Graph Design for the Eye and Mind
Oxford University Press, USA, 10 de ago. de 2006 - 290 páginas
Graphs have become a fixture of everyday life, used in scientific and business publications, in magazines and newspapers, on television, on billboards, and even on cereal boxes. Nonetheless, surprisingly few graphs communicate effectively, and most graphs fail because they do not take into account the goals, needs, and abilities of the viewers. In raph Design for Eye and Mind, Stephen Kosslyn addresses these problems by presenting eight psychological principles for constructing effective graphs. Each principle is solidly rooted both in the scientific literature on how we perceive and comprehend graphs and in general facts about how our eyes and brains process visual information. Kosslyn then uses these eight psychological principles as the basis for hundreds of specific recommendations that serve as a concrete, step-by-step guide to deciding whether a graph is an appropriate display to use, choosing the correct type of graph for a specific type of data and message, and then constructing graphs that will be understood at a glance. Kosslyn also includes a complete review of the scientific literature on graph perception and comprehension, and appendices that provide a quick tutorial on basic statistics and a checklist for evaluating computer-graphics programs. Graph Design for Eye and Mind is an invaluable reference for anyone who uses visual displays to convey information in the sciences, humanities, and businesses such as finance, marketing, and advertising.
Looking With the Eye and Mind
Choosing a Graph Format
Creating the Framework Labels and Title
Creating Pie Graphs DividedBar Graphs and Visual Tables
Creating BarGraph Variants
Creating LineGraph Variants and Scatterplots
Creating Color Filling and Optional Components
How People Lie With Graphs
Outras edições - Ver todos
amount average axis bar graphs brain caption Carswell chapter charts cited Cleveland cognitive color components content elements convey corresponding Creating DeSanctis dimensions discriminable distorted divided-bar graphs easily Economist effects ensure example Figure fonts format graphics grid lines grouping law height horizontal Human Factors illustrate increase independent variable indicate Informative Changes inner grid interval scale Kosslyn labels layer graph levels line graphs locations maps measure multipanel display ordinal scale overall panels participants patterns percent Perceptual Organization pie graphs plotted precise present Principle of Compatibility Principle of Informative Principle of Relevance processing Psychology quantities recommendations regions relative salient scale scatterplots scores segments serif short-term memory spatial specific Spence stacked-bar graphs Statistical step graph Super Bowl XXI symbols three-dimensional tick marks tion trends Tversky types of displays United values variations vary vertical visual impression visual perception visual system visual table wedges Widget width
Página 276 - Levin, JR, Anglin, GJ, & Carney, RN (1987). On empirically validating functions of pictures in prose. In DM Willows & HA Houghton (Eds.), The psychology of illustration. (Vol. 1, pp.
Página 276 - ... and instruction: A cognitive approach. Educational Communication and Technology Journal 30, 3-25. I982b. The role of diagrammatic representation in learning sequences, identification and classification as a function of verbal and spatial ability. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 19, 79-89. 1983. Perceptual strategies used with flow diagrams having normal and unanticipated formats.
Página 276 - GR (1993). A picture is worth a thousand p values: On the irrelevance of hypothesis testing in the microcomputer age. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 25, 250-256. 3. Yager, D., Aquilante, K., & Plass, R. (1998). High and low luminance letters, acuity reserve, and font effects on reading speed. Vision Research, 38, 25272531.