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tions about the mouth; and constitution crowbar were pressed tightly from the ally, by inducing, among other effects, right breast to the left, till it came and dyspepsia, diarrhea, disease of the liver, twisted in a knot round the heart, which congestion of the brain, loss of memory, now stopped deathly still for a minute, amaurosis, generally confined to one eye, and then leaped like a dozen frogs. After apoplexy, palsy, and even mania.

two hours of deathlike suffering, the at"When a youth commences his ap tack ceased; and I found that ever after prenticeship to smoking tobacco," says my heart missed every fourth beat! My Mr. Lizars," he suffers often the most physician said that I had organic disease inconceivably miserable sickness and vom of the heart, must die suddenly, and need iting-almost as bad as sea-sickness. It only take a little brandy for the painful generally produces these effects so rapidly, paroxysms; and I soon found it the only that their production must entirely depend thing that gave them any relief. For the on nervous influence, as giddiness is al next twenty-seven years I continued to most immediately induced. The antidote suffer milder attacks like the above, lastor cure for this miserable condition is ing from one to several minutes, somedrinking strong coffee or brandy and water, times as often as two or three times a day and retiring to a bed or sofa. If he per or night; and to be sickly-looking, thin, severes, he has just to suffer onward, and pale as a ghost.” until his nervous system becomes habit All this time the man had not thought uated to the noxious weed, and too often of attributing his sufferings to the use of to the bottle at the same time. It is truly tobacco; but one day he took it into his melancholy to witness the great number head to revolt against being a slave to one of the young who smoke now-a-days; and vile habit alone, and after thirty-three it is painful to contemplate how many pro years' use, he renounced it at once and mising youths must be stunted in their forever. “Words," he said, “could not growth, and enfeebled in their minds, be describe my suffering and desire for a fore they arrive at manhood.”

time. I was reminded of the Indian who, Two cases only we shall notice: one next to all the rum in the world, wanted of the local, the other of the constitutional all the tobacco. But my firm will coneffects of smoking. The former was the quered. In a month my paroxysms nearly case of a captain in the Indian navy, who, ceased, and soon after left entirely. I from smoking cheroots, had contracted an was directly a new man, and grew stout ulceration of the mucous membrane of and hale as you see. With the exception the left cheek, extending backward to the of a little asthmatic breathing, in close tonsil and pharynx of the same side, hav- rooms and the like, for nearly twenty ing all the characteristic appearances of years since I have enjoyed excellent cancer. Such was his condition when he health.” applied to our author ; but the disease re On examination, Dr. Corson found the sisted every mode of treatment, and he heart of this individual apparently healthy died the victim of the cheroots.

in size and structure, only irregular, inThe other is the case of a man-an termitting still at every fourth pulsation. American, it would seem—who, according He is now, or was a few months ago, still to his own statement, began chewing to- living, a highly intelligent man, sixty-five bacco at seventeen years of age, swallow- years of age, stout, ruddy, and managing ing the juice to avoid the injury he appre a large business. hended might accrue to his lungs from Facts like these are worthy the grave constant spitting. He afterward suffered consideration of those who use the noxmuch from gnawing at the stomach, a ious herb, if no better plea can be urged capricious appetite, nausea, vomiting of in its defense than that it passes an idle his meals, emaciation, nervous irritability, hour, and supplies the care-worn and deand palpitation of the heart. After seven pressed spirit with a gentle and soothing years thus passed, he became the subject species of intoxication. of angina pectoris. “One day after dinner,” he said, relating his case to Dr. Neither fears nor favors can tempt the Corson of New York, “I was suddenly holily resolute : they can trample upon seized with intense pain in the chest, dangers and honor with a careless foot. gasping for breath, and a sensation as if a Bishop Hall.

Vol. VII.-5

CHEMICAL POWER OF THE SUNBEAM. wanted permanence. They could only be

preserved in the dark.

Viewed by dayPHOTOGRAPHY.

light they soon became uniformly black. we carefully examine the history of A few years after this a French gentleman,


that the progress of knowledge is regulated inquiry, and he made the remarkable disby a constant law. The time appears to covery, that the solar rays altered the be fixed when any new truth shall be born character of all kinds of resinous subinto man. These laws are far beyond the stances. He therefore spread upon plates reach of human intellect; but we are per- of glass and metal a thin coating of some mitted to see that the Eternal One, who varnish, and placing it in the cameraregulated the tides of the material ocean, obscura, allowed the beautiful images of has, in his infinite wisdom, fixed the ex- Baptista Porta's instrument to fall upon tent of oscillation—the height and the the plate. depth of each mental wave—and com These images, being the result of radiamanded the great spiritual tidewave of tions from external objects, have relatively knowledge to advance in obedience to an the amount of luminous and chemical power undeviating law.

determined by the colors of their surfaces, From the earliest periods of history, and the quantity of illumination to which since man clothed himself in dyed garments they are exposed. It was found, after -it must have been observed that some exposure in this way, that some portions colors were darkened, while others were of the resinous surface were more soluble bleached, by the sun's rays. To the than others. The plates were consephilosophy of this, bis mental eye was quently placed in some solvent, and thus obscured—the fact was constantly oc was gradually developed “ the clouded curring, (and a thousand facts are still for- | imagery ” of the picture impressed upon ever presenting themselves

us, un the plate. The pictures thus produced noticed or uncared for,) and man did not are called by their discoverer Helioperceive the important bearing of the

Niepce became acquainted with phenomenon.

Daguerre, the dioramic painter. They Eventually, the alchemists, possessed were both engaged in the same line with the idea that gold differed from silver of inquiry, and it was agreed that they in nothing but that it contained more of should continue their investigations tothe sun's sulphur, were induced to pre-gether. It is not quite easy to trace the sent various compounds of silver to the progress made by Niepce and Daguerre, sunshine, with the hope of obtaining this as it was not until after the death of " interpenetration of the sulphureous prin- | Niepce that Daguerre announced the ciple of light,which was to change the discovery of the process which bears his baser silver to the royal gold. Thus they discovered a remarkable change which During this period Mr. Henry Fox Taltakes place in the sunshine on one of the bot was quietly working in the same direcsalts of silver.

tion, and he so far improved upon the Eventually an Englishman, Mr. Thomas process of Wedgwood, as to give perWedgwood—the son of him who so greatly

to the sun-drawn pictures. improved our porcelain manufacture-con Since the publication of these processes, ceived it quite possible, since different photography has made rapid advances. colored media were not equally transparent

A few of the more important processes to the radiant chemical power, to

the must now be described.

It is difficult, paintings on the windows of our old within the limits allowed, to make a churches by covering white paper or selection from, or to enter into the details leather with the nitrate or the chloride of of, the various methods by which photosilver. He succeeded in his experiments, graphs can be obtained ; the most satisand, with the assistance of Sir Humphrey factory course will be to state those Davy, extended his plan so far as to secure general principles by which the resulting copies of images by the solar microscope, photographic phenomena may be best thus becoming the discoverer of the understood. beautiful art of PhotogRAPHY. The If silver is dissolved in nitric acid we pictures produced by Mr. Wedgwood obtain a salt-nitrate of silver. When




this salt is dissolved in perfectly pure on which it has been impressed to the distilled water, it may be exposed to sun- vapor of mercury. shine for any period without undergoing Mercury combines with metallic silver, change; but add thereto the smallest but not with the iodide ; thus it is depositportion of organic matter, and it is quickly ed over every portion of the plate on which decomposed, the silver being precipitated the solar radiations have acted—the thickas a black powder. In paper we have the ness of the deposit bearing a strict relation required organic principle, and if we wash to the intensity of chemical effect produced. a sheet with the solution of nitrate of This picture is also fixed by the use of the silver, and expose it with any body super- hyposulphite of soda; as, indeed, are posed-say a fern-leaf-all the parts which nearly all varieties of photographic picare exposed will blacken, those screened | tures. will remain white, and thus there will be By modifications, which cannot be here produced what is called a negative image. detailed, these processes have been greatly Chloride of silver, obtained by washing increased in sensibility; the result which the paper, first with a weak solution of formerly required twenty minutes being common salt and then with nitrate of silver, now obtained in as many seconds. is a far more sensitive photographic agent, A process more sensitive than either of and is now commonly employed.

those named has extended photography in The Calotype process of Mr. Fox Tal a most remarkable manner- this is the bot consists in washing paper, first with COLLODION process.

Collodion is gunnodide of polassium, and then with nitrate cotton dissolved in ether; to this is added of silver, by which process is obtained an me jodide of potassium dissolved in iodide of silver. The paper should con- spirits of wine. This iodized collodion is tain nothing but this iodide ; therefore all poured over a sheet of glass—the ether soluble salts are removed by soaking in evaporating leaves a beautiful film on the water. This pale primrose-color paper, surface, which, upon the glass being dipped which is not sensitive to light, is washed into a solution of nitrate of silver, becomes with a peculiar organic salt called gallic exquisitely sensitive. This prepared tablet acid ; and, to increase the instability of being placed in the camera receives an the preparation, a little nitrate of silver is image almost instantaneously, which is added to it, producing what the inventor brought out in full vigor by pouring over calls a gallo-nitrate of silver. Here we it a solution of the proto-sulphate of iron have a preparation already quick with or of pyro-gallic acid. chemical energy ; this is applied to the The exquisite perfection of the collodion iodized paper, and the chemical power of pictures, dependent upon the rapidity with the sun, as radiated from external objects, which the images are impressed, is mainly instantly produces a change—that change due to the peculiar conditions of this bearing an exact relation to the intensity singular preparation. By a preparation of the rays falling upon each portion of in many respects analogous to the collodion, the light-created picture.

a degree of sensibility far exceeding anyPresently a picture becomes visible, and thing which the most sanguine photogit is increased in intensity by washing it, raphist dreamed of in his ardent moments in the dark, with a fresh portion of the has been obtained. A plate prepared with gallic acid solution. The picture thus albumen, iodide of iron, and alcohol, and obtained is fixed by washing it with a salt, acetic acid, was placed in a dark room of which dissolves the iodide or the chloride the Royal Institution in a camera obscura ; of silver, which has not undergone change opposite to it, at the proper focal distance, —the hyposulphite of sodaand subse was a wheel, which was made to revolve quently soaking in clean water.

many hundred times in a second, and this The Daguerreotype consists in pro- wheel carried a printed bill upon its face. ducing an iodide of silver upon the sur This rapidly-revolving placard was illuface of a polished silver-plate, and re minated for a moment by a flash from a ceiving the camera image upon this pre- Leyden jar. When the prepared plate pared surface. In both of these processes was examined by means of a developing a decomposition of the iodide of silver agent, it was found, that notwithstanding results; but in Daguerre's process, the the rapidity with which the image moved image is developed by exposing the plate over the lens and the transient nature of

the light, a picture of the printed bill was own image, but the milder moon traces clearly formed, with the letters perfect. out for him her mountains and her valleys, This was an experiment of Mr. Fox Tal- her beetling precipices, like old sea-coasts, bot's, and is perhaps the most remarkable and her dreadful volcanic craters, large of the many examples of natural magic and deep enough to swallow up all Engwith which photography has brought us land. acquainted.

What, then, may we not expect from It has long been a problem, the solution photography, with the advance of science? of which has been anxiously looked for, A few years since it was thought that whether we might hope to obtain pictures two or three salts of silver and of gold in all the beauty of natural color. This were the only bodies which underwent has not yet been quite successfully ac any remarkable change when exposed to complished; but the approaches toward it the action of the solar rays. are so favorable that we may hope, in a It is now proved that it is not possible few years, to find our photographic pictures to expose any body, whatsoever may be colored by the agent which now draws its character, to the action of sunshine them.

without its undergoing a chemical or a That the delicate and fading images of mechanical change. For example, take a the camera obscura should be permanently plate of glass, of metal, of stone, or a sursecured upon plates of metal and glass, face of leather, or resin,-in fact, any and on paper, was, at one time, beyond the organic or inorganic body,--and placing a dreams of science. We rejoice in the perforated screen above it, expose it for a reality, and nature herself paints for us the short time to solar influence; then treatportrait of a friend, or those scenes which ing the plate as we do the Daguerreotype, are endeared to us by the tenderest and -exposing it to the vapor of mercury, most refined associations.

we shall find a picture of the superposed We have now the means of obtaining screen most faithfully made out on the the most truthful representations of the surface; proving thus that it is impossible Pyramids and the tombs of Egypt. The to expose any substance to sunshine withAssyrian Excavation Society have reali out its undergoing a change; and that zations from the pencil of the sunbeam of constant sunshine would be destructive to all that remains of the great monarchies the permanence of matter, as now constiof the East. The traveler in Central tuted. It has, however, been found that America has secured, with his camera, Nature has a beautiful provision for restorpictures of the wonderful works of the ing the deranged conditions. During darkAztecs and the cotemporary races, of whom ness, by the action of some peculiar molewe know so little, but whose works re- cular forces, all bodies possess the power main to speak of a savage grandeur and an of restoring themselves to the state in advanced state of art, rivaling that which which they were previously to the destrucwe find in the palace of Sardanapalus and tive action of the sunshine ; and as night the temples of the early Pharaohs. The and repose are required to restore to the ethnologist rejoices in his collection of animal and vegetable economy the vital portraits from all parts of the world ; in forces which have become exhausted by his quiet home he is enabled, by the aid of the labors of the day, and the excitements photography, to study the physiognomies which depend upon light, so are night and of all the races on the face of the earth. darkness required to insure the perma

The natural philosopher uses the same nence of the inorganic masses of the art to register for him the variations of earth's surface. atmospheric pressure and of the earth's Can there be a more beautiful provision temperature ; more than this, the altera- than this? The laws by which the Etertions in the magnetic intensity of this ter- nal Creator works are indeed wonderful restrial globe are now faithfully registered and grand; the study of creation's mysteby photography. The microscopist makes ries induces a refinement of the mind, and the light draw for him the details of organ a holy tranquillity of spirit. No one can ization, which it would be impossible for arise from reading a page of Nature's the human hand to trace. The astrono- mighty volume without feeling himself mer places a sensitive tablet in his teles to be cope ; and not only does the sun draw his

" A wiser and a better man."

I in

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are brought into such close fellowship, we

may as well make acquaintance; and aš WAS sitting by my fireside, one even- there is no master of the ceremonies at

hand, and I, as I take it, am the elder, I light; but whether they were sleeping or will just introduce myself to you as a waking dreams in which I indulged, I branch of the Oak family—one of a very shall leave it to those who may read my ancient and distinguished tribe - only story to decide, without myself offering some twelve or fourteen generations reany opinion on the subject. A capital moved from the first of that noble family fire shone on the hearth, and lit up the who flourished in the days of Adam and walls of the antique library in which I sat, Eve, and of unbroken and untarnished flickering among the carved work of the descent—a true scion of an ancient stock. dark oak ceiling and wainscoting, and oc- And now, my young friend, allow me to casionally lighting up the lofty ancient

crave your name and history?" added Sir mantelpiece, which was decorated with Log, in a patronizing manner. the heraldic devices of the former owners A low murmuring sound, followed by a of the hall - men who had ages since considerable ebullition of smoke and flame, moldered in the tomb. The wide, old-i burst from the offended coal. Boy, infashioned grate contained an abundant deed! young friend !" and something very supply of fuel, part of it being filled with like “Upstart mushroom !” fell on my good Newcastle coal, throwing out plenty ear, though luckily it did not strike on the of fine rich fatty matter, from which is auricular cavities of the wood. sued at intervals, as from petty volcanoes, “I beg your pardon, sir," responded jets of gaseous smoke and flame; while Sir Log, with some warmth," I meant no in the arms of this mass of fire lay a huge offense; but really, as the senior, and oaken log, inwreathed in its own brilliant with my pedigree, I thought Perflames, emitting from time to time showers haps you are not aware that I am some of sparks, and as it were sportively darting four or five hundred years

old?” long tongues of serpent-like blue and am- Senior! pedigree !” broke in the fiery ber flame through every possible vent, old gentleman; “four or five hundred now withdrawing them for a moment, and years old! why, I am more likely four or then pouring forth a fresh volume with five hundred thousand years old ; and as renewed vigor and splendor.

to pedigree, I am Lord Carbonius, one of As I sat, enjoying the warmth, and old King Coul's family, as it were part dreamily watching these evolutions, I and parcel of himself.” began to trace a sort of understanding “O, indeed !" replied Sir Log, reverbetween the wood and the coal, as if they entially. “I have been used to the soci. were getting into a chat, and by degrees ety of kings and great men, and know to make out, or fancy that I made out, how to reverence them. I grew near a what they said to each other. How I royal residence myself, and often have came to understand the conversation, I the kings and queens of England stood cannot exactly explain ; but it is no more and sat under my spreading branches. wonderful that I should do so, than that some of the greatest men of their day the vizier in the eastern tale should be have given me their confidence, and held able to inform the sultan of the consulta- consultations under my shadow; and royal tions which were taking place among the armies have been mustered, ay, and broken birds. It may be supposed, if the reader up and defeated, in my sight." likes, that there is some affinity between “And I grew and flourished ages on me and a log of wood; and really I can- ages before that pigmy called mannot say but that it may be so- —all that I whether king or boor, prince or peasantcan do is, like a faithful chronicler, to was created, or had a name in the earth! narrate my tale, and leave others to draw Ages before his race was formed, I lived their own deductions from it. I will there in majestic grandeur, and formed part of fore tell what passed that evening, not at a stately pine, such as earth now knows my fireside, but in the very heart and not either in kind or size. Around me depths of my fire.

grew interminable forests of trees as “Well, my boy, how are you to-day?" splendid as myself, chiefly palms and crackled out the wood; " methinks, as we pines; while club - mosses, horse - tails,

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