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time, his reputation spreading itself every where, brought young students to him from the remotest parts of Hungary and Poland.

In 1617 an evangelical jubilee was instituted in memory of the church's deliverance from popery an hundred years before, when Luther began to preach. The solemnity lasted three days, during which orations, disputations, poems, and sermons, were delivered on the occasion. Pareus also published some pieces on the subject, which drew upon him the resentment of the Jesuits of Mentz; and a controversy took place between them. The following year, 1618, at the instance of the States General, he was pressed to go to the synod of Dort, but excused himself on account of age

and infirmities. After this time he enjoyed but little tranquillity. The apprehensions he had of the ruin which his patron the elector Palatine would bring upon himself by accepting the crown of Bohemia, obliged him to change his habitation. He appears to have terrified himself with a thousand petty alarms, real or imaginary, and therefore his friends, in order to relieve him froin this timidity of disposition, advised him to take refuge in the town of Anweil, in the dutchy of DeuxPonts, near Landau, at which he arrived in Oct. 1621. He left that place, however, some months after, and went to Neustadt, where bis courage reviving, he determined to return to Heidelberg, wishing to pass his last moments at his beloved Pareanum, and be buried near the professors of the university. His wish was accordingly fulfilled; for he died at Pareanum June 15, 1622, and was interred with all the funeral honours which the universities in Germany usually bestow on their members.

He left a son named Philip, who wrote the life of his father. Although Pareus was a great enemy to innovations, yet his “ Irenicum” proves that he was a friend to conciliation, and his services in promoting the reformed religion were very extensive. His exegetical works were pub.. lished by his son at Francfort in 1647, in 3 vols. folio. Among these are his “Commentary upon St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans,” in 1617, which gave such offence to James I. of England, as containing some anti-monarchical principles, that he caused it to be burnt by the common hangman; and the university of Oxford also condemned it. It was refuted by David Owen, who was D. D. and chaplain to John Ramsay, viscount Haddington and earl of VOL. XXIV.



Holderness, in a piece entitled “ Anti-Paræus, sive determinatio de jure regio habita Cantabrigiæ in scholis theologicis, 19 April, 1619, contra Davidem Paræum, cæterosque reformatæ religionis antimonarchos;" Cantab. 1632, 8vo. He had before published " Tbe Concord of a Papist. and Puritan, for the coercion, deposition, and killing of kings," Camb. 1610, 4to.

PAREUS (JOHN PHILIP), son of the preceding, one of the most laborious grammarians that Germany ever produced, was born at Hembach, May 24, 1576. He began his studies at Neustadt, continued them at Heidelberg, and afterwards visited some of the foreign universities, at the expence of the elector Palatine, where he was always courteously received, not only on account of his own merit, but his father's high reputation. Among others, he received great civilities from Isaac Casaubon at Paris. In 1612, he was made rector of the college of Neustadt, which post he held till the place was taken by the Spaniards in 1622, when he was ordered by those'new masters to leave the country immediately, at which time his library was also plundered by the soldiers. He published several books on grammatical subjects, and was remarkably fond of Plau

This drew bim into a dispute with John Gruter, professor at Heidelberg, in 1620, which was carried to such a height, that neither the desolation which ruined both their universities and their libraries, and reduced their persons to the greatest extremities, nor even their banishment, proved sufficient to restrain their animosity, or incline them to the forbearance of mutual sufferers. Philip also undertook the cause of his late father against Owen, mentioned in the last article, whom he answered in a piece entitled “ Anti-Owenus," &c. He was principal of several colleges, as he was of that at Hanau in 1645. The dedication of his father's exegetical works shews him to be living in 1647, and Saxius conjectures that he died the following year. The same writer informs us that his first publication was “ Castigationes in brevem et maledicam admonitionem Joannis Magiri Jesuitæ predicantis apud Nemetes Spirantes," Heidelberg, 1608, 8vo. This refers to a controversy which his father had with Magirus, the Jesuit. He wrote also some commentaries upon the “Holy Scriptures,” and other theoita yorks. "He published

1 Gen. Dict-Life by his son attorer Saxii Onomast.


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" Plautus," in 1609, with notes; also a “ Lexicon Plaus tinum,” in 1614; “Analecta Plautina,” in 1617; a treatise “ De imitatione Terentianâ, ubi Plautum imitatus est," 1617; a second edition of “ Plautus," in 1619, and of the “ Analecta Plautina,” in 1620, and again in 1623. He also published a third edition of his “Plautus” in 1641. The“ Prolegomena” which it contains of that poet's life, the character of his versification, and the nature of his comedy, have been prefixed entire to the Delphin edition. He published his answer to Gruter in 1620, with this title, “ Provocatio ad senatum criticum pro Plauto et electis Plautinis ;” and more of this angry controversy may be seen in the long preface prefixed to his “ Analecta Plautina." He also published “ Calligraphia Romana, sive Thesaurus phrasium linguæ Latinæ," in 1620; and “Electa Symmachiana, Lexicon Symmachianum, Calligraphia Syminachiana,” in svo: to which we may add his father's life, “Narratig de cupulo vitæ et obitu D. Parei,” 1633, 8vo.'

PAREUS DANIEL Son of the preceding, trod in the steps of his fatket, applied himself vigorously to the study of the classics, and published several laborious pieces ; for which he was obliged to Vossius, who had a great respect for him, and made it his business to procure booksellers who would print his works. He was unfortunately killed, in 1635, by a gang of highwaymen, or, as others say, by some soldiers at the siege of Keiserslauteren. a considerable master of Greek. His publications are, 1. The Poem of Musæus upon the Loves of Hero and Leander, with notes,” 1627. 2. “ Mellificium Atticum,” a thick 4to, being a collection of sentences extracted from Greek authors, which he dedicated to the university of Oxford. 3. Medulla Historiæ Ecclesiasticæ,” in 1631; to which he added “ Notes." 4. An edition of Lucretius, Francfort, 1631, Svo. 5. “ Historia Bavarico-Palatina,” 1633. 6.“ Spicilegium subsecivum,” or notes upon Quintilian, published in an edition of that author at London, in 1641, 8vo. ?

PARIS (FRANCIS), usually called the Abbé Paris, would not have deserved notice here unless for certain impostures connected with his name, in which, however, he had no hand. He was born'at Paris, and was the eldest son of a

1 Gen. Dict.-Freheri Theatrum.Moreri.-Saxii Onomast. 2 Gen. Dict.--Moreri, -Saxii Onomast.

He was

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counsellor to the parliament, whom he was to have suci ceeded in that office; but he preferred the ecclesiastical profession; and, when his parents were dead, resigned the whole inheritance to his brother, only reserving to himself 'the right of applying for necessaries. He was a man, says the abbé L'Avocat, of the most devout temper, and who to great candour of mind joined great gentleness of manners. He catechized, during some time, in the parish of St. Côme ; undertook the direction of the clergy, and held conferences with them. Cardinal de Noailles, to whose cause he was attached, wanted to make him curate of that parish, but found many obstacles to his plan; and M. Paris, after different asylums, where he had lived extremely retired, confined himself in a house in the fauxbourg St. Marcoul, where, sequestered from the world, he devoted himself wholly to prayer, to the practice of the most rigorous penitence, and to labouring with his hands, having for that purpose learnt to weave stockings. He was one of those who opposed the bull Unigenitus, and was desirous also to be an author, and wrote “ Explications of St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans,” to the “ Galatians," and “An Analysis of the Epistle to the Hebrews;” but acquired no reputation by these.

He died May 1, 1727, at Paris, aged thirty-seven, and was interred in the little church-yard belonging to St. Medard's parish. Though M. Paris had been useless to the Jansenists while alive, they thought proper to employ him in working miracles after his death; and stories were invented of miraculous cures performed at his tomb, which induced thousands to flock thither, where they practised grimaces and convulsions in so ridiculous and disorderly a manner, that the court was at last forced to put a stop to this delusion, by ordering the church-yard to be walled up, January 27, 1732. Some time before, several curates solicited M. de Vintimille, archbishop of Paris, by two requests, to make judicial inquiry into the principal miracles attributed to M. Paris ; and that prelate appointed commissioners who easily detected the imposture, which would not deserve a place here had it not served Hume and some other deists with an argument against the real miracles of the gospel, the fallacy of which argument has been demonstrated with great acuteness by the late bishop Douglas, in his " Criterion.”

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i Dict. Hist.-Douglas's Criterion.


the pope.

PARIS (Matthew), an English historian, was a Benedictine monk of the congregation of Clugny, in the monastery of St. Alban's, the habit of which order he took in 1217. He was an universal scholar; understood, and had a good taste both in painting and architecture. He was also a mathematician, a poet, an orator, a divine, an historian, and a man of distinguished probity. Such rare accomplishments and qualities as these, did not fail to place him very high in the esteem of his contemporaries; and he was frequently employed in reforming some monasteries, visiting others, and establishing the monastic discipline in all. He reproved vice without distinction of persons, and did not even spare the English court itself; at the same time he shewed a hearty affection for his country in maintaining its privileges against the encroachments of

Of this we have a clear, though unwilling, evidence in Baronius, who observes, that this author remonstrated with too sharp and bitter a spirit against tlie court of Rome ; and that, except in this particular only, his history was an incomparable work.

He died at St. Alban's in 1259. His principal work, entitled “ Historia Major,” consists of two parts: The first, from the creation of the world to William the Conqueror; the second, from that king's reign to 1250. He carried on this history afterwards to the year of his death in 1259. Rishanger, a monk of the monastery of St. Alban's, continued it to 1272 or 1273, the year of the death of Henry III. It was first printed at London in 1571, and reprinted 1640, 1684, fol. besides several foreign editions. There are various MS copies in our public libraries, particularly one which he presented to Heory III. and which is now in the British Museum. From his MSS. have also been published “ Vitae duorum Offarum, Merciæ regum, S. Albani fundatorum ;" “ Gesta viginti duo abbatum S. Albani ;” Additamenta chronicorum ad historiam majorem,” all which accompany the editions of his “ Historia Major” printed in 1640 and 1684. Among his unpublished MSS. are an epitome of his “ Historia Major," and a history from Adam to the conquest, principally from Matthew of Westminster. This is in the library of Bene't college, Cambridge. The titles of some other works, but of doubtful authority,' may be seen in Bale and Pits.'

i Tanner.-Bale and Pits.- Nicolson's Historical Library.

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