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position that there are 100,000 families in Paris, and that these families consume in the night half a pound of bougies, or candles, per hour. I think this is a moderate allowance, taking one family with another; for though I believe some consume less, I know that many consume a great deal more. Then estimating seven hours per day as the medium quantity between the time of the sun's rising and ours, he rising during the six following months from six to eight hours before noon, and there being seven hours of course per night in which we burn candles, the account will stand thus :—
In the six months between the 20th of March and the 20th of September, there are
Hours of each night in which we burn candles 7
Multiplication gives for the total
number of hours . . . . 1,281
These 1,281 hours multiplied by 100,000, the number of inhabitants, give 128,100,000
One hundred twenty-eight millions
and one hundred thousand hours,
spent at Paris by candle-light,
which, at half a pound of wax and
tallow per hour, gives the weight of 64,050,000 Sixty four millions and fifty thousand
of pounds, which, estimating the
whole at the medium price of thirty
sols the pound, makes the sum of
ninety-six millions and seventy-five
thousand livres tournois . 96,075,000
An immense sum! that the city of Paris might save every year, by the economy of using sun-shine instead of candles.
If it should be said, that people are apt to be obstinately attached to old customs, and that it will be difficult to induce them to rise before noon, consequently my discovery can be of little use: I answer, Nil dzsperandum. I believe all who have common sense, as soon as they have learnt from this paper that it is day-light when the sun rises, will contrive to rise with him; and, to compel the rest, I would propose the following, regulations:
First. Let a tax be laid of a louis per window, on every window that is provided with shutters to keep out the light of the sun.
Second. Let the same salutary operation of police be made use of, to prevent our burning candles, that inclined us last winter to be more economical in burning wood; that is, let guards be placed in the shops of the wax and tallow chandlers, and no family be permitted to be supplied with more than one pound of candles per week.
Third. Let guards also be posted to stop all the coaches, &c. that would pass the streets after sun-set, except those of physicians, surgeons, and midwives.
Fourth. Every morning, as soon as the sun rises, let all the bells in every church be set ringing; and if that is not sufficient, let cannon be fired in every street, to wake the sluggards effectually, and make them open their eyes to see their true interest.
All the difficulty will be in the first two or three days : after which the reformation will be as natural and easy as the present irregularity; for, ce riest que le premier pas qui coute. Oblige a man to rise at four in the morning, and it is more than probable he will go willingly to bed at eight in the evening; and, having had eight hours sleep, he will rise more willingly at four in the morning following. But this sum of ninety-six millions and seventyfive thousand livres, is not the whole of what may be saved by my economical project. You may observe, that I have calculated upon only one-half of the year, and much may be saved in the other, though the days are shorter. Besides, the immense stock of wax and tallow left unconsumed during the summer, will probably make candles much cheaper for the ensuing winter, and continue them cheaper as long as the proposed reformation shall be supported.
For the great benefit of this discovery, thus freely communicated and bestowed by me on the public, I demand neither place, pension, exclusive privilege, nor any other reward whatever. I expect only to have the honor of it. And yet I know there are little envious minds who will, as usual, deny me this, and say, that my invention was known to the ancients, and perhaps they may bring passages out of the old books in proof of it. I will not dispute with these people, that the ancients knew not the sun would rise at certain hours; they possibly had, as we have, almanacs that predicted it: but it does not follow thence, that they knew he gave light as soon as he rose. This is what I claim as my discovery. If the ancients knew it, it might have been long since forgotten, for it certainly was unknown to the moderns, at least to the Parisians, which to prove, I need use but jone plain simple argument. They are as well instructed, judicious, and prudent a people as exist anywhere in the world, all professing, like myself, to be lovers of economy; and, from the many heavy taxes required from them by the necessities of the state, have surely an abundant reason to be economical. I say it is impossible that so sensible a people, under such circumstances, should have lived so long by the smoky, unwholesome, and enormously expensive light of candles, if they had really known, that they might have had as much pure light of the sun for nothing. I am, &c. A Subscriber.
PART II. AMERICAN POLITICS.
AMERICAN POLITICS PRIOR TO THE INDEPENDENCE OF THE UNITED STATES.
ALBANY PAPERS. [Referred to in Memoirs of the Life, Part II.] Containing, I. Reasons and Motives on which the Plan of Union for the Colonies was formed;—II. Reasons against partial Unions;—III. And the Plan of Union drawn by Benjamin Franklin, and unanimously agreed to by the Commissioners from New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, met in Congress at Albany, in July 1754, to consider of the best Means of defending the King's Dominions in America, fyc. a War being then apprehended; with the Reasons or Motives for each Article of the Plan.
I. Reasons and Motives on which the Plan of Union was formed.
TrfE commissioners from a number of the northern colonies being met at Albany, and considering the difficulties that have always attended the most necessary general measures for the common de