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fellow labourer, and Mr. (now Dr.) Marshman, where they ar. rived in October following.

From this brief outline it will be seen, that Mr. Ward was far from being an illiterate man when be entered upon his preparatory studies ; and that it was at a considerable sacrifice of his worldly prospects that he resolved to devote himself to the sacred office. For the station which he was appointed to occupy as a missionary, he was singularly qualified ; and he expresses himself in one of his letters in the following remarkable terms.

• I think I should have liked preaching in England, if I had not had other work to do; but I sometimes think I should have killed myself. If I preach half an hour in a tolerably quiet way, I almost lose my voice. I can talk in a plain way in Bengalee, but very confined : what is preaching without figures, illustrations, and a liberty to enlarge and press home truth? Yet, I do rejoice in my destina. tion. I know not any place on earth where I might be more useful, if I had the piety of a Pearce.'

In the year 1819, Mr. Ward visited this country for the benefit of his health. He embarked for India a second time in May 1821. But he had scarcely been fifteen months in the bosom of his family, when he was called to finish his earthly course. For further details, we refer our readers to Mr. Stennett's interesting memoir.

The poetical effusions given in the Appendix,! will have answered the purpose of gratifying the feelings of Mr. Ward's friends, and may, therefore, be onnitted without impropriety, in the event of a second edition, which will enable the Author to reduce the price of his volume.

We must make room for the following letter as an exemplification of Mr. Ward's excellent spirit. We give it without comment.

March 3, 1810. • I think you cannot abstain from communion with any real christian whose moral conduct substantiates the truth of his faith in Christ, without a positive crime. The first law of Christ is Love, and the first law of the infernal regions is disunion. Hold the opinions which you conscientiously find in the Bible, and give none of them up to please man : but, after all, the greatest of these is love ; and how you can love christians in a proper manner, and be shy with them, and avoid their communion, merely because their opinions are not all like yours, and because they demand the right of thinking for themselves, as you do, is a mystery to me. I think the shutting out from communion such a man as Doddridge, or Baxter, because he was a pædobaptist, arises from the same spirit as that which burnt men alive : this is exclusion ; that was exclusion from life. In one

respect the injury is small, because the person can communicate with others ; but the strict communionist, if he and another baptist, and Doddridge lived together in a country where there were no churches of Christ, ought, on his own principles, to shut out Doddridge from communion, though he could commemorate the Lord's death no where else, and though Doddridge lived in a state of the highest communion with God, while these two baptists, perhaps, were almost too loose to be retained in a christian church. We admit pædobaptists to communion with us; but should the Serampore church change its practice, which, in my opinion is its glory, I would take all proper occasions to protest against its spirit ; but should I abandon all means of doing good, because they acted wrong? Would not my opinions, mildly and properly urged, be more likely to do good, than if I left the church, and placed myself at a greater distance from my fellow-christians ?” : 243_245.


Art. XIV. A Present for a Sunday School ; or a plain Address on

the Fear of the Lord; adapted to the Capacities of little Children; being the first of a Series on different Subjects. By a Minister of the Established Church. 18mo. pp. 36. Price 4d. London. 1824.

is so very rare to meet with any publications designed for

children, the style of which is really on a level with their capacity, that we are induced to go rather out of our way to notice this excellent little Sunday School address, which may be recommended as a model for simplicity. A short extract will sufficiently justify this commendation.

• But, my dear children, I wish to put you on your guard against several things which will unite together to keep you back from coming to Christ, and so from the enjoyment of all true peace.

1st. You have a hard, wicked, impenitent heart. • Now, unless you take care, this heart will deceive you; for it is the most deceitful thing in the world. Thousands of people have been deceived by this deceitful heart. Oh, cry unto God to change your heart; to make broken and contrite; to make you feel the plague of it; how deceitful and desperately wicked it is. Then will Jesus Christ become precious to you; for nothing but His blood can cleanse you from sin ; and nothing but His grace can change your heart, and subdue its wickedness, and conquer its deceit.

• 2dly. You have also a self-righteous spirit.

• By a self-righteous spirit, I mean, a disposition to trust in, and boast of, our own fancied goodness. Alas! how many people are there in this sad state !-full of their own righteousness! And are there none of you, children, in the same condition? Are not some of you proud of yourselves, because you think you are not so bad as other children about you are? Dear children, this is a very sinful temper. God dislikes and rejects all such proud people and proud children. • The proud in heart are an abomination to the Lord.” As long as this is the case with you, you will never come to Christ ; and so will never be saved.' . pp. 31, 2.


The Rev. J. Morison, author of " Lec- that has appeared from the pen of M. tures on the Reciprocal Obligations of J. B. B ut. Life,” is preparing for publication a In the press, in 1 rol 8vo. Serinons, listory of the Canneronians, and he Expositions, and Addresses at the Holy will feel particularly obliged for any as- Coinmunion. By the late Rev, Alex. sistance which may be rendered to him, Waugh, A.M. minister of the Scots': by the friends and admirers of Scottish church in Miles's lane, London. A Jiterature, in this most difficolt under- short meinoir of the Author will be pres taking.

fixed. The Lovers of the Arts will soon be Dr. P. M. Latbám has in the press, an gratified by the appearance of a trans. account of the disease lately prevalent lation of the History of the Life and at the General Penitentiary, 8vo. Works of Raphael, from the French of In the press, ' The Progress of DisM. Quatreinere de Quincy, accom- sent.'-Observations on the most repanied by copious additions in the form markable and amusing passages in an of notes, and preceded by a bistory of article in the last number of the Quarthe progress of painting in Italy from terly Review. Addressed to the Editor. the time of Cimabue to the era of Ra- By a Non Con. phael.

In the press, the Controversy with Shortly will appear, a volume con- the Unitarians of Manchester respecting cerning the Astronomy of the Exyptians, their possession of chapels and trusts: particularly referring to the celebrated with an Introduction. circular zodiac discovered at Denderuh, In the press, Letters to a Sceptic of and which was subsequently conveyed distinction in the nineteenth century. to Paris. It will be compiled from the In the press, a Series of Discourses on publications of the Albe l'esta; Mes- the Lord's Prayer. By the Rev. Sam. srs. Dupuis; Visconti ; 'Tardieu ; Fer- Saunders, of Frome, lus; Saint Martin ; Le Lorraine ; La- A new edition of the Rer, Andrew laode; Grosbert; Savigny; Nouet ; Reed's Supplement to Dr. Watts's and Cuvier; all of whom have written Psalms and Hymns is announced, enconcerning the sphere of Denderah, but Jarged, and with some originals. more particularly from the last work


terly Review, occasioned by its animadThe Life of the Rev. Pbilip Henry, versions on a work entitled “ Divine InA.M. By the Rev. Matthew Henry. En- Auence." By the Rev. T. Biddulph, larged with important Additions, Notes, Minister of St. James's, Bristol. 8vo. Is. &c. by J. B. Williams, F.R.S. 8vo. Thoughts on Antinomianism. By Ag. 153.

postos, Author of " Thoughts on BapThe Annual Biography and Obituary, tism. 12mo. Is. 6d. for 1825. 8vo. 15s.

Discourses delivered at the Settlement Memoirs of the Life of the Rev. of the Rev. W. Orme, at Camberwell, William Ward, late Baptist Missionary Oct. 7, 1824, by the Rev. Jos. Fletcher, in India : containing a few of his early Greville Ewing, and Robert Winter, poetical productions, and a monody to his D.D. 2s. 6d. memory. By Samuel Stennett. 12mo. A new Selection of more than 800 6s.

Evangelical Hymus for Public and FaTHEOLOGY.

mily Worship, being a complete SapPersonal Election and Divine Sove. plement to Dr. Watts's Psalms and reignty; a discourse, with an Appendix Hymns. By John Dobell. Roy. 24mo. containing Notes and Observations on 5s. 6d. bonnd. collateral Subjects. By Joseph Fletcher, The Ordination Services at the Settle. A.M. Third edition. Svo. 33,

ment of Rer. J. Price at DevonshireA Letter to the Editor of the Quar. Square, 8vo. 2s.

Erratum in the January Number.
At page 12, line 2, for from sin read within.

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Art. I. Historical View of the Literature of the South of Europe.

By J. C. L. Simonde de Sismondi, of the Academy of Arts of
Geneva, &c. &c. &c. Translated from the Original, by Thomas

Roscoe, Esq., with Notes. 2 vols. 8vo. Price 11. 8s. Lond. 1823.

E did not notice in our Journal, M. Sismondi's work upon

the literature of the South of Europe, when it first appeared. But we do not regret the omission, since it has enabled us to examine it in a very competent and correct translation. In many respects, the original is considerably a gainer, as it comes from the hands of its translator; especially as Mr, Roscoe has embellished the extracts of M. Sismondi (which, from the refractory spirit of French poetry, he was obliged to present through the lifeless medium of French prose) with elegant metrical versions into English. These, to an English reader, must considerably augment the value of this important portion of literary history.

These volumes comprise a rapid sketch of the Arabian literature, the language and poetry of the Provençals of Langue d'Oc, the Trouvéres of Langue d'Oil, and the Italians. A very interesting branch of the Author's extended undertaking, the literature of the Western Peninsula of Europe, will occupy the sequel.

To those who are desirous of making accurate researches into the literary history of Italy, the origin of its language is a necessary inquiry. But the solution of the problem has long divided the learned. M. Sismondi and M. Ginguené concur in attributing the rise of the languages now spread over the south of Europe, to the tenth century. But neither of these writers has, in our opinion, traced the gradual melting down of the ancient into the modern tongue with satisfactory clearness, It is not our aim to supply the defect, for it is a task too minute for the rapid pen of a reviewer. Yet, we cannot abstain VOL. XXIII. N.S.


from a few remarks on a subject of so interesting and curious speculation. That all the southern dialects of Europe were derived from the Latin, is too obvious to require proof. That language had been gradually substituted, in consequence of the Roman conquests in those countries, for the original dialects, which were, it is supposed, for the most part, Celtic. But the Latin thus introduced into these provinces, and nearly effacing their mother tongues, could not, if it obeyed the law of all languages when they come into vernacular and provincial use, preserve either the primitive purity of its pronunciation, or its usual conformity to its written sounds. Even in Italy, it did not escape the common fate of languages, and was, of course, exposed to the corruptions of popular speech ;-corruptions which, in the declining days of the empire, became the more licentious from the decay of learning, the only standard by which common discourse can be rectified. The restraint, therefore, on ungrammatical anomalies and arbitrary licences, being thus removed, every province capriciously innovated upon the Latin, which followed the natural proneness of all living languages to that abbreviation of words, and that melting down of its consonants, which are found so convenient for colloquial ease and rapidity. When the barbarous nations obtained a footing in those provinces, least of all was it to be expected, that the elegant precision of the Latin inflexions would have stood uninjured. From the analogies of the northern dictions, the use of the auxiliary verbs became more frequent. Then followed the passive auxiliary, and the words habeo and teneo, also, as auxiliaries in the conjugation of verbs. Then, from the same Teutonic examples, came the usage of the definite and indefinite articles, the want of which was too sensibly felt by those rude conquerors, not to be speedily supplied.

Still, however, the Latin language existed, and the barbarous settlers agreed to take it in exchange for their own. Yet, no language, whatever may be its intrinsic vigour, can long withstand those successive invasions and conquests which are alike the scourge of idioms and of nations. "It remained, however, in substance, from the age of Constantine to the twelfth century, and was the language of all public records even to a later pe

but the Latin was no longer in common use, and the corrupt jargon, or · lingua volgare,' began, at that time, to assume the shape of a distinct language, and to acquire, by degrees, the form in which it was found by the creative genius of Dante, who first smoothed its chaotic and elemental rudeness into symmetry and beauty.

In the meanwhile, the Latin language had declined in France at a much earlier period. Beyond the seventh century, it had


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