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look upon themselves as eternal favourites of God? Precisely the reverse of this is his design ; that they might ascribe their salvation to pure, absolute, gratuitous mercy. “We love him," days St. John,
“ because he first loved, us”. so loved us as to send his Son to die for us.
But, while the Antinomian readily admits that it was not foreseen good works that caused or prompted the Divine love, yet, he conceives it to have been his foreseen self as the object of the Divine complacency, which originated the plan of salvation-his own person as the object of Divine favouritism, notwithstanding all those sins attaching to him, which, in others, awake God's holy wrath. The only difference between him and the Arminian is, that the latter ascribes to foreseen good works what the former refers to a foreseen relation--a relation preceding the existence of the thing related, for he affirms it to have been eternal, whereas his own existence is but of yesterday. One would imagine that nothing can be eternally related, that has not eternally existed. To the virtue, however,
, of this supposed eternal personal relation, the Antinomian ascribes, what the Arminian ascribes to the meritorious virtue of good works,—the causing or determining of God's electing love, or sovereign favour. Boasting, on either hypothesis, is not excluded. God's mercy, in either case, is not gratuitous; nor is it mercy. Nay, as men are more apt to be proud of their relative circumstances, of the distinctions of birth and family connexions, than of their personal virtue, so, the Antinomian is found the greater boaster of the two.
But is it not said, “ According as he has chosen us in him “ before the foundation of the world ?” We answer with Calvin : ' In Christo, ergo extra nos. Hoc est, non intuitu digni
tatis nostra, sed quoniam adoptionis beneficio cælestis Pater nos * inserevit in Christi corpus. Denique Christi nomen omne meritum
ercludit, et quicquid ex se habent homines ; nam ex dicit ! in Christo electos, sequitur indignos fuisse in nobis.' Here, this most judicious Expositor speaks a language in the strictest accordance with the other Reformers to whom he has been sometimes ignorantly opposed. Assuredly, God's purpose to save his Church dates from the beginning.'. “ In Christ," they were chosen, as the Jews were chosen in Abraham,chosen in Christ, the second Adam; chosen as a people, although as individuals they were once without Christ. As individuals, Christians were not eternally in Christ, for no man can be in Christ, but as he " is a new creature.” Scripture speaks of them as predestinated to be adopted, sanctified, &c.; then, they were not always adopted and sanctified. It is one thing for the Church to be chosen " in Christ” before the
foundation of the word ; another thing for the believer to be born into God's redeemed family through faith. And so distinct and different are these two things, that, according to Calvin, and according to Scripture too, our being chosen in Christ excludes the idea of our being personally chosenchosen in ourselves. So that St. Paul is here the direct antagonist of the Antinomian.
The general doctrine which, both in the passage alluded to and elsewhere, the inspired Apostle labours to establish is, that the efficient cause of our salvation is the spontaneous, gratuitous, eternal good pleasure of God. It is the glory of the Godhead to be self-originate, uncaused, unmoved ab extra, as in his nature, so, in his manifestations. He was not moved or prompted to create, but by his own good pleasure. And thus, the Apostle traces the new creation to the same unprompted, self-originated love." For of him, and by him, * and to him all things, to whom be glory for ever.”
The Scriptural design, then, of what is called the doctrine of Election, is obviously no other, than to exalt the gratuitousness of the Divine Mercy, with a view to excite in the mind of the Christian, the emotion of humble gratitude and love. Representations which have not this for their object, which have an opposite tendency, whatever may be their abstract truth, have no claim to be accepted as the Scripture doctrine of Election. When it is attempted, for instance, to rest that doctrine
. on the Divine love of order, so resolving the very attribute of mercy into a sense of propriety, and the Divine prescience into sagacious foresight, or when the subject is presented to us clothed with the technical jargon of theology, and the boundless, ineffable, soul-melting compassion of Deity is transformed into a decree - we appeal to every pious breast, whether such representations have the specific effect of promoting a sacred and ingenuous delight in the Divine character; whether they do not, on the contrary, bear us away into the region of gloomy and terrific abstractions, where that inscrutable mystery, the origin of evil, comes sweeping over the mind, like a dark, humid cloud, intercepting the sunshine of Heaven. How well would it have been both for the peace and the edification of the Church, if all who profess and call themselves Calvinists, had attended to their master's caution on this very subject,--a eaution which might seem to have suggested the very language of the Seventeenth Article of the Church of England : Sed * meminerimus quorsum hîc de Prædestinatione Paulus disputet,
ne alios fines in disputationibus nostris spectando, PERICULOSE • BRREMUS.
Art. IX. Popery in 1824. A Circular Letter of Pope Leo the
Twelfth, to the Patriarchs, Primates, Archbishops, and Bishops of the Roman Catholic Church: and the Bull of Jubilee for the Year 1825. Translated from the Original Latin, with an Intro
duction and Notes. 8vo. pp. 32. London. 1825. WE feel the pride of office stirring within us, we feel how
great is our elevation as Reviewers, in being called upon to pass our critical judgement on the first production of a new Pope. But this feeling, while we write, has given way to another sentiment,—that of heart-felt, grateful elation at the prerogative which we share with all our fellow-Protestants, of “ trying the spirits, whether they be of God.” “ By their fruits ye shall know them.” Here, in this happy country, we can make as free with a Pope's Bull as with a Bishop's Charge ; we can discuss either without fear of the Star Chamber or the Inquisition ; and we are too apt to think of Popery as a thing that is past, only because it is locally distant. But here is the identical Giant Pope, the brother of Giant Pagan, that we read of in the Pilgrim's Progress when we were boys, come to life again, a real incarnation in the body of Pope Leo the Twelfth— the most holy Lord, our Lord Leo'-the Sin" with all his names of blasphemy burned into his fore head. Here is Popery, the same monstrous compound of licentiousness, tyranny, and blasphemy, that it was when Luther set up the standard of the Lord against it in the sixteenth century. "A man whose gallantries at Rome were matter of public scandal a few years ago, and whose immoralities were far from blushing and secret in other places, now being invested with the three hats and the title of Holiness, begins his career of iniquity with trying to raise money in the name of the Lord, by proclaiming a plenary indulgence, remission, and pardon of sin to all who shall go on pilgrimage to the Seven Hills, on conditions hereafter specified. What an admirable comment does this precious document supply, on the language which has been held, session after session, in a certain great house, respecting the enlightened spirit of the age, the altered character of Popery, the bigotry and the nursery fears of Protestants ! Those sage advocates of the Irish Catholics, who could find no better ground to rest their claims upon, than the poetical fiction, that Popery had become liberalised—what will they say now? Were not the subject too grave for banter or jest, we could feel almost amused at the new tone which this Circular and Bull may be expected to give to certain discussions. And what will Mr. Wix now say to a reconciliation between Mother Rome and her run-away daughter ? VOL. XXIII, N.S.
Although we hope that every one of our readers will put himself in possession of this nefarious document, we cannot refrain from inserting in our pages, a few paragraphs from the “ Bull of Jubilee."
Leo, Bishop, Servant of the Servants of God, to all the faithful in Christ who shall inspect these presents, health and apostolical blessing!
• The LORD, in the exercise of his compassion, has at length granted to our Lowliness, to announce to you with gladness the near approach of that which may now be felicitously celebrated according to the usages and institutions [majorum] of the ancients, but which, through the dreadful asperity of the times, was omitted at the commenceinent of this century,-an omission which we deeply lamented. That most auspicious year is near, a year to be most religiously venerated, in which there will be a concourse from the whole world, to this our fair and holy city, and the See of the blessed Peter; and in which, all the faithful, being excited to [officia] the duties of piety, have all the most ample succours of reconciliation and grace proposed to them, for the salvation of their souls. For in this year, which we properly call. an acceptable time and [a day) of salvation,' we rejoice in the grand opportunity afforded to us, after the deplorable series of ills over which we have groaned, to strive to restore all things in CHRIST, by the salutary (saving] expiation of all christian people. We have therefore decreed, according to the authority which is divinely committed to us, to open as widely as possible, that heavenly treasury, which being purchased by the merits, passions, and virtues of our Lord Christ, of his Virgin Mother, and of all saints, the Author of human salvation has entrusted the distribution of it to us.
• Advancing therefore by our wishes these numerous and great advantages to souls, and having in confidence of mind asked in prayer of God, the Giver of all good, by the bowels of his mercy, that which is required by a regard to the appointed time, and which is pointed out by the pious institutions of the Roman Pontiffs our predecessors,--treading also in the footsteps, with the consent of our brethren, the Cardinals of the Holy Romish Church, by the authority of the omnipotent God, and of the blessed Apostles Peter and Paul, as well as by our own,-for the glory of God himself, for the exaltation of the Catholic Church, and for the sanctification of all Christian people, we proclaim and publish the Universal and Great Jubilee to commence in this Holy City, from the first vespers of the next eve of the Nativity of our most Holy Saviour Jesus CHRIST, and to continue through the whole of the year one thousand eight hundred and twenty-five. During this year of Jubilee, we mercifully in the LORD grant and impart the most plenary and complete indulgence, remission, and pardon of all their sins, to all the faithful in CHRIST, of both sexes, who are truly penitent, and have confessed, and who have likewise refreshed themselves with the Holy Communion,-provided, (if Romans, or inhabitants of the city,) they shall have devoutly visited these churches of the city, that of the blessed Peter and Paul, of St. John Lateran, and that of St. Mary Major, at least once a day, for thirty days, whether successive or (interpolatos] interrupted, natural, or even ecclesiastical, to be computed from the first vespers of one day, to the complete evening twilight of the succeeding day; but if they be foreigners, or in any respect strangers, they must have visited these churches, at least fifteen days, as already described ;-provided also, that they shall have poured forth pious prayers to God for the exaltation of the Holy Church, the extirpation of heresies, the concord of Catholic Princes, and the salvation and tranquillity [christiani populi] of Christendom......
We make this announcement to you, our sons, from our pater." nal affection, that those of you who are weary and heavy laden,' ' may fly to the place where you know for a certainty that you will receive rest and be refreshed. For [neque fas est] it is criminal to be idle and negligent in applying for saving riches, out of those eternal treasures of divine grace, which are opened by our most holy and indnlgent mother, the Church, when such an intense desire is manifested to procure earthly riches, which the moth corrupts, and the rust destroys. But since, even from ancient times, it has been a prevalent custom for immense and perpetual concourses of men of all ranks, from every part of the wide world, (although their route was long and dangerous.) to visit this principal [domicilium] seat and abode of the Fine Arts, upon which they look almost as on a prodigy, glittering and effulgent in the magnificence of its edifices, the majesty of its situation, and the beauty of its monuments; it would therefore be shameful and most contrary to a desire of eternal blessedness, to urge, as pretences for declining a journey to Rome, the difficulties on the road, the accidents of fortune, or other causes of this description. There is, my beloved children, there is that, which will most abundantly compensate every species of inconvenience; nay, if by chance, any sufferings occur, they will not be worthy to be [compared with] the weight of future glory,' that, by the blessing of God, will be wrought out for you' by those aids which are prepared for the benefit of souls. For you shall reap from this journey a most ample harvest of penitence, out of which you may offer to God the castigation of your bodies, through the long continuance of your [molestorum actuum) painful acts of mortification, may in holiness perform the conditions prescribed by the laws of the indulgences, and may add this new advantage to the determination which you have formed and constantly hold, of punishing and repelling your crimes.
• Come up, therefore, with your loins girt, to this holy Jerusalem, to this priestly and royal city, which has become the capital of the world by its being the See of the blessed Peter, and is conspicuously seen to exercise a wider presidency by its divine religion, than by its earthly dominion. This is indeed the city,' said St. CHARLES, when exhorting his people to undertake a journey to Rome during the sacred year, this is the city, whose soil, walls, altars, churches,