imported, had met with opposition from those who were to pay it, and on 11, 2, 1689-90, a letter was read from the Proprietary mentioning that there was 6001. due to him which had been neglected or refused to be paid, and asking that the sum be made up by the colony building a house for him on his city lot, or putting stock to the extent of 2001. on each of the three plantations for his children. The impost was discontinued in 1690, Samuel Carpenter, John Songhurst, Griffith Jones, and others undertaking to pay the lump sum of £600 as a composition. This, however, failed to be paid.

The persons and descendants of persons who had settled on the Bay and River before Penn received his title, had stood by Blackwell, and were disgruntled by the reestablishment of the Quaker clique at the head of affairs, and perhaps were alarmed for the safety of the colony with non-resistants in control. The Quakers of the Lower Counties, moreover, were estranged, like the other inhabitants living so far from Philadelphia, by the want of consideration for them. The Pennsylvania Councillors, when the appointment of officers for the Lower Counties came up, voted for and elected whomsoever they saw fit, without regard to the wishes of the members present from the locality. The expense and loss of time in coming to Philadelphia often caused

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