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A drain unevenly laid, built of inferior materials, badly jointed, or not properly connected with the main sewer, is badly constructed.

Of course, in use, a drain may become stopped by accident or design ; this is another matter; all works are liable to accidents, but a mishap of this nature will soon show itself by the bursting or overflow of the drain.

The remedies for bad smells from drains are (1st) the proper laying of the drain. It should be formed of socketed pipes, in no case less than 4 inches diameter, 6' will often be better, or even 9" pipes for large houses. Sufficient fall should be given, not less, if possible, than 3" in 10 feet. The pipes should be laid in good concrete, and jointed with Portland cement. (2nd.) The drain must be trapped. The common syphon trap is the best form for general use, and I believe a single trap is preferable to double, for with two traps, when the water has passed the first it compresses the foul air, which escapes through the upper one into the house. (3rd.) All injurious escape may be prevented by ventilating the drain. A pipe should be connected with the syphon, on the summit of the bend between the water which closes the trap and the leg of the syphon which joins the drain. This pipe Dr. Carpenter says should be of nearly the same bore as the syphon, and should be carried up outside the house above the eaves, as far from any window as can be. Outside a chimney is a good place, but the opening should not be above or near the top of the chimney. Care must be taken to make the joints in the pipe gas-tight. The rain-water pipes should not be used as ventilators to the drains.

Unpleasantness from the water-closet will almost always arise from its position. This, as we all know, is commonly the very worst which could be found, viz., under or close to the stairs, the well of which forms a shaft for conveying foul air into all the bed-chambers.

I have seen in London a water-closet opening into the diningroom, but even this is hardly so objectionable as the usual position.

The water-closet should, where possible, be outside the house. I do not mean detached, but separated by such a space as will allow of double doors, with sufficient distance between them for ventilation.

The building itself should also be thoroughly ventilated.

I will now briefly state how a house might be built so as to be efficiently ventilated on the principle of thermo-ventilation.

It will be sufficient to take one room as a type of the rest, and I will assume that it is desirable to keep up the oldfashioned open fireplace, wasteful as it is.

The fresh air may be brought directly through the outer walls as in sketch B, or may be first slightly heated by passing through a hot water coil, or other apparatus.

If the former course be followed air bricks must be inserted in the outer face of the walls communicating with a channel running round a portion or the whole of the room.

If warmed air is desired it must be brought into the channel through tubes in the wall.

The inner channel should be formed by a cast iron box, with an ornamental openwork front, and without a back. The front, which may be of brass, should be fastened so as to be readily removeable. The fine wire gauze screen being fixed as shewn in sketch A.

The exit for foul air should be through openwork in the ceiling, as shown in sketch B. This openwork might either be done in plaster similar to the centre ornament, or fine brass wire gauze might be inserted in the cornice. The foul air would

pass through this into the spaces between the joists, when the sound boarding and pugging will prevent its ascending into the upper rooms. From these spaces it would pass into a cast iron channel running round the room, which would communicate with the chimney or air flue, or in some cases directly with the outer air. The openings into the chimney or air flue must be fitted with valves, as before.

I believe it would be easy to construct a chimney having all the advantages of a chimney and air flue combined.

A tube should be inserted in the brick trimmer giving immediate communication with the fire above, which, when lighted, would aid the ventilation of the lower room.

All large houses should have a special ventilating shaft, communicating by means of pipes and valves with every room in the house. If thermo-ventilation alone is intended, a fire must be kept burning at the base of the chimney, the only supply of air to which must come through the tubes.

Some day, perhaps, we may have ventilating shafts for every street or block of houses. We provide for the carrying away

of foul water, why not of foul air ? The one is just as harmful as the other. Perhaps, too, though this belongs rather to warming than ventilation, we may some day see, but one fire to each house, and even one chimney–Nay I will go further, perhaps one chimney to a great number of houses, perhaps even one to a town! This may seem a speculative flight; but had coals been very dear instead of cheap, I feel sure our present wasteful system would not have lasted long.

Before quitting the subject of house ventilation, I will notice one fruitful source of annoyance, which is often closely con

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