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avoid, and contradictory, not only $1,850; for deepening an inland to his votes when a federal Sena- passage between St John's and tor, but also to bills already sanc- St Mary's rivers $1,500; for tioned by him as President. The improving the navigation of rivers Cumberland road, the Detroit and on the Atlantic $27,688. Chicago road were within the lim The approval of the bill auits of States, while the bill for the thorizing these appropriations left improvement of harbors and re- it still doubtful how far the Presimoving obstructions in rivers was dent felt at liberty to assent to only another branch in the gener- internal improvement bills, and of al system of internal improve- the exact extent and limits of ment. That bill, which was ap- the principles by which be intendproved April 23d, appropriated ed to be governed during the resfor removing obstructions in the idue of his administration. Some Ohio and other interior rivers dissatisfaction was excited by the $85,474 ; for improving by piers unusual course he adopted, of reand otherwise the harbors in the taining bills until the next session, lakes $21,607; for improving and the country looked forward harbors on the Atlantic $28,507; with some curiosity for the further for piers and breakwaters on 'the development of his views on this Atlantic $185,010; for the pre- question, at the next session of servation of Plymouth beach Congress.

CHAPTER VIII.

MEXICO.

Condition of Country. - Invasion from Havana. - Defeat and Capitulation of Invaders. - Revolution. Separation of Yuca

Abdication of Guerrero. - Bustamente chosen.

tan.

The last important incident re ger from abroad to occupy its corded in our summary of events attention and employ its energies, in Mexico, for the year ending in it is probable that anarchy would July, 1829, was the expedition soon have triumphed over the fitted out against her in the Ha- fatal weakness of the new adminvana, under the command of istration. General Isidor Barradas; a cir The hopes of the Spanish cumstance which instead of in Government and the royalist party flicting injury upon the nascent from the invading expedition were liberties of the Mexicans, was soon to be dissipated. for a time productive of great and They had calculated largely important benefits. The sanguine upon the internal difficulties and hopes that had been entertained dissensions of the Mexicans, and of permanent tranquillity and pros- the utter impossibility of defence perity under the vigorous admin was strongly insisted on. The istration of President' Guerrero, celebrated castle of St Juan had already began to fade away ; D'Ulloa was said to be in a state the seeds of disease were too of dilapidation; the Mexican fleet deeply planted, to be eradicated was greatly inferior to that under so easily; the finances of the the command of Commodore country were inextricably en- Laborde; and the greatest relitangled; commerce was still de ance was placed upon the intesclining, and the revenues

tine divisions of the country, and necessarily diminished in propor- the supposed unpopularity of the tion. The army, strengthened in Government, arising from the expower and encouraged in pre- pulsion of the Spaniards. But sumption by its agency in the if the means of resistance were late revolution, had too long in- feeble, those of the invaders were dulged in license to yield quietly contemptible, and their measures to the supremacy of civil rule, the most ill-judged and unwise and but for the approach of dan- that ever disgraced an incompe

were

tent commander. The whole but a few hundreds had been left number of the Spanish army by Barradas for its desence. was but little more than 4000 ; These, with the sick, offered a and with this inconsiderable force, stout resistance to the efforts of they landed upon the shores of the Mexicans for a time; but the Mexico in August, a season of disparity of numbers was too the year when pestilence taints great and the remnant of the every breeze, to attempt the con- Spaniards were actually in treaty quest of a country through which, for the surrender of the place, on account of physical impedi- when their General, abandoning ments, it is difficult to march a the pursuit of La Gargia, arrived body of troops even when unop- by a forced march to their assisposed, and in which they could tance and Santa Ana was comrely only upon their own resources pelled to retire. The rest of the for supplies and subsistence. month of August was passed in

The Spaniards landed at Tam- inaction, but every day added to pico on the 27th of July; and the distresses and difficulties of notwithstanding the alleged weak- the Spaniards. The reinforce ness of the Government and luke-"ments which they expected from warmness of the people, the Cuba did not arrive; the number most vigorous preparations were of the sick daily increased; and promptly made for their reception. the army of Santa Ana was conThe Congress, in the exercise of stantly receiving accessions of its unlimited prerogative, invested fresh troops and of artillery. the President with extraordinary The result could not be long depowers, to be retained until the layed; and on the 10th of Sepdanger should be at an end; and tember, General Barradas surrenGeneral Santa Ana at the head dered upon favorable terms of of about two thousand men ad- capitulation. The Spaniards vanced to Tuspacu, distant only evacuated the citadel, and deliv70 miles from the place of de- ered up their arms, standards and barkation. As soon as he re- ammunitions, but the officers were ceived information of the landing permitted to retain their swords; of the enemy, he hastened to and it was agreed that until the meet them at Tampico where he arrival of transports from Havana, arrived on the 19th of August. the invaders should remain at

Barradas in the meantime had Vittoria, defraying their own exmarched with the greater part of penses, and giving their parol his force, to attack General La never to return or bear arms Gargia, then occupying Altamiva against the Mexican republic. with about 3000 men, who re The success of Santa Ana was treated before him but he was hailed by the people with the utsoon recalled from the pursuit. most enthusiasm, and the only On the 20th of August, Santa effect of the Spanish invasion Ana attacked the old town of appeared to be an increase of the Tampico, the head quarters of power and stability of the Govthe Spaniards, of whom however ernment, by the distinction of a

military triumph. But the gain Guerrero immediately resigned was only temporary. The re- his extraordinary powers, conaction of feeling, particularly voked the Congress, and appealamong the military, was powerful ed to them for support. He then in the extreme, and soon resulted left the Capital with a small body in another revolution, less violent of troops to meet the approachindeed than those which liad pre- ing enemy. His departure was ceded it, but equally effectual the signal for the troops left in and far more unaccountable. the city of Mexico to declare

The state of Yucatan com their adherence to the party of menced by a declaration against Bustamente, and a complete and the Federal Government and in bloodless revolution was effected favor of a Central Government. on the 22d of December. GenThe immediate cause of discon- eral Quintanar, at the head of the tent appears to have been the re- troops in the Capital, made a luctance of Guerrero to resign the declaration of adherence to the extraordinary powers with which plan of Bustamente, urging the he had been invested on the ap- assembling of a council of govproach of the Spaniards; but it ernment, and naming three peris probable that this unwillingness sons to compose it, one of whom was only seized upon by his was the President of the Supreme political opponents as a pretext Court of justice. At dawn the for resorting to violence. Various garrison troops peaceably occuinsurrectionary movements of pied the citadel, the Acordada, slight importance occurred in and all the other guard posts exseveral of the States, of which cept the Palace, from which they the Vice President Bustamente

were fired

upon

for a short time, is supposed to have been the prin- between one and two o'clock, cipal instigator ; but no serious and again from about half past apprehensions were entertained five, A. M. to nine, when that by Guerrero and his party until also was taken, after the loss of the 4th of December, 1829, the only ten or twelve men. No anniversary of the Yorkino revo disorder took place afterwards, lution of the preceding year. and the shops and public walks On that day Bustamente placed were open the same day as usual. himself at the head of the army The council immediately asof reserve, stationed in the state sembled, nominated Quintanar of Vera Cruz, issued a proclama- and Alaman as associates with tion denouncing the abuses and Sr. Velez, President of the court usurpations of the executive, and of justice, to exercise the Govcommenced his march upon the ernment, and they began their capital to enforce the reform which duties that very evening. Guerhe alleged to be necessary. rero thus placed between two

Santa Ana published an ener enemies and suspicious of the getic proclamation promising to fidelity of the small number of support Guerrero, but before he soldiers who still adhered to him, had reached Salapa, he received found himself compelled to adopt news of his overthrow.

the only safe course that remained

to him, by abdicating the Presi- the military, and as in all the dency and returning to his es other Mexican revolutions, the tate. His example was imme- downfal of Guerrero is chiefly to diately followed by Santa Ana be ascribed to their immediate and the other leaders of his party, agency. Its consequence upon and the provisional Government the republic, were of no great composed of Velez, Alaman and importance. In fact the revoluGeneral Quintanar, assumed the tion cannot be considered as the administration of affairs until the triumph of one party over another, arrival of Bustamente. Perfect and not likely to be attended with tranquillity was at once restored any results much more striking to the Capital, and General Bus

or permanent, than a change of tamente was elected by the army administration produces in this as the temporary successor of couniry or in England. Guerrero.

On the 8th of January, the folThis latest change in the Gov- lowing States of the Confederaernment is remarkable for the tion had sent in their adhesion 10 number and variety of the differ- the new order of things:-Mexent parties by whose united in- ico, Guanajuato, Zacatecas, Jalisfluence it was effected, and the co, Queretero, Puebla, Vera Cruz difficulty of discovering the mo- and Oajaca. Bustamente had aplives by which some of them can pointed the Cabinet already pubbe supposed to have been actuated. lished; and the old ministers had Federalist and Centralist, York- returned to their homes. inos and Escoceses seem to have The manifesto published by forgotten all their animosities, and Bustamente at Mexico on receivit is impossible to discern in the ing the Government, is very long, composition of the triumphant and promises to conduct everyparty, any distinctive principle by thing with the utmost submission means of which the incongruities to order and the Constitution, of their co-operation can be ex- speaking of the continued exerplained. Certain it is that the cise of the extraordinary powers popularity of Guerrero was much by Guerrero as very improper, diminished even among his own and of various improvements in immediate partisans, and that his the administration as necessary measures after his elevation to the and required by the public exiPresidency, were received with gencies and the public wish. but little favor by the people in The only incident of moment general.

which appeared to grow out of The rich were displeased with the demonstration of Bustamente, his decree for the abolition of was the separation of the State slavery, which yet was productive or province of Yucatan from the of but little benefit to the slaves, confederacy, which was declared whose condition was already but by a Federal Act of the Provinvery slightly inferior to that of cial Legislature, signed at Merida the citizens. The greatest dis on the 9th of November, immecontent however prevailed among diately after the issuing of the

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