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of lime into the Valley of Humility. darkness ahead. “It was only an echo." Thence through the winding way, or Fat “No; it was certainly a voice.” ReachMan's Misery, a long serpentine water- | ing the termination of our voyage, where worn passage, just wide enough for or- the river disappears through a low conduit, dinary “ humans,” but in which one of the we find that the voice was from a solitary Falstaff species would be miserable in- fisherman who had been pursuing his sport deed, and would, doubtless, wipe his brow, since early morning: for the waters of and heartily congratulate himself when he the cave are tenanted by two species of had wriggled himself through the pass fish as peculiar as their habitation—fish into Great Relief. We next reach in suc- without eyes—divine skill, economical in cession River Hall; Bacon Chamber, its all its workings, having denied them organs roof strangely worn into resemblance of which would here have been useless. scores of bacon hams hanging from it; Setting forward again with increasing the Dead Sea, a horrid gulf with a black curiosity, we proceed for a mile and a half pool at the bottom, that one shudders to through a wide avenue called Silliman's, look at; the River Styx, which is heard which has in general the appearance of a rushing along in a chasm below us to join dry river channel. Here lie what are Lake Lethe. We cross the river by a termed, after the nomenclature of classic natural bridge, which leads us to the mythology, the Infernal Regions, traversed shores of the lake, a pond of limpid water, by a shelving slippery path, where a single never once ruffled by a breeze. We are false step would plunge us into a dark paddled over it in a flat-bottomed boat, and chasm which is close alongside. Escaped land upon a smooth, sandy beach, at the from this place of evil name, the wild and entrance of the Great Walk. This is a rugged Pass of El Gau soon receives us. lofty and wide corridor, three hundred It may be two miles long and thirty to yards long, through which the river flows sixty feet in height, but so narrow that when its waters are high ; but we now our lamps can scarcely light the eye to the walk without obstruction over its sandy roof-a most strange dry river channel, bed. Apparently it has been altogether wholly water-worn, with galleries of proexcavated by running water, of which jecting ledges on either side, and at every part of its shelves and cavities bears various heights. The limestone at the the impress. It leads to Echo River. partings of the strata is worn into all kinds Upon its quiet and pellucid waters we of fantastic shapes and cavities, wide low embark. The lamps are ranged in the caverns and sharp shelves, their serrated bow of the boat, and Mat seats himself outlines and deep shadows giving the pass with his paddle in the stern. Silently she an air of gloomy grandeur, which we glides through an arch so low that we frequently linger to contemplate. must crouch in passing, but which im- The pass of El and seemingly mediately expands again into a wide ir- also our pilgrimage, terminates at Hebe's regular pass. So transparent is the water, Spring of sulphureous water.

But nothat although sometimes twenty feet in look up. A long ladder leads to an ugly depth, we can distinctly survey its bed, black hole which opens its jaws in the its every stone and crag, even to the roof. Through it lies the way to Clevebottom. While sitting in breathless ad- land's Cabinet, another spacious avenue miration, the guide, by a blow upon the two miles long. Its walls and roof are boat from his paddle, awakes the slum- almost wholly incrusted with white gypbering echo. It rolls around us, rever- sum, in every variety of form. The chefs berates along the vaults, and dies away in d'œuvres of the cabinet are Mary's Bower the gloom, like a peal of music uttered in and Charlotte's Grotto, where the gypsum thunder, sinking by soft cadence into on the roof has effloresced into the most primeval silence. Then the paddle is beautiful variety of vines, leaves, and timed to a negro melody, with an abrupt flowers, of formal likeness the most strikpause at the close of each verse. Hark ! ing, but all of spotless white. The roof The echo expires with such a perfect re- of Charlotte's Grotto might be compared semblance to a bass note from a strong to a parterre of flowers-bleached, petri. piano, that we may exclaim, surely there fied, and inverted—the beauteous work of is some other instrument than rock and a subtile artist. The whole avenue is quite water here. A voice hails us from the I dry, but cumbered with fallen rocks, which


make walking slow and difficult. But against the want of attention; so recrossing while “forward " is the word, the weak- Dismal Hollow, and taking our parting est feels no weakness here.

look of it from the Rocky Mountains, we The Rocky Mountains are a hill of select a convenient flag for our dining huge fallen rocks, which we climb on table, and Albert displays the contents of hands and feet, and from the summit look his basket, fowls, ham, and bread; good down into Dismal Hollow, a chaos vast, fare for a party of human moles. Bewhere our lamps' feeble rays are lost in thinking myself to write a letter from this .gloom. Let us descend and scatter with novel bivouac to a dear friend “får, far our lights around its verge. We have away ." in the world of sun and moonsurely penetrated to the regal hall of light, a stone is stuck into a fissure and “chaos and ancient night.” Well might my lamp hung upon it; the sole of The its vague sublimity lead the imagination Lady's Slipper forms an elegant writing of tourists astray, who have variously desk, and a blunt pencil bluntly records estimated its area at from two to eight my feelings. But now slaves and freeacres; but enough remains when I say men have dined, and the lady has nine that one acre seems to be nearer the truth. miles between her and rest, with abated There are heights and hollows, with novelty to sustain her homeward steps. “rocks upon rocks in dire confusion We examined some minor avenues of hurled.” The dismal ruin is spanned the cave as we returned, but left miles by a vault of Titanic masonry, terribly unvisited. The guides very properly pregrand; its rudely regular dome, curving serve the mineral curiosities of the bowers upward till lost in darkness, which, above and arbors from the hands of selfish tourand around us, throws its mantle of mystery rists; but abundance of beautiful speciover the somber grandeur of the scene. mens may be picked up in other nooks and

There are several avenues leading from crevices in Cleveland's Cabinet, where we Dismal Hollow. Following one of them spent some time in collecting them. Not a little way we come in sight of Sarina's the least beautiful forms which the gypsum Arbor in a nook beneath us, and a very

are those of long crystalline wet and incommodious bower she seems needles, and straight silk-like fibres. to have chosen, tenantable only by a mer- Large white spiders, plump and jovial, maid. The descent being precipitous and the alderınen of the race, inhabit the dry difficult, our Lexington friend sat himself fissures, and are the only indigenous ocdown at the top and resolved to rest con- cupants we saw besides the fish and bats. tent with what he had seen, while his There are, however, we were told, some more spirited lady determined to persevere. rats occasionally met with. Our way lay along a slanting slippery The estimated length of the cave, nine rock, with a black chasm at its verge. miles, is as near the truth as the guides But our cheerful and attentive guide, can judge by the time taken to traverse it. throwing himself back against the wall In that distance it is believed that we beyond, and bridging the cleft with his cross our own track more than once, but limbs, offered his not handsome but useful at various heights and depths, as we go pedestals as stepping stones across the from end to end, turning and twisting about, treacherous surface. By them we passed rising and descending through the most in safety and reached the arbor, which unexpected openings, and with the strangwell rewarded our curiosity. It is draped est tortuosities. Probably among the thouwith wavy sheets of brown stalactites, sands of unexamined nooks and holes appearing at a hasty glance like very thick other discoveries will be made, as some leather tapering downward to sharp edges, have been made lately. The proprietor and when struck, sounding like metallic forbids a survey and plan of the cave to plates in every note of the gamut. The be made—which would be very interesting water, ancient decorator, still trickles from but it is the opinion of the guides that the drapery, and, received into a basin, the whole lies beneath a surface embraced forms Medora's Spring. Let us have a in a circle three miles in diameter. draught of its limpid water, for we have Several points of minor interest solicit now attained the “benmost bore” of the our notice as we repass them, of which Mammoth Cave, nine miles from daylight. we may now find time to note the fol

Our stomachs now began to remonstrate lowing ; leaving many halls, avenues, and

line gypsum.

so forth, still unmentioned: - Diamond Let me seat myself on this stone, exGrotto, where alabaster varies her freaks tinguish my lamp, and allow my comby gemming the roofs with diamonds. panions to pass on. How unique the Mamre Ceiling and Snow-ball Room, scene as they appear and disappear among which she has ceiled with hailstones and the knolls, rocks, and hollows, their lights snow-balls of exquisite purity. Martha's chasing for a moment the shadows, now Vineyard, named from the stalactites in there, now yonder, streaming upward and the form of huge clusters of grapes with athwart with fitful gleam. The darkness which' it is hung. The Hanging Rocks, advances - our distance lengthens — and, which have caved in from above, and now the merry laugh no longer reaches remain suspended by their angles, a stony us; their voices sink to echoed murmurs, avalanche in threatening confusion. The the last footfall has died upon the ear, the Great Western Steamship, a rock-shelf last gleam has vanished from yon far-off jutting from an angle of Silliman's Avenue. crag, not even a drop of water reminds us Purgatory, a difficult byway to which the of motion. Hush! let breath and pulse guides resort when Echo River rises too be still. Darkness that may be felt. high to be freely navigated. Sidesaddle Silence as of non-existence. Self-conPit, sixty feet in depth, as plumb as any sciousness the most intense. Was ever miner could excavate it, and water-worn isolation so complete ? Life so distant to the smoothness of polished ashler. and yet so near.

We listen for the “still The Arched Way, a long, low, and narrow small voice” of the Eternal, and seem to passage, regularly arched as if by compass. hear a “whisper” of his presence. HapFloating Clouds, seemingly another start- py they who in such a moment feel that ling view of the sky. Napoleon's Dome, they are reconciled to him, and that he is which runs up into a cone to the height of their father and their friend. forty feet, crusted over with white crystal Ye who bow to the powerful attraction

The Register Room, the of the unknown in matter or spirit, how roof of which is the visitor's book, and has you would have triumphed to be the first its mammoth pages full of their names, that stood upon the brink of the Bottomwritten in candle smoke. A natural arm less Pit, and, bending, gazed with eager chair of stalagmite. Post-oak Pillar, a longing into the gloom beyond-resting column of the natural order, we will call not till you had passed the gulf, undaunted it, supporting the roof. The First Echo, by its black terrors — hastening onward a spot where a stamp of the foot on the into the world of old night to lift the vail floor sounds beneath us like a stroke on a from scenes unrevealed to any eye but huge bass drum, showing that we are upon their Creator's — scarcely heeding the the roof of a lower vault, and possibly wants of nature till you had gazed upon raising unpleasant doubts as to the safety cach glassy lake, drunk from each pelof our floor. This phenomenon is fre- lucid spring, sailed upon each silent quently observed.

river, listened with wondering delight to Proceeding ahead of our party, and its musical echoes, peered into each black keeping beyond eye and ear shot of them, chasm, traversed each dusky avenue and as we wander on in silence, the darkness murky hall, rejoiced over those flowers receding from and following the small of stone, stood awe-struck beneath the circle of our lamp, we realize the sensa- vault of Dismal Hollow, penetrated to the tions of loneliness and awe that can only utmost bourn of this wondrous subterrene, be felt in such a place. But this is an and sighed that there was not such another amusement that must be cautiously in- to explore. dulged ; a wrong turn may separate us But it is time to welcome back the light. from the guide, or our reveries may be We strike, therefore, our lucifer match rudely disturbed by a step into one of the and overtake our companions, who have numerous clefts and chasms that lie in the waited for us at a turn where the seeming way. Following our party at a short exit is by a wide and inviting avenue, but distance is the best way to view the cave, the real one by an insignificant cleft which as we have thus the benefit of all the lights might have been blundered past unnoticed. before us, and form a better idea of its We have been altogether no less than heights, widths, and rugged grandeur, than eleven hours underground, and our exthose in front can have.

cursion draws to a close. Day again


appears before us at the extremity of the mark its prevalence in Further India durdark vista, in its mild radiance, more ing his missions in 1821 and 1826. He beautiful and grateful than ever.

“ Hail,

says : The practice of smoking obtains holy light, offspring of heaven, first-born!" | universally among the Burmans of all The fanning breeze again salutes us, the ranks, of both sexes, and of almost all fresh verdue, the waving boughs, the ages; for I have seen children scarcely music of the woods, their flowers and three years old who seemed quite famifragrance. Ah, poor consumptives, ye liar with it." And again : “Among the made a sad change!

Siamese the use of tobacco has become

universal ; they chew it in moderate quanTHE MOST POPULAR PLANT IN THE tities, but smoke it perpetually. A SiamWORLD.

ese is seldom to be seen without a cigar

in his mouth, or stuck behind his ear ready TOME of our readers may not be pre- for use.” Mr. Crawford adds: “ As a mat

pared for the fact, that tobacco, though ter of curiosity, I shall attempt to estimate not food either for man or beast, is the the total annual production of tobacco— most extensively used of all vegetable pro a plant, the consumption of which three ductions, and, next to salt, the most gen- hundred and sixty years ago was confined erally consumed of all productions what to the scanty population of the continent ever-animal, vegetable, or mineral—on of America, and which was unquestionably the face of the globe. In one form or unknown in every age to the people of other, but most commonly in that of fume the Old World. If the population of the or smoke, it is partaken of “ by saint, by earth be taken at one thousand millions, savage, and by sage :" there is no climate, and the consumption reckoned as equal from the equator to the pole, in which it to that of the kingdom of Denmark, or is not used; there is no nation that has seventy ounces a head, the produce of the declined adopting it. Europeans-except whole world will amount to near two milin the extreme East—are allowed to be lions of tons (1,953,125) a year. Seventy the most moderate consumers, in conse ounces a head, of course, far exceeds the quence of its being with them generally average conşumption of Europe, in most an article of import and of heavy taxa- of the countries of which tobacco, as betion; while their form of civilization agrees fore stated, is heavily taxed. It is certain, to refuse the luxury to the gentler sex. however, on the other hand, that it falls The official returns prove that the con far short of the consumption of Asia, consumption is on an average 16.86 ounces, taining the majority of mankind, where or considerably more than a pound weight, women and children smoke as well as to every man, woman, and child through- men, and where the article is moreover out the United Kingdom of Great Britain untaxed.” The value of the quantity thus and Ireland. Moreover, this consumption reckoned, at twopence a pound, amounts is greatly on the increase. Between the to above £36,000,000 sterling. One cause, years 1821 and 1831 the increase was at

no doubt, of the rapid diffusion of this the rate of about one ounce per head ; luxury is found in the wide geographical during the next ten years, it was some- bounds within which it can be raised. It what less than an ounce; but from 1841 is grown without difficulty from the equato 1851 it was three ounces ; making an tor to the 50th degree of latitude, the finest increase of nearly forty-four per cent. in qualities preferring the region between the proportion to the population within the last 15th and the 35th. thirty years. In Denmark, exclusive of

It is now generally admitted, that all the duchies, the average consumption in the species-about forty in number—are 1851 was nearly seventy ounces per head. natives of America, and that it was utBut this is nothing to what is used in terly unknown to the Old World before warm countries, where tobacco is grown the time of Columbus, who found it in with facility, and free from taxation. Mr.

use among the inhabitants of Cuba and Crawford, to whom we are indebted for St. Domingo, as Cortes did among the most of these facts,* had occasion to re- Mexicans. Either of these individuals

may have introduced it into Spain ; but • Paper on the History and Consumption of Tobacco, in the Journal of the Statistical Society, there is no record of the exact time when England, for March, 1853.

it first became known there. In 1560,

Jean Nicot, an agent of the king of France, So irritating is the vapor of this subprocured some seeds at Lisbon, transmit- stance, that it is difficult to breathe in a ted them to his own country, and obtained room where one drop of it has been evapthe honor of giving the plant the generic orated. Well : as a hundred poundweights name, Nicotiana, by which it is known to of dry tobacco yield about seven pounds science. It is believed that its first intro- of nicotin, it follows that in smoking a dud to England was by Sir Walter hundred grains, or about a quarter of an Raleigh in 1586—that is, not till nearly a ounce of tobacco, there may be imbibed century after the discovery of the New two grains or more of this nicotin, one of World. It was received with the highest the most subtile of all known poisons. enthusiasm ; and the practice of smoking The empyreumatic oil has similarly acrid, increased and prevailed so rapidly, that narcotic, and poisonous qualities. One in the short period of thirty years from drop of it applied to the tongue of a cat its first introduction, Englishmen had, it brought on convulsions, and death followwould seem, become the greatest smokers ed in two minutes. The Hottentots are in Christendom. So we gather from the said to destroy snakes in this way : they celebrated Counterblast, written by no put a drop of this oil on the tongue of less a personage than King James, and the reptile, and it dies as instantaneously published among his other works in 1616. as if struck by the electric fluid.

The royal expostulation, as it would Mr. Johnston proceeds to show, that seem, prevailed little against the fascina- the cigar, especially if smoked to the end, tions of tobacco-smoke: the consumption discharges into the mouth everything that in England continued to increase ; the is produced by the combustion ; that the very colony which the king himself coun- more rapidly the leaf burns and the smoke tenanced in Virginia became the chief is inhaled, the greater is the quantity of source of supply; nay, the noxious herb poisonous matter imbibed ; and that, finalwas raised in England with some success, ly, when the saliva is retained, the nervin spite of the direct prohibitions of this ous system of the smoker receives the monarch and his successor, Charles I. It fullest effect of all the three narcotic inneeded the strong arm of Cromwell wholly gredients of the smoke. It is thus -acand effectually to suppress the cultivation, counted for that the short cutty has come since which it has been entirely an ob- into favor among inveterate smokers; any ject of foreign commerce—a source of other pipe would be tame and tasteless considerable revenue to the government, after a strong cigar. from the heavy duty, and the great staple The chewer of tobacco, it is shown, of contraband trade for the same reason. escapes the action of the poisonous oil

Those who, in our days, are viewing which is produced in the combustion of with alarm the progress it is making in the leaf; and the drug of the snuffer is public favor, have felt obliged to adopt a still milder than that of the chewer. A different strain, addressing themselves to large proportion of the nicotin escapes, or our reason by the scientific demonstra- is decomposed, in the fermentation to tion of its noxious tendencies. Professor which the tobacco is twice exposed in Johnston, for instance, in his Chemistry making snuff, and the drying or roasting of Common Life, has furnished an analysis carries off an additional portion, and also of its constituent parts. These, he says, some of the natural volatile oil; so that are three in number-a volatile oil, a vo- even the rapees, which are generally made latile alkali, and an empyreumatic oil. from the strongest leaf, containing five or The volatile oil has the smell of tobacco, six per cent. of nicotin, retain only two and a bitter taste, producing on the mouth per cent. when the manufacture is comand throat a sensation similar to that which plete. arises from the smoke. Applied to the Professor Lizars, of Edinburgh, has nostrils, it provokes sneezing ; and taken followed up these scientific expositions by inwardly, gives rise to giddiness and sick- some practical observations. He proves,

The volatile alkali has, besides the by indisputable facts, some of which have smell, an acrid, burning, and long persis- come under his own notice, that excessive tent tobacco taste, and is narcotic; and as smoking produces the most direful consea poison, scarcely inferior to prussic acid, quences, both locally and constitutionally: a single drop being sufficient to kill a dog. I locally, by occasioning cancerous ulcera


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