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shewed much taste for scientific as well as polite literature, which he pursued with success; although having caught the revolutionary phrensy, his studies became interrupted by his political engagements. He is said, however, to have had no hand in any of the excesses which arose out of the fury of contending parties. He was connected with Mirabeau, and attended him in his professional capacity on his death-bed. He was also one of the Council of Five Hundred; and it was in consequence of a motion made by him, that the Directory was dissolved. His principles, however, do not appear to have been much more steady and consistent than those of his brethren. He published, 1. “Observations sur les Hopitaux," Paris, 1790, Svo.

2. “ Journal de la maladie et de la mort de Mirabeau,” ibid. 1791, 8vo. 3.“Travail sur l'education publique,” a posthumous work of Mirabeau, edited by Cabanis, 1791, 8vo. 4.“ Melanges de Litterature Allemande,"1796,8vo. 5.“Du degre de certitude de la medecine,"1797, 8vo, republished in 1802, with the addition of the first two articles in this list. 6.“Quelques considerations sur l'organization sociale en generale," &c. 1799, 12ino. 7. “ Des rapports du physique et du morale de l'bomme, 1803, 2 vols. 8vo, reprinted with additions in 1804. On the merit of this work the French critics are divided ; we may, however, form some idea of it from the circumstance of its having been praised by the philosophers, and censured by the divines. 8. “ Coup d'eil sur les revolutions et la reforme de la medicine," 1803. 9. “ Observations sur les affections Catarrhales," &c. 1807. He wrote also some curious articles in the “ Magazin Encyclopedique;" and in the Moniteur for 1799 are many of his speeches irr: the legislative body. He was connected, we are told, with a great part of the writers and philosophers who contributed to enlighten the eighteenth century. During his last years he inhabited a country-house at Auteuil, bequeathed him by his friend madame Helvetius. He died at Meulan, May 5, 1808 ; and was at the time of his death a member of the institute, of the philomatic society, and of the medical society.

CABASILAS (Nilus), archbishop of Thessalonica in the fourteenth century, under the empire of the Andronicus's, wrote two treatises against the Latins; the first to prove that the division between the Greek and Latin churches is owing in a great measure to the conduct of the Pope, who

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4 Dict, Hist.

wishes to act independently of an oecumenical council, contrary to the usage of the church : the second is a more direct attack on the infallibility of the Pope, and reduces his primacy to merely a primacy of honour; and he urges many arguments against the assumed power of the pope which are perfectly consistent with the opinions on which the reformers afterwards proceeded. These treatises, Du Pin says, are written with method, perspicuity, and learn, ing. They were at first printed at London in Greek, without date, according to Du Pin, but we have not been able to discover this edition. They were, however, published in English at London, in 1560; or at least the latter of them, under the title “A Treatise containing a declaration of the Pope's usurped primacie; written in Greek above seven hundred yeares since by Nilus archbishop of Thessalonica. Translated by Thomas Gressop, student in Oxford,” 8vo. There are also editions in Greek and Latin at Basil, 1544, Francfort, 1555, and with Salmasius's notes, 1608. Our author also wrote a large work on the procession of the Holy Ghost, in opposition to the Latins.

CABASILAS (NICHOLAS), nephew of the preceding, and successor in the archbishopric of Thessalonica, flou. rished under the reign of Cantacuzenus, and had all his uncle's prejudices against the Latins. He also wrote “ On the procession of the Holy Ghost; and an exposition of the Liturgy,” in which he delivers the doctrine of the Greek church concerning the mass; and which was printed in Latin at Venice, in 1545, and at Antwerp in 1560; and in Greek and Latin in the “ Bibliotheca Patrum,” Paris, 1624. In the same “ Bibliotheca," is also included his “ Life of Jesus Christ,” translated into Latin, and separately printed at Ingolstadt, in 1601. A translation of his work against Usury," is also contained in the “ Bibliotheca.” In the sciences of mathematics and astronomy, he is said to have surpassed all his contemporaries.”

CABASSOLE (PHILIP DE) was a native of Cavaillon, in Provence, where he became a canon of the cathedral, archdeacon and bishop in 1334. He was also honoured with the rank of chancellor to Sancha, queen of Sicily, by her husband Robert, in 1341, and jointly with that princess was regent during the minority of Joan her grand-daughter.

i Du Pin.- Leo Allatius in Diatribe de Nilis et eorum scriptis.-Cave, vol. II. Saxii Onomast,

8 lbid.

In 1366, be was appointed patriarch of Jerusalem, and had the charge of the bishopric of Marseilles; and at last pope Urban V. raised him to the rank of cardinal, and vicar-general spiritual and temporal in the diocese of 'Avignon, and while the popes resided at Avignon, Gregory XI. made him superintendant of the papal territory in Italy. He died at Perugia in 1372. He wrote a treatise “De Nugis Curialium," some sermons, and two books on the life and miracles of St. Mary Magdalen. Petrarch was his particular friend, and dedicated to him his treatise on a solitary life; and many of his letters are addressed to him. He is likewise mentioned with high praise by other learned contemporaries.'

CABASSUT (JOHN), of Aix, was a celebrated priest of the oratory, who taught the canon law at Avignon, and died September 25, 1685, at Aix, aged eighty one.

His chief works are: “Juris Canonici theoria, et praxis," a new edition of which was published by M. Gibert, 1738, fol. with notes; an “ Account of the Ecclesiastical History of the Councils and Canons,” in Latin, the best edition of which is 1680, fol. In the edition of 1670, 8vo, are some Dissertations not to be found in that of 1680. Few ecclesi. astics have been more praised for excellence of private character than Cabassut.”

CABEL, or KABEL (ADRIAN VANDER), a painter of landscape, sea-ports, and cattle, was born at Ryswick, in 1631, and became a disciple of John Van Goyen, under whose instruction and example he made a rapid progress in his profession, and by whom his name was changed from Vander Touw to Vander Cabel. He copied nature and designed every object before he inserted any in his compositions. His taste in designing animals and figures was formed after that of Castiglione ; and in landscape his model was the style of Salvator Rosa. His manner is great, and much after the goút of the Italian school. The touchings of his trees are excellent; his figures and animals are very correct, and marked with spirit. Although his different pictures have unequal merit, they are all distinguished by the freedom of his hand, and the fine touch of his pencil. In his colouring he was solicitous to imitate the Caracci and Mola; but the beauty of his design and composition is often injured by too dark and deep tone of colouring. His etchings, of which some few remain, are performed in a slight, free style. He died in 1695.'

* Moreri,

3 Moreri.-Dupin.

CABOT (SEBASTIAN), a navigator of great eminence and abilities, was born at Bristol about the year 1477. He was son of John Cabot, a Venetian pilot, who resided much in England, and particularly in the city of Bristol ; and who was greatly celebrated for his skill in navigation. Young Cabot was early instructed by his father in arithmetic, geometry, geography, and those branches of knowledge which were best calculated to form an able and skilful seaman; and by the time he was seventeen years


age, he had already made several trips to sea, in order to add to the theoretical knowledge which he had acquired, a competent skill in the practical part of navigation. The first voyage


any importance in which he was engaged, appears to have been that made by his father, for the discovery of unknown lands; and also, as it is said, of a northwest passage to the East Indies. John Cabot was encouraged to this attempt by the discoveries of Columbus. It was in 1493 that Columbus returned from his first expedition; and in 1495, John Cabot obtained from king Henry VII. letters patent, empowering him and his three sons, Lewis, Sebastian, and Sanctius, to discover unknown lands, and to conquer and settle them, for which they were to be admitted to many privileges; the king reserving to himself one-fifth part of the neat profits; and with this single restraint, that the ships they fitted out should be obliged to return to the port of Bristol. It was not till the year after these letters patent were granted, that any preparations were made for fitting out vessels for the intended voyage ; and then John Cabot had a permission from his majesty, to take șix English ships in any haven of the realm, of the burden of two hundred tons and under, with as many mariners as should be willing to go with him. Accordingly, one ship was equipped at Bristol, at the king's expence; and to this the merchants of that city, and of London, added three or four small vessels, freighted with proper commodities.

John Cabot, attended by his son Sebastian, set sail with this fleet in the spring of the year 1497. They sailed happily on their north west course, till the 24th of June, in the same year, about five in the morning, when they

! D'Argenville.--Pilkington and Strutt's Dictionaries,

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discovered the island o? Baccalaos, now much better known by the name of Newfoundland. The very day on which they made this important discovery, is known by a large map, drawn by Sebastian Cabot, and cut by Clement Adams, which hung in the privy gallery at Whitehall; whereon was this inscription, under the author's picture : “ Effigies Seb. Caboti, Angli, Filii Jo. Caboti, Venetiani, Militis Aurati, &c.” and on this map was likewise the following account of the discovery, the original of which was in Latin : “ In the year of our Lord 1497, John Cabot, a Venetian, and his son Sebastian, with an English fleet, set out from Bristol, and discovered that island which no man before had attempted. This discovery was made on the four and twentieth of Jupe, about five o'clock in the morning. This land he called Prima Vista (or First Seen), because it was that part of which they had the first sight from the sea. The island, which lies out before the land, he called the island of St. John, probably because it was discovered on the festival of St. John the Baptist. The inhabitants of this island wore beasts' skins, and esteemed them as the finest garments.” To this Purchas adds, “In their wars they used bows, arrows, pikes, darts, wooden clubs, and slings. They found the soil barren in some places, and yielding little fruit; but it was full of white bears and stags, far larger than those of Europe. It yielded plenty of fish, and those of the larger kind, as seals and salmon. They found soles there above a yard in length, and great abundance of that kind of fish which the savages called baccalaos. They also observed there partridges, as likewise hawks and eagles; but what was remarkable in "them, they were all as black as ravens.'

The accounts of this voyage made by John Cabot, ac"companied by his son Sebastian, are, in some respects, involved in much obscurity; and Sebastian is supposed to have made some voyages of discovery without his father, in the reign of Henry VII. of which no narrations have been preserved. However, it appears that John Cabot, after the discovery of Newfoundland, sailed down to Cape Florida, and then returned with three Indians, and a good cargo, to England, where he was well received. The discovery that he and his son had made, was, indeed, as Dr. Campbell observes, very important; “ since, in truth, it was the first time the continent of America had been seen ; Columbus being unacquainted therewith till his

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