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ligion, and true to ourselves, yet nature instrument maker in London down to the appears to consider us only as the objects period when he withdrew from business of public vengeance.” Their hard fate into the dignified ease and retirement of might well impress them with even that private life, that, in the circle of those disheartening conviction ; yet it was not whom he loved, he might enjoy that socia? nature's doing, but “ man's inhumanity to intercourse in which he so truly delighted. man,” which in so many other instances To the last he preserved not only the “ has made countless thousands mourn." full command of his extraordinary intelTheirs, truly, is as sad a story as it can lect, but all the alacrity of spirit and the readily fall to one's lot to read ; and, as social gayety which had illuminated his such, it cannot fail to excite interest and happiest days. It has been said, that he sympathy in all who can feel compassion had in his character the utmost abhorfor the desolate and oppressed.

rence for all sorts of forwardness, parade, By these deeds of violence, the French and pretension ; that there was nothing were extirpated from Acadia. Only a few of effort or impatience, any more than in obscure nooks escaped ; and the de- of pride or levity, in his demeanor ; and scendants of these till the present day that in the manners of no man could there retain the language, the manners, and the have been a finer expression of reposing religion of their forefathers—a curiosity strength and of mild self-possession. We in the present social system of Nova Sco can easily conceive, therefore, with what tia. Such is the historical basis of Long- emotions Sir Walter Scott looked upon fellow's sweet poem of Evangeline, and “the man whose genius discovered the one of the most affecting pages in Amer- means of multiplying our national reican annals.

sources to a degree, perhaps, even beyond

his own stupendous powers of calculation WATT AND THE STEAM-ENGINE.

and combination ; bringing the treasures

of the abyss to the summit of the earthNHE name of Watt is inseparably as- giving to the feeble arm of man the mo

sociated with the application of steam mentum of an Afrite—commanding manuto the highest and most practical ends. factures to arise-affording means of disThough his parents were in a position to pensing with that time and tide which give him a comparatively liberal educa- wait for no man—and of sailing without tion, his delicate constitution interposed a that wind which defied the commands and serious obstacle to his progress.

His threats of Xerxes himself. This potent attendance at school was very irregular, commander of the elements—this abridger and sometimes he was absent for several of time and space--this magician, whose successive months. But what he lost in cloudy inachinery has produced a change the class, he more than made up in the in the world, the effects of which, extrachamber. His mind was intensely active, ordinary as they are, are perhaps only beand his habits of inquisitiveness opened ginning to be felt—was not only the most to him the stores of knowledge; nor could profound man of science, the most successhe turn away from any subject of inquiry ful combiner of powers and calculator of till he had completely mastered it. He numbers, as adapted to practical purposes needed only to be prompted, and to him - was not only one of the most generally everything became the beginning of a new well-informed, but he was also one of the and devoted study. Mathematics and me kindest of human beings.”

In his eightychanics were his favorite pursuits; nor first year, the alert, kind, benevolent old was his father backward in providing him man-surrounded by a little band of northwith the necessary means for the prose ern literati—“ had his attention at every cution of those little experiments in which one's question, his information at every in early life he was engaged. Such was one's command. His talents and fancy his application to study, that he speedily overflowed on every subject. One gentlemade himself acquainted with every branch was a deep philologist; he talked and department of science.

with him on the origin of the alphabet, It would be both interesting and in as if he had been coëval with Cadmus; structive to sketch the life of this illus- another a celebrated critic—you would trious man from the time that he was have said that the old man had studied engaged to a mathematical and nautical political economy and belles-lettres all his


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life. Of science it is unnecessary to speak; | theme which challenges the highest efforts it was his own distinguished walk." From of eloquence, and which no force of elohis wide and varied attainments he was quence can fully express. fitted to move in any circle ; and there There is scarcely a boy that occupies was no circle in which he was not received a form in one of our common public as one of the higher types of our human schools that is not familiar with the ity. Literary honors and distinctions were steam-engine ; but how few have reflected conferred upon him in profusion. Shortly on the magnitude and the effects of its before his death, he was elected a member motive power? The expansive force of of the National Institute of France; and steam, in raising water or any other liin quitting the world, he left behind him a quid body, by pressure, above its natural reputation as unlimited as the domain of height, was known even before the Chrisscience or the empire of civilization. tian era. And though in France some

But it is not so much with the char- few efforts were made to use steam for acter of the man that we have to do, as mechanical purposes; though about the with his inventions ; nor so much with the middle of the seventeenth century the details of those inventions, as with their Marquis of Worcester constructed his application and practical working. His semi-omnipotent engine, by which one discoveries may be full of interest, as the volume of water rarefied by fire could mere fruits of genius ; but when we think drive up forty volumes of water; though of their influence on civilization, and sci- thirty years afterward Savary exhibited ence, and social happiness, we have a to the Royal Society his model of an en

gine for draining mines, and raising water nication between the condenser and the to unusual heights; though Papin, the upper part of the cylinder is then cut off, French engineer, improved upon Savary, and another opened with the lower part, by making the steam act through the cy- whereby another series of changes occur, linder and the piston ; and though the the steam driving the piston upward and ideas of both these men gave birth, in the downward alternately. To the piston is mind of Newcomen, to a machine in which attached a metallic rod, which shares the there was a distinct vessel for the gene- reciprocating motion given to the piston, ration of the steam, and which was in- and hence any machinery attached to the tended to raise water from greater depths, remote end of the piston-rod is thus moved it was not till the steam-engine came into to and fro through an equal space with the hands of Watt, that it took on that great rapidity. mighty and all but perfect form which But let us turn to the motive power of resulted from his manifold improvements. this machine. In the arts it takes the

It is well known that water is converted lead of all other inventions. And if we into steam by the action of heat; and that a think of the economy in time, and labor, cubic inch of water, weighing rather more and cost which it insures, its merits are than two hundred and fifty grains, may be literally unspeakable. It is ascertained turned into an equal weight of steam; that the steam power at present employed while, in the act of transformation, it in England is equal to the labor of eight absorbs so much heat as to increase more millions of men, or one million six hunthan seventeen hundred times in bulk. In dred horse power. And if it be true that other words, a cubic inch of water may, a horse requires eight times the quantity at the boiling point, be converted into a of soil for producing food that a human cubic foot of steam, and it is this differ- being does, it follows that the food reence of bulk which gives us the true idea quired for one million six hundred thouof the power of the steam-engine. And sand horses would be equal to the food yet this expansion of the liquid body would necessary for twelve millions eight hunbe of little service, unless there were cor

dred thousand men. responding means of effecting a subsequent The draining machine of Newcomen. reduction of the steam. This reaction is which was sent to Watt in 1763 for some produced by cold, which robs the steam of repairs, he found to be a clumsy, noisy, so much of its latent heat as to render it inefficient apparatus ; and in twenty years incapable of maintaining the vaporous form, he had made and patented all those imand so reduces it again to water. But the provements which rendered his engine fit steam once formed is, in Watt's engine, for those various and wondrous applicacarried along a pipe into the cylinder, and tions to which it is now devoted. But for passes through a valve so contrived as to these improvements, Britain could never regulate the quantity of steam admitted, have produced those manufactures which according to the amount of power required. challenge the competition of the world, The cylinder is inclosed on all sides, hav- and find a market on the most distant ing an internal piston, wholly shielded shores. If human labor, or even horsefrom the external air. The downward | power, were employed instead of mapressure of the air is lost, but, in lieu of chinery, the manufactures could not be it, steam is admitted above the piston as produced at so cheap a rate; or if the well as below. The cylinder is preserved mechanism were less perfect, the article constantly warm, and the condensation of would be inferior in quality and in texture. the steam is effected in a separate cylin “ The rapid growth and prodigious magder, kept in a cistern of cold water. Sup- nitude of the cotton manufacture of Great posing that steam admitted above the pis- Britain are beyond all question the most ton presses it down, a valve is then opened, extraordinary phenomena in the history by which the steam is conducted to the of industry. When she undertook the condenser and instantly cooled, whereby cotton manufacture, she had comparatively a vacuum is formed above the piston. few facilities for its prosecution, and had Meanwhile steam is being admitted below to struggle with the greatest difficulties." the piston, and as the latter has now a But discovery and mechanical genius vacuum above it, it is forced upward by came to her relief. And though little the pressure from beneath. The commu more than half a century has elapsed since

the British cotton manufacture was in its movement to the ponderous stone of a infancy, it now forms the principal busi- flour-mill. It may be true that in its ness carried on in that country.

applications to mills and factories, steam As might have been expected, New- is more expensive than water-power; but comen's engines, which were used in all this is more than compensated by the ease the mining districts, were soon supplanted | and steadiness with which it is worked, by those of Watt; and, to say nothing of as well as by its being independent of the efficient operation of the one in con- situation or season, of time or place. trast with the other, such was the saving There is no evidence that the idea of a effected in time and labor, that the pro- rail ever entered the mind of Watt, in prietors of the single mine of Chasewater, connection with his locomotive engine. in the county of Cornwall, offered to pay That it might be employed on the com$12,500 per annum to Watt and his part mon highway was as far as his thoughts ner for the use of each engine. This was reached. But what are now the achieveequal to one-third of the value of the coal ments of railway transit! Now we can saved by the new apparatus ; from which cross the Atlantic, and force our passage it would appear that hitherto no less a to the most distant shores of the globe by sum than $37,500 had been expended steam. Nor can steam navigation be said yearly in waste fuel.

to have yet reached its perfection. Its It was now the object of Watt to ren future development may throw its present der his machine applicable to general pur- triumphs into the shade, and be pregnant poses. He not only succeeded in making with results which no human reason can the engine move in a straight line instead calculate or determine. At the beginning of a curve; not only procured a double of the present century it was the labor of action by the alternate admission and two men to throw off about two thousand condensation of steam above and below sheets a day from the printing press ; and the cylinder, and so gave a twofold power now, by the application of steam, we can for the same size of cylinder ; but he con insure more than double the number in a ceived that one-third of the steam might single hour. be shut off from the boiler before the But space fails us to enumerate and stroke of the piston, whether upward or describe the various applications of this downward, was completed ; since the ex wondrous motive power. What M. Arago pansive force of the two-thirds which were predicted in his address on the claims and admitted would be sufficient to perfect merits of Watt, to the members of the the rise or fall of the piston. Though Royal Academy of Sciences in France, Watt did not carry out this idea, it has has all been fulfilled. In the short period since been effected ; and, marvelous to of a few weeks he has penetrated as far say, there are machines in Cornwall, Eng. into the bowels of the earth as before his land, which are worked on this principle time would have required a hundred years of expansion, and by which a bushel of of painful labor ; he has there opened up coals is made to perform the labor of spacious mines, and in a few minutes twenty men working for ten successive cleared them of immense volumes of wahours, which is equivalent to performing ter; has brought up to light those bounda man's daily work at the cost of a single less stores of mineral wealth which till cent. If Watt left this improvement to then lay concealed in the virgin earth ; be carried out by others, his genius pro- has twisted those immense folds of giganvided an apparatus, which he named the tic cable by which the ship of the line governor, by which to regulate the quan- embraces in safety her anchor in the midst tity of steam admitted from the boiler to of the tumultuous waves; has with this the cylinder; and it is this regulator, and power united a delicacy which weaves a skillful employment of fly-wheels, which the microscopic filaments of the delicate constitute the true secret of the astonish- muslins and aërial lace; has brought ing perfection of the manufactures of our swamps into culture, and rescued fertile epoch. It is this which confers on the countries from the most deadly miasm ; steam-engine a working movement which has converted villages into towns, covered is wholly free from irregularity, and by the country with elegant mansions; and which it can weave the most delicate advanced towns to large, beautiful, and fabrics as well as communicate a rapid / wealthy cities.

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(INEVEH, to a great extent, was long that book has perished. The main au

hidden from the world. The inquisi- thorities, then, for what was until of late tive, the learned, the enterprising, sought known on the subject before us, were for a true history of it in vain. No one Berosus and Ctesias. The former was a had a clear sight of Nineveh-no one saw Babylonian, living at Athens in the time exactly what it had been in its meridian of Alexander the Great; and being a priest glory—until, through the researches of of Belus, he possessed a large amount of Botta, Layard, and others, an opening was Chaldean lore. He wrote a history of made in the gathered darkness of ages, the Chaldees, of which, unfortunately, we and the Assyrian city was palpably dis- have only a few fragments; in these, closed before the eyes of the astonished however, are found some scanty notices world. Here, in these unparalleled ex. relating to the condition of the Assyrian plorations, come out to view fragments of power and people. The second ancient its architecture and sculptures; there, are author was Ctesias, perhaps a cotemporevealed glimpses of its social, political, rary of Herodotus, who flourished in the warlike, and even domestic life; while fourth century before Christ. He is called, yonder, the very records of its history are by Strabo, the historian of Assyria and being unrolled, and we are actually begin- Persia. He wrote a large work, of which ning to read portions of its annals. the first six books were devoted to the

It is our purpose in this paper to tell, in former subject. The work in its entirebrief, the story of Nineveh, so far as we ness no longer exists, but, happily, an know it; of course a very imperfect story abridgment of it is preserved, so far as at present, but a deeply interesting one. Persia is concerned, in the works of Pho

We shall begin by looking at our sub- tius. Of the part referring to Assyrian ject as it presented itself to the minds of matters, there is no abridgment in Photius, scholars before the recent discoveries were but very large use of it is made by Diomade. As Herodotus, in his great histo- dorus Siculus, who may be regarded, in rical work, makes but few allusions to his account of Assyria, as giving the subAssyria, and none which throw light upon stance of his predecessor's labors. 6 Of its early history, but little assistance has later writers,” says Dr. Layard, “who been afforded by him. If he ever wrote have touched upon Assyrian history, Dioa book expressly on Assyrian affairs—of dorus Siculus, a mere compiler, is the which he expresses an intention in such principal. Eusebius, and the Armenian portion of his writings as we possess, historians, such as Moses of Chorene,

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