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the series has a flowing beard and a miter country to the north and to the east, over ed cap, like a son of Levi.

which the scourge from the great city of The kingdom of Judah survived that Nineveh swept, must have been reduced of Israel more than one hundred and

to a state of great confusion and distress. twenty years. Soon after the exploits Accordingly, we hear Isaiah-most likely of Shalmaneser, the ambitious Sennache- in reference to the embassadors whom rib invaded Judea, in prosecution of his Hezekiah had sent to Sennacherib-explans against Egypt. The siege of La- claiming, “ Behold, their valiant ones shall chish, and the wonderful judgment which cry without ; the embassadors of peace befell the great king of Assyria-as illus- shall weep bitterly. The highways lie trated by the monuments of Nineveh-waste ; the wayfaring man ceaseth." So have already been noticed. The proud is it still in the east. " The tribes," says warrior did not take Jerusalem, as he Layard, “ who had been attacked and himself confesses; but the sacred histo- plundered, were retaliating upon caravans rian, in the eighteenth chapter of the and travelers, or laying waste the cultisecond Book of Kings, states that he vated parts of the pashalic. The villages came up against all the fenced cities of

were deserted, and the roads were little Judah-those round about Jerusalem- frequented, and very insecure.” A time and took them. This is in agreement of great sorrow and perturbation was that, with his own account, as preserved in the when the camp of Sennacherib stood not inscriptions at Kouyunjik ; only that there afar off from Jerusalem. While there was he speaks of having led the people away peril without, there was corresponding captive-a circumstance very probable in confusion within. The Book of Isaiah itself. “ And because Hezekiah" throws light on the internal politics and Rawlinson reads the inscription—“still social agitations of the city at this mourncontinued to refuse to pay me homage, I ful period. We there learn, that at the attacked and carried off the whole popu- time when the faithful Eliakim and a milation, fixed and nomad, which dwelt nority were exhorting the people to trust around Jerusalem, with thirty talents of in God, their true king, Shebna and a gold and eight hundred talents of silver, majority were counseling submission to the accumulated wealth of the nobles of Sennacherib; thus engendering a spirit Hezekiah's court, and of their daughters, of faction during a national emergency, with the officers of his palace, men slaves when concert and unanimity were of the and women slaves.” Perhaps this may highest possible importance. be a very exaggerated account of the

We

may here just add, in passing, that number of the captives, but it may be in the Book of Isaiah we read much of received so far as it points to the fact of Babylon, but nothing of Nineveh-a cira captivity effected by Sennacherib from cumstance which has considerably peramong the people around Jerusalem. Pos- plexed commentators. But “ the king of sibly hostages also might have been given Babylon,” and “the king of Assyria," by Hezekiah for the payment of tribute. are used as convertible titles; and it is Not only at this period, if we are to be- remarkable that Sargon, in the inscription lieve the Kouyunjik inscription, were some of Nimroud, describes himself as king of of the people of Judea taken captive to As- Assyria and lord of Babylon. Here the syria, but we are certain from the divine remains lately discovered serve—as in records that many were carried into exile many other cases—to clear up a difficulty ; by the Syrians, the Edomites, and the and, moreover, it may be observed, that Philistines, and were even sold as slaves. as Babylon was one of the cities from This went on in the reign of Ahaz, so that which inhabitants were supplied for the when Hezekiah succeeded to the crown, depopulated towns of Israel, and to which, he poured out his lamentations, saying : in turn, some of the Israelites were taken “ Lo! our fathers have fallen by the sword, to occupy their place, there was a special and our sons and our daughters and our reason for speaking to Jews of that sister wives are in captivity for this."

capital, even to the neglect of Nineveh, Though Jerusalem escaped the fury of with which, at present, the people of the oppressor, there must have been many Palestine had not been brought much in parts of Judea laid waste by the march contact. of the imperious invader. eed, the Manasseh, who succeeded Hezekiah,

was carried captive into Babylon in 675, nificence were erected; her victorious twenty-two years after his father's death. armies conquered Syria and Palestine, This was a chastisement from the Al- and penetrated into Egypt. Her commighty for the flagrant iniquities of which merce, too, spread far and wide from the he was guilty ; but during his exile his east to the west, and she became a land heart was softened, and he returned to his of traffic and a city of merchants. own dominions an altered man. This cir- The kingdom of Judah was brought to cumstance, however, though it is proper an end by Nebuchadnezzar. There were to be mentioned here, must not be reck- three deportations of captives effected by oned among the deportations of the Jewish him and his army. The first was in 605 tribes, as it does not appear that any num- B. C., just after the overthrow of Nineber of the people accompanied him into veh, and when Babylon was beginning to his exile.

rise into its brightest glory. Amid the Forty-five years after this event, Judea shifting alliances of Jerusalem, in which was again assailed by its old eastern ene- she appeared in a position of abject demies; but a great change had taken place pendence—for she had lost the spirit of in their condition by that time. In 606 courage because she had lost her reliance B. C. Nineveh fell, and the Assyrian upon God-Jehoiakim and his court just supremacy was transferred to Babylon. then, in a moment of revolt against AssyFrom that city came Nebuchadnezzar to ria, were leaning upon the broken reed besiege and take Jerusalem. He had re- of Egypt. Soldiers from Chaldea, from built his capital, though not, perhaps, on Syria, and from Moab, came into Judea the old site ; and the ruins of that mag- under the banners of the mighty oriental nificent center of ancient civilization—so prince, and ravaged the country and chasvery different, as yet explored, from those tised Jehoiakin, who, however, was left of Nineveh-have been recently visited upon his throne a humbled vassal of the by Mr. Layard. Enough exists to iden- | Assyrian crown. The sons of some of tify the spot where once stood this wonder the most distinguished families in the of the world, in its power and pride. city were among the captives led away There is an isolated mass of masonry, on this occasion, and they were intended, described by that enterprising traveler, most likely, to serve as hostages for the which he considers to be a portion of future submission of the conquered state. some magnificent terrace connected with It was at this time, probably, that Daniel those famous hanging gardens which we and his three companions were removed have at times been ready to banish from from the land of their fathers, to be placed belief, and consign to the region of oriental in positions, and to undergo trials, in the fables. Nor are testimonies wanting, in scene of their exile, which have rendered the remains brought to light, to prove that them, to all subsequent ages, illustrious Nebuchadnezzar was the builder of the and animating examples of faith and virnew city, as represented in the Book of tue. According to the account we have Daniel. The Babylonian inscribed bricks in our copies of the Book of Jeremiah, long excited the curiosity of the learned, three thousand and twenty-three Jews and gave rise to a variety of ingenious were taken to Babylon in this first capspeculations as to their use and meaning. tivity. By some, they were believed to be public The second deportation was in the documents; others saw in the writings, reign of Jehoiachin, seven years afterdedications to the gods, or registers of ward, B. C. 598. The immediate politigifts to temples. The question has now cal cause of this calamity is not apparent; been entirely set at rest by Dr. Hincks, that the moral cause, however, is plainly stated. almost every brick hitherto obtained from The king “did that which was evil in the ruins bears the same inscription, with the sight of the Lord.” Nebuchadnezzar the exception of one or two unimportant came against the city and besieged it; words, and that they record the building and what a stroke of pathos there is in of the city by Nebuchadnezzar. The the record of the second Book of Kings, city succeeded to the position occupied xxiv, 12, in connection with this assault by Nineveh, and soon almost equaled her on the city of Jerusalem : “ And Jehoiaold rival. The bounds were extended; chin the king of Judah went out to the buildings of extraordinary size and mag- | king of Babylon, he, and his mother, and

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his servants, and his princes, and his offi- companied their brethren; perhaps specers." The historian thus makes the cially included by Nebuchadnezzar, with melancholy train pass before us, in which an eye to the progress of the works going we specially single out for pity the vener on in his new city. Zedekiah, the uncle able old Jewess, weeping over her son of Jehoiachin, was placed on the throne decrowned and doomed to exile. We by the conqueror, to serve him, of course, fancy it is some alleviation to her that she as his liege Jord. But he rebelled—enis to accompany him. Warriors too, in couraged to do so by the king of Egypt. large numbers, (there were seven thousand This was in the year 588. Nebuchadnezof them,) according to the Book of Chroni- zar, accordingly, again marched against cles, swelled the procession of captives; Jerusalem and besieged it. An Egyptian craftsmen and smiths also, on the same army came to its succor. These allies, authority, amounting to a thousand, ac- however, were repelled by the hosts of

Babylon, who, immediately after chastis- Lord, and the king's house, and all the ing them, returned to the siege.

houses of Jerusalem, and every great In connection with this fresh calamity, man's house burnt he with fire; and the we have graphic details in the biblical an- army brake down the walls." All who nals. The city was besieged unto the remained of any account, after these saneleventh yea of king Zedekiah. And on guinary measures, were carried off by the the ninth day of the fourth month the conquerors; and only a few poor vinefamine prevailed in the city, and there dressers and husbandmen were left scatwas no bread for the people of the land. tered over the land, to sit and mourn over And the city was broken up, and all the the desolations, and to gather a scanty men of war fled by night by the way of subsistence from the fields and vineyards the gate between two walls, which is by which war had spared. Such was the the king's garden: (now the Chaldees were third grand deportation, signalized, too, against the city round about :) and the by the abundance of spoil which was conking went the way toward the plain. And veyed to Babylon ; for it was on this the army of the Chaldees pursued after occasion that the golden vessels of the the king, and overtook him in the plains temple, and the pillars and ornaments of of Jericho : and all his army were scat- brass, and even the great brazen laver ittered from him. So they took the king, self, were piled up and carried off. and brought him up to the king of Baby- As to the siege of Jerusalem, we may lon to Riblah.” What a series of stirring gather illustrations of it from Ninevitish pictures pass before us as we ponder these sculptures, Babylonish coins, and Egyptfew strong graphic words! Famine in the ian monuments, in which we have abundcity-no bread-men, women, and child antly represented the common oriental dren pinched with hunger—their counte- methods of fortification and modes of atnances thin and pallid, and their bodies tack prevalent in those days. We see wasting away with disease and want. battlemented walls and towers, with paraAnxious inquiries are heard in the streets : pets, crowded with men, bow and spear "How long will the siege last ?" while and shield in hand, while a banner crowns despair, and tears, and death lurk within the lofty keep. We have barred gates doors. The child is breathing its last in and fosses both without and within the its mother's bony arms, or she is lifeless walls, filled with water and crossed by with her little one on her cold breast. bridges. Then we notice the assailants Then there is the hurried night escape ; placing their scaling ladders against the the old gate ; the walls by the king's gar- fortifications, and some swimming over den ; palace-like houses ; trees mapped the ditch, to be met by a party sallying in shadow under the bright stars ; and from the gates. The besiegers are prothe monarch and his men creeping stealth- vided with large shields to ward off the ily along, and going round to avoid being missiles shot from the walls. • There are seen by the sentinels of the Assyrian camp. also testudos—large frames to cover and And then we have the surprise, perhaps protect the advancing soldiers. Battering in the morning, the fugitives pursued, and, rams are also employed. Men may be fleeing ffom the face of the brave soldiers seen climbing up rocks by the aid of metal of Babylon, hiding in clefts of the rocks spikes ; doors are being hewn down with and concealing themselves among trees on axes; while heralds are seen coming out the Mount of Olives ; the poor miserable to treat with the enemy. The brief notice monarch in the mean time captured and in the Bible of the fall of Jerusalem, undragged in chains to Riblah, to receive der the army of Nebuchadnezzar, when opon his neck the foot of his enraged read in the light of these curious military master. And then, to finish the military antiquities, suggests to us some such picdrama, his eyes are put out, and his sons ture of engineering tactics, of strife and are slain. We think, involuntarily, while violence, of battle and death, as must reall this is going on, of one holy man with ally have constituted the scene of misery in the walls, who weeps day and night for and desolation at that awful period in the slain of the daughter of his people. Jewish history. In our next we shall The destruction of the temple and city notice the location and condition of the speedily followed. Nebuzar-adan, the Bab- captives. ylonish general, “ burnt the house of the

(To be continued.)

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A

MONG the many public buildings | located at the extremity of the western

testifying to the greatness and bene- wing. It is in contemplation to erect a volence of the city of New York, there is separate building adjacent to the main one, none to which she can point with a juster to be devoted especially to these objects. pride than to her Lunatic Asylum on The substitution lately effected of hired Blackwell's Island, a representation of and responsible persons, instead of prisonwhich is given above.

ers transferred from the penitentiary and This noble edifice, commenced in 1835, workhouse, to do the necessary in and out was completed in July, 1839, at a cost of door labor of the institution, and to attend about half a million of dollars. The to the patients, as had previously been the material is of the common blue building system, is one, the good effects of which stone taken from the quarries of the are already strongly marked in the better island. The plan, as may be seen abon order, better care, and higher moral tone is that of a main octagonal building, eighty that now obtain throughout the institution. feet in diameter, with two wings two At the distance of about one hundred and hundred and forty-five feet each in length fifty feet from the main building stands running from it at right angles westerly “the Lodge,” a building fifty-nine by and southerly. The height of the octagon ninety feet, with a veranda on either side and cupola is seventy-two feet, and that of ten by eighty-seven feet, inclosed by of the wings forty-three feet—the latter glass. In this building are placed all are occupied by lunatics, the former mostly patients of a noisy, violent, or unmanageby the officers of the institution.

able character, who, as they improve, are In each wing upon each of the three transferred to the different halls in the floors is a corridor, ten feet wide, running main building, regard being had to a proper the entire length of the wing, opening into classification. which, on either side, are the rooms for The asylum, a branch of the alms-house the patients, bathing, dining-rooms, &c. department, under the control of the “ten Croton water is distributed to all parts of governors," has been for the last nine the building, being carried from the main years under the immediate medical supershore by means of a gutta percha pipe laid intendence of Dr. M. H. Ranney, who is in the bed of the river. The heating, aided in his duties by two assistant-phywashing, and culinary arrangements are sicians, Drs. Lansing and Smith. About

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