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Pawn'd with the other; for the poor rude world
Lor. Even such a husband
Jes. Nay, but ask my opinion too of that.
The Senate- house in Venice. Enter the Duke, the Senators ; Anthonio, Bassanio, Gra
tiano, and otbers,
DU K E.
dram of mercy.
HAT, is Anthonio here?
Antb. Ready, so please your grace. Duke. I'm sorry for thee; thou art come to answer A ftony adversary, an inhuman wretch Uncapable of pity, void and empty From any drạm of
Anth. I have heard, Your Grace hath ta'en great pains to qualify His rigorous course ; but since he stands obdurate, And that no lawful means can carry me Out of his envy's reach, I do oppose My patience to his fury; and am arm’d To fuffer, with a quietness of spirit, The.very tyranny and rage of his.
Duke. Go one, and call the Jew into the court.
And 6 apparent] That is, seeming; not real. JOHNSON. 7 where for whereas. JOHNSON,
8 Enough to press a royal merchant down,) We are not to ima. gine the word royal to be only a ranting sounding epithet. It is used with great propriety, and fews the poet well acquainted with the history of the people whom he here brings upon the stage. For when the French and the Venetians, in the beginning of the thirteenth century, had won Constantinople, the French, under the emperor Henry, endeavoured to extend their conquests into the provinces of the Grecian empire on the terra firma; while the Venetians, who were masters of the sea, gave liberty to any subject of the republic, who would fit out vessels, to make themselves masters of the illes of the Archipelago, and other maritime places; and to enjoy their conquests in lovereignty ; only doing homage to the republick for their several principalities. By virtue of this licence, the Sanudo's, the Justiniani, the Grimaldi, the Summaripo's, and others, all Venetian merchanis, erected principalities in several places of the Archipelago, (which their descendants enjoyed for many generations) and thereby became truly and properly royal merchants. Which indeed was the title generally given them all over Europe. Hence, the most eminent
And pluck commiseration of his state
Sby. I have possess’d your Grace of what I purpose ;
of our own merchants (while public spirit resided amongst them, and before it was aped by faction) were called royal merchants.
WARBURTON. This epithet was in our poet's time more striking and better understood, because Gresham was then commonly dignified with the title of the royal mercbant. JOHNSON.
I'll not answer tbat.
bumour.-- -] This Jew is the strangest fellow. He is afked a question ; says he will not answer it; in the very next line says, he has answered it
, and then spends the ten following lines to justify and explain his answer. Who can doubt then, but we should read,
I'll now answer that, BY SAYING, 'ris my humour. WARBURTON. Dr. Warburton has mistaken the sense. The Jew being asked a question which the law does not require him to answer, stands upon his right, and refuses; but afterwards gratifies his own maligoity by such answers as he knows will aggravate the pain of the enquirer. I will not answer, says he, as to a legal or lerjous question, but since you want an answer, will this serve you?
Some men there are, love not a gaping pig;
a gaping pig;] So in Webfter's Dutchess of Malfy, 1623;
He could not abide to see a pig's head gaping ;
STEVENS. 3 Cannot contain their urine, &c.] Mr. Rowe reads,
Canno! contain their urine fur offiflion.
Of what it likes, or loaths. Mafterless passion Mr. Pope has since copied. I don't know what word there is to which this relative it is to be referred. Dr, Thirlby would thus adjust the passage,
Cannot contain their urine ; for affiation,
Master of passion, sways it, sc. And then it is govern'd of paffion: and the two old quarto's and folio's read Masters of passion, &c.
It may be objected, that affection and paffion mean the same thing. But I observe, the writers of our author's age
made a distinction ; as Jonson in Sejanus :
- He hath pudied
Affection's paflions, knows their springs and ends. And then, in this place, affection will stand for that symparby or antipathy of foul, by which we are provok'd to thew a liking or di/guft in the working of our pallions. THEOBALD.
Malerless passion fways it to the mood.] The two old quarto's and folio read,
MASTERS OF pasion. And this is certainly right. He is speaking of the power of found over the human affections, and concludes, very naturally, that the masters of paffion (for fo he finely calls the muficians) sway the palfions or affections as they please. Alluding to what the ancients tell us of the feats that Timotheus and other musicians worked by the power of music. Can any thing be more natural!
Of what it likes, or loaths. Now, for your answer.
Why he, a woollen bag-pipe; but of force
4 Wby be, a woollen bag-pipe.) This incident Shakespeare seems to have taken from ). c. Scaliger's Exot. Exercit. against Cardan. A book that our author was well read in, and much indebted to for a great deal of his phyfics : it being theo much in vogue, and indeed is excellent, though now long since forgot. In his 344 Exercit. sect. 6. he has these words, Narrabo nunc tibi jocojam Sympathiam Reguli Vasconis equitis. Is dum viverci audito pbormingis jono, urinam illico facere cogebatur.- And to make this jocular story still more ridiculous, Shakespeare, I suppose, translated pborminx by bag-pipes. But what I would chiefly observe from hence is this, that as Scaliger uses the word Sympathiam which fignihes, and so he interprets it, communem AFFECTIONEM duabus rebus, fo Shakespeare translates it by affection;
Cannot contain their urine for Affection. Which shews the truth of the preceding emendation of the text according to the old copies; which have a full stop at affalion, and read Majiers of passion. WARBURTON.
As for affection, those that know how to operate upon the pasfions of men, rule it by making it operate in obedience to the notes which please or disgust it. JOHNSON.
In an old translation from the French of Peter de Loier, intitled, A Treatise of Spectres, or ftraunge Sights, Vifions, &c. we have this identical tory from Scaliger ; and what is fill more, a marginal note gives us in all probability the very fact alluded to, as well as the word of Shakespeare. * Another gentleman of “ this quality lived of late in Devon, neere Excester, who could “ not endure the playing on a bag-pipe.” We may just add, as some observation has been made upon it, that offečtion in the sense of jympaiby, was formerly technical; and so used by Lord Bacon, fir K. Digby, and many other writers. Farmer.
Wollen bag pipe.] As all the editors agree with complete uniformity in this reading, I can hardly forbear to imagine that they understood it. But I never saw a woollen bag-pipe, nor can well conceive it. I suppose the authour wrote ncoden bag-pipe, meaning that the bag was of leather, and the pipe of wood.
JOHNSON. This passage is clear from all difficulty, if we read fuelling bagpipe, which, that we should, I have not the least doubt.