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inhabitants were so divided that it would be diffi. cult to declare to which side the majority was at. tached. * At no time did tlie effective continental force which he could bring into the field amount to two thousand men; and of these a considerable part were raw troops. Yet, by a course of judi. cious movement, of resolute action, and of hardy enterprise, in which the most invincible constancy was displayed, and courage was happily tempered with prudence, he recovered the southern states; and at the close of the year, civil government was completely re-established in them. A just portion of the praise deserved by these achievements is unquestionably due to the troops he commanded. . They bore every hardship and privation with a

* The British and the American general both complain loudly of their defection, and state the greatest numbers to be favourable to the adverse army.

+ The distresses of the, southern army, like those of the northern, were such, that it was often difficult to keep it together. That he might relieve them when in the last extremity, and yet not diminish the exertions made to draw support from other sources by creating an opinion that any supplies could be derived from him, Mr. Morris employed an agent to attend the southern army as a volunteer, whose powers were unknown to General Greene. This agent was instructed to watch its situation ; and whenever it appeared impossible for the general to extricate himself from his embarrassments, to furnish him, on his pledging the faith of the government for re-payment, with a draft on the financier for such a sum as would relieve the urgency of the moment. Thus was Greene frequently rescued from impending ruin by aids which appeared providential, and for which he could not account.


patience and constancy which cannot be sufficiently admired. And never was a general better supported by his inferior officers than Greene. Not shackled by those who had been appointed to stations of high rank in consideration of political influence, many of whom were without military talents, his orders were executed by young men of equal spirit and intelligence, formed under the eye of Washington, and trained in the school furnished by the severe service in the north to all the hardships and dangers of war.

A peculiar importance was given to these successes in the south, by the opinion that a pacific temper was finding its way into the cabinets of the belligerent powers in Europe. The communications from the Court of Versailles rendered it probable that negotiations for a peace would take place in the course of the ensuing winter; and dark hints had been given, on the part of Great Britain, to the minister of the Most Christian King, that all the states in America could not rea. sonably expect to become independant, as several of them were subdued by her arms. Referring to the precedent of the Low Countries, he observed, that of the seventeen provinces which originally united against the Spanish crown, only seven obtained their independance.

Motives for great exertions in the course of the year, in addition to those which grew out of the situation of America, were also furnished by other


communications from the French monarchy. She was plainly told that, after the present campaign, no further pecuniary or military aids were to be expected from France. The situation of affairs in Europe, it was said, would demand all the exertions which that nation was capable of making ; and that the forces of his Most Christian Majesty might render to the common cause as much real service elsewhere as in America.



Preparations for another campaign-Proceedings in

the British parliament-Conciliatory conduct of General Carlton-Negotiations for peace-Preliminary and eventual articles agreed upon between the United States and Great Britain-Discontents of the American army-Anonymous letters, and the proceedings in consequence thereof Measures for disbanding the army-Mutiny of a part of the Pennsylvania line-Peace concluded- Evacuation of New-York-General Washington resigns his commission, and retires to Mount Vernon.

THE splendid success of the allied arms in

Virginia, and the great advantages obtained still further south, produced no disposition in the mind of the commander in chief to relax those vigorous exertions which might yet be necessary to secure the great object of the contest. " I shall attempt to stimulate Congress,” said he in a letter to General Greene, written from Mount Vernon, “ to the best improvement of our late success, by taking the most vigorous and effectual measures to be ready for an early and decisive campaign the next year. My greatest fear is, that, viewing this stroke in a point of light which


may too much magnify its importance, they may think our work too nearly closed, and fall into a state of languor and relaxation. To prevent this error, I shall employ every means in my power ; and if, unhappily, we sink into this fatal mistake, no part of the blame shall be mine."

On the 27th of November he reached Philadel. phia ; and a resolution of Congress was immediately passed, granting him an audience on the succeeding day. On his appearance, the president addressed him in a short speech, in which he was informed that a committee was appointed to state the requisitions to be made for the proper establishment of the army, and the expectation was expressed that he would remain in Philadel. phia, in order to aid the consultations on that important subject.

The secretary of war, the financier, and the se: cretary of foreign affairs, assisted at these delibera. tions. With such unusual celerity was the business conducted, that Congress passed the resolu. tions respecting the military establishment for the succeeding year so early as the 10th of December. But the respectability of the army still depended on the vigour with which the several states would execute the measures recommended to them; and to stimulate them to the utmost exertions of which they were capable, the personal influence of the commander' in chief was called in to aid the civil authority. His circular letter, written on this


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