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habit thenca acquired,k of doing this with facility,' both when read ing silently and aloud, they would constitutem a sufficient compensations for all the labour we can bestow upon the subject. But the pleasure derived to ourselves and others, from a clear communication of ideas and feelings; and the strong and durable impressions made tereby on the minds of the reader and the audio ence, are considerations, which give additional importance to the study of this necessary and useful art. The perfect attainment of it doubtlessa requires great attention and practice, joined to extraordinaryè natural powers : but as there are many degrees of excellence in the art, the studont whose aims fall short of perfection will find himself amply" rewardedu for every exertione le may think proper to make.
To give rules for the management of the voice in reading, by which the necessaryy pauses, emphasis,a and tones, may be discove ered and put in practice, is not possible. After all the directions that can be offered on these points, much will remain to be taught by the living instructor: much will be attainableb by no other means, than the force of example influencing the imitative powers of the learner. Some rules and principles on these beads, will, however, be found useful, to prevent erroneous and vicious modes of utterance ;d to give the young reader sone taste of the subject; and to aşsist him in acquiring a just and accurate mode of de ivery
The observations which we have to make, for these purposes, may be compriseds under the following heads : PROPER LOUDNESS OF VOICE ; DISTINCT NESS; SLOWNESS; PROPRIETY OF PRONUNCIATION; EMPHASIS ; TONES ; PAUSES ; and mopE OF READING VERSE.
SECTION I. • Ea-deav-our, &n-dêr'-&r, to labour top an attempt a certain purpose
k Or-di-na-rý, &r'-dd-od-re, cominon Oc-cu-py, ôk-ka-pl, to possess, em- usual ploy
1 Trans-gress, trans grès', to violate, to Tal-ent, tal-ent, faculty, power pass over, offend d As-sis-tance, as-sia'-tanse, help, fur- m Ve-he-ment, ve-hd-mènt, forcible, therance
ardent e Man-ago-ment, man'-Idje-mênt, con- n El-e-va-tion, el-e-va'-shin, exaltaduct, administration
tion, dignity I ap-proach, Ap-protsh', to draw ne ro De-press-ion, de-présh'-ån, the act of Con-found, kon-fbúnd', to mingle, pressing down perpies
p Har-mo-ny, bår'-mo-nė, just proporA Ve-ri-e-ty, vá-ri'-e-té, change, diver- tion, concord sity
1 Mo-not-o-ry, md-not-to-ne, want of i Ren-der, rèn'-dår, to restoro, translate, variety in cadence make
1. Req-ui-site, rêk'-we-zit, necessary, Per-se-vere, për-ad-vére , to persist in! any thing necessary
PROPER LOUDNESS CF VOICE.
less, must be, ti make himself be heard by all those to whom he reads. He must endeavoura to fill with his voice the space occupi. ed by the company. This power of voice, it may be thought, is wholly a natural talent. It is, in a good measure, the gift of nature; but it may receive considerable assistanced from art. Much depends, for this purpose, on the proper pitch and management of the voice. Every person has three pitches in his voice ; the urgy the MIDDLE, and the Low one. The high, is that which he uses in calling aloud to some person at a distance. The low, is when he approaches. to a whisper. The middle is, that which he employs in conmon conversation, and which he should generally use in reading to others. For it is a great mistake, to imagine that one must take the highest pitch of his voice, in order to be well heard in a large company. This is confoundings two things which are di ferent, loudness, or strength of sound, with the key or note in which we speak. There is a variety" of sound within the compass of each key. A speaker may therefore renderi his voice louder, with out altering the key: and we shall always be able to give most body, most persevering force of sound, to that pitch of voice, which in conversation we are accustomed. Whereas by setting out on our highest pitch or key, we certainly allow ourselves les compass, and are likely to strain our voice before we have done We shall fatigue ourselves, and read with pain; and whenever a per sou speaks with pain to himself, he is always heard with pain by tris audience. Let us chercfore give the voice full strength an swell of sound; but always piteh it on our ordinary' speaking key It should be a coustaut rule never butter a greater quantity veice than we can afford without pain to ourselves, and without an extraordinary effoit. As long as we keep within these bounds, u other organs of speech will be at liberty to discharge their severa offices with ease; and we shall always have our voice under con mand. But whenever we transgress' these bounds, we give up tlag reins, and have no longer any management of it. It is a useful rul too, in order to be well heard, to cast our eye on some of the mos distant persons in the company, and to consider ourselves as read ing to thely. We naturally and mechanically utter our words with such a degree of strength, as to make ourselves be heard by the per son whom we address, provided he is within the reach of our voice As this is the ease in conversation, it will hold also in reading others. But let us remember, that in reading, as well as in conven samun, it is possible to offend by speaking too loud. This extrem hurts the ear, by making the voice come upon it in rumbling, indi tinct masses.
By the habit of reading, when young, in a loud and vehemen manner, the voice becomes fixed in a strained and unnatural ker and is rendered incapable of that variety of elevation" and depre. birge which constitutes the true harmony of utterance, and affor
mase to the reader, and pleasure to the audience. This unnatural pitch of the voice, ansi disagreeable monotony, are most observable in persons who were taught to read in large rooms; who were accustomed to stand at too great distance, when reading to their teachers; whose instructors were very imperfect in their hearing; or who were taught 'by persons, that considered loud expression as the chief requisite” in forming a good reader. These are circunances which demand the serious attention of every one to whom the education of youth is committed.
SECTION II. 1 Ar xic-u-la-tietis
kr-tik-a-la-shin,c El-e-men-tar-y, er-a-men'-tår-é, sim joint of bones, the act of forming ple, uncompounded words
f In-cum-beni, in-kuin'-bent, imposed Con-trib-ute, kôn-trib'-åte, to give to, as u duty bear i part
4 Pri-ma-ry, pri'-ma-re, original, chief Slur, siir, to pass lightly, a slight dis-h Sus-pend, rås-pênd', to delay, intar
rupt, hang Sup-pross, såp-prés', to crush, conccal)
DISTINCTNESS. In the next place, to being well heard and clearly understool, distinctness of articulation contributes more than mere loudness of sound: The quantity of sound necessary to fill even a large space, is smaller than is commonly imagined ; and with distinct articulation, a person with a weak voice will make it reach farther, than the strongest voice can reach without it. To this, therefore, every
reader ought to pay great attention. He must give every sound which he utters, its due proportion; and inate every syllable, and even every letter in the word which he pronounces, be heard distinctly ; without slurring, whisperiný, or supjressing any of the
An accurate Knowledge of the simple, elementarye sounds of the language, and a facility in expressing them, are so necessary to distinctness of expression, that if the learner's attainments are., in this respect, imperfect, (and many there are in this situation) it will be incumbents on his teacher, to carry hiin back to these primary: articulations; and to suspend" his progress, till he become perfectiy master of them. It will be in vain to press him forward, with the hope of forming a good reader, if he cannot completely articulate everv elenientary sound of the language.
SECTION N. Pre-sip-i-tan-ry, pré-spy-pe-tan sé,fil Rec-om mend, rék-körn-mend', to rahness, haste
praise to another Ob-vi-our, ob-ve-ls, opon, evideri e Pro-nun-ci-a-tion, pro-nån-he-a' & ly sip-id, in-682-1d, without spirit shún, mole of utterance
DUE DEGREE OF SLOWNESS, In order io express ourselves distinctly, moderatiou is requisite with regard to the speed of pronouncing. Precipitaneya of speech confounis all articulation, and all meaning. It is scarcely recessary to observe, that there inay be also an extreme on the opposite side. It is obvious that a lifeless, drawling manner of reading, which allows the ininds of the hearers to be always outrunning. the speaker, must rerder every such performance insipide aud fatiguing. But the extreme of reading too fast is much more cominon, and requires the more to be guardeu against, because, when it has grown into a habit, few errors are more difficult to be corrected. To pronounce with a proper degree of slowness, and with full and clear articulation is necessary to be studied by all, who wish to be coine good readers; and it cannot be too much recommendedd 10 them. Such a pronunciatione gives weight and dignity to the subject. It is a great assistance to the voice, by the pauses and rests which it allows the reader more easily to make; and it enables the l'eader to swell all his sounds, both with more force and more har inony.
SECTION V. * Fun-da-men-tal, fun-da-mên'-ta!, subsist
serving for the foundation f Go-ni-us, je-neous, nature, dignasi • Ap-pro-pri-ate, dp-pro'-pre-kle, to tion, faculties
consigu to a particalar use, fit, pro-g Per-cus eron, pêr-kosh-an, a stroke per
The So-len-ni-ty, sd-lém-ue-le, Taviy c Pro-vin-cial, pro-vin’-shål, relating to uwful grandeur. a province
i En-er.gy, én-er jé, force, rigour d Iu-tei-li-gi-bly, in-tel-le-je-ble, clear-j Ln-pres-sion, im-préali'-&11, alors ly, so as to be understood
image in thy mind Con-sist, kől-sist', to be composed of,l
PROPRIETY OF PRONUXCJATIOy. Artes the fundamentale attentions to the pitch and mariage ment of the voice, to distinct articulation, and to a proper degree of slowness of speech, what the young rcader must, in the next place, study, is propriety of pronunciation; or giving in every word which he utters, that sound which we hest usage of language apa propriatest to it: in opposition to broad, vulgar, or provinciale pour Bunciation. This is requisite both for reading intelligibly, and for reading with correctness and ease. Instructions concerniug this article inay be test given by the living teacher. But there is on observation, which it may not be improper here to make. In the English language, every word which consists of more syllabies thai onc, has onc accented syllabis. The accents rest sometimes on tire vowel, sonetimes on tie consonant. The genius of the language rul quires the voice to mark tiial syllablety a stronger fiercussion, and to
smore slightly over the rest. Nosvašter velave learned the proper
seats of these accents, it is an important rule, to give every word jus he same accent in reading, as in common discourse. Many per sona err in illis respect. When they reard to others, and with solemuity,' they pronounce the syllables in a different manner from what Why do at other times. They dwell upou them and prot:act them; they multiply accents on the same word; fiom a mistaken motion, thal it gives gravity and inportance to their subject, and a lds to the enerpy of their delivery. Whereas this is one of the greatest saults thal can be committed io pronunciation: it inakes what is called a ponpous or mouthing matiner; and gives an artificial, affucted ais, to reading, which letracts greatly both from its agreeableness and its impression.
Sheridan and Waiker bave published Dictionaries, for ascórtaining the true and best pronunciation of the words of our language. By attentively consulting threri, particulariy - Walker's Pronounce ing Dictionary,” the young icader will be much assisted, in his endeavours to attain a correct pionunciation of the words belonging to the Euglish language.
SECTION IV. a Ara bią.u-ous, ån-bolg'-u-is, doubt-ıp Rc-rtrain, ré-atrane ,to repross,hinder
ful, having iwo meanings 1 Ar-bi-bra-ry, ås'-bé-isa-re, despotick, b Per-veri, për-vêri'. tu diniort, cor- capricious rupt
Ca-price, ká-présse', freak, whim c Pre sup-powe, pré-sup-poze', to sup-Di-niin-ish, dé-min'-loh, to lessen, depose us previous
grade d Ex-empli-fy, égz-&m'-ple-11, io illus- & De sire, de-zlie', to wish to obtain, trato by example
& wish Nuse, niůze, power of poetry, tolu Mex-i-can, meks-e-kån, of or be
fonder, dcep thought, close atten- lunging to Mexico tion, absence of mind
10 Com-pre-licn-sive, kom-pre-lèn'-siv, s No-lo-ri-uus, no-w-sd-hs, publickly containing much lsองเอ
Ex-pos-tu-la-tion, eks-pós-tshu-lk'e & Cull-s-quente, kosi' sè-kwénse, thar shån, debata, remonstrance
which follows froni a cause 10 Mu-ta-bie, mü-id-bl, subject Los te li-lus-ti atc, 11-18s'tråte, to explain change i A-pol-o-gy,8-p01-8-je, defence,excuse y De-mon-stra-ble, de-inon-strå-bl, cer. j Cen-eure, seni'-ehüre, blame, reproach, tuin, that which may be proved be to reproach
yond a doubt & Ex-ag-ge-rate, égz-adje'-e-rate, to: Plau-si bil-i-ty, piaw-zé-VII'-e-te, sre. enlarge
ciousness Se-lect, se-leht', to choose from, a Prob-a-bil-i-ly, prób-8-111'-d-tė, likenicely chosen
lihood m Scru-ple, skr88'-pl, to doubt, a doubily In-clis-criin-i-nato-ly, fn-dio-krin'-e. n Mod-u-la-tion, mod-du-la-shun, a- náte-lè, without distinction greeable harmony
Re-cur, re-kór, to have rocourse to, to o Di-ver-si-ty, dé-ver’-se-it, difference, return variety
u ltalick, l-181-fk, relating to Italy
By emphasis is meant a stronger and fuller sound of voice, which we distinguish some word or words, on which we desi