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they were borrowed from his predecessor, Basil Valentine. His medical skill consisted principally in the bold administration of some powerful remedies, which had been heretofore thought too dangerous to be used, particularly opium, a drug with which, it is obvious, he would be able in many instances to afford great and speedy relief; but with which also few permanent cures could be effected, and much mischief would necessarily be produced, when it was misapplied. Antimony and mercury were also medicines which he liberally prescribed, and he used various preparations of them of the most active kind. He deserves the praise, however, of having been one of the first to employ mercury for the cure..of the venereal disease, and of course he must have been successful in a degree, to which none of his contemporaries, who did not resort to that remedy, could attain. From his total ignorance of anatomy and rational physiology, bis inability from want of literature to investigate the doctrines of the ancients, which he nevertheless boldly impugned, and his employment of a barbarous jargon, as well as his infatuated notions of magic, astrology, geomancy, and all the other branches of mystical imposture, he is, as a theorist, beneath contempt. We shall not pretend, therefore, to enter into any detail of the unintelligible jargon and absurd hypotheses which he employed, or to enumerate the immense farrago of treatises, which made their appearance under his name after his death, the notices of which occupy above pine quarto pages in the Bibliotheca of Haller : for the first we are unable to comprehend, and the latter would be a waste of time. The most complete edition is that of Geneva, 1658, 3 vols. folio.
PARADIN (WILLIAM), a French historian, and laborious writer of the sixteenth century, was still living in 1581, and was then turned fourscore. He was the author of many works, among which the following are remarka- ? ble : 1.“ The History of Aristæus, respecting the version of the Pentateuch," 4to. 2. “ Historia sui temporis,". written in Latin, but best known by a French version which was published in 1558. 3. “ Annales de Bourgogne," 1566, folio. This history, by no means well digested, begins at the year 378, and ends in 1482. “ De moribus
1 Brucker.-Haller.Thomson's Hist. of the Royal Society.--Eloy, Dict, Hist. de Medicine.---Rees's Cyclopædia.
Galliæ, Historia,” to. 5.“ Memoires de l'Histoire de Lyon,” 1625, folio. 6. “De rebus in Belgio, anno 1543 gestis,"1543, 8vo. 7.“ La Chronique de Savoie," 1602, fol. 8. “ Historia Galliæ, a Francisci I. coronatione ad annum 1550." 9. 6 Historia Ecclesiæ Gallicanæ." 10.
Memoralia insignium Franciæ Familiarum.” He was an ecclesiastic, and became dean of Beaujeu.'
PARCIEUX, or rather DEPARCIEUX (ANTHONY), an able mathematician, was born in 1703, at a hamlet near Nismes, of industrious but poor parents, who were unable to give him education; he soon, however, found a patron, who placed him in the college at Lyons, where he made astonishing progress in mathematics On his arrival at Paris, he was obliged to accept of humble employment from the mathematical instrument makers, until his works brought him into notice. These were, 1. “ Table astronomiques," 1740, 4to. 2. “ Traité de trigonometrie rectiligne et spherique, avec un traité de gnomonique et des tables de logarithmes," 1741, 4to.
3. " Essai sur les probabilités de la durée de la vie humaine," 1746, 4to. “Reponse aux objections contre ce livre,” 1746, 4to. 5. " Additions a l'essai, &c.” 1760, 4to.
6. " Memoires sur la possibilité et la facilité d'amener aupres de l'Estrapade, a Paris, les eaux de la riviere d'Yvette,” 1763, 4to, reprinted, with additions, in 1777. It was always Deparcieux's object to turn his knowledge of mathematics to practical purposes, and in the memoirs of the academy of sciences are many excellent papers which he contributed with this view. He also introduced some ingenious improvements in machinery. He was censor-royal and member of the academy of sciences at Paris, and of those of Berlin, Stockholm, Metz, Lyons, and Montpellier. He died at Paris Sept. 2, 1768, aged sixty-five. He had a nephew of the same name, born in 1753, who was educated at the college of Nayarre at Paris, where he studied mathematics and philosophy, and at the age of twentyfour gave public lectures. In 1779 he began a course of experimental philosophy, in the military school of Brienne; after which, he occupied the philosophical professorship at the Lyceum in Paris, where he died June 23, 1799, in a state bordering on indigence. He wrote a " Traité elementaire de Mathematiques,” for the use of students;
! Dict. Hist.-- Le Long Bibl. Hist. de France.
66 Traité des annuités, ou des reptes a terme," 1781, 4to ; “ Dissertation sur le moyen d'elever l'eau par la rotation d'une corde verticale sans fin," Amst 1782, 8vo; sertation sur les globes areostatiques,” Paris, 1783, 8vo. He left also some unfinished works; and a “ Cours complet de physique et de chimie,” was in the press when he died.?
PARDIES (IGNATIUS GASTON), an ingenious French mathematician and philosopher, was born at Pau, in the province of Gascony, in 1636; his father being a counsellor of the parliament of that city. At the age of sixteen he entered into the order of Jesuits, and mave so great proficiency in his studies, that he taught polite literature, and composed many pieces in prose and verse with considerable delicacy of thought and style, before he was well arrived at the age of manhood. Propriety and elegance of language appear to have been his first pursuits, for which purpose he studied the belles lettres; but afterwards he devoted himself to mathematical and philosophical studies, and read, with due attention, the most valuable authors, ancient and modern, in those sciences. By such assiduity in a short time he made himself master of the Peripatetic and Cartesian philosophy, and taught them both with great reputation. Notwithstanding he embraced Cartesianism, yet he affected to be rather an inventor in philosophy himself. In this spirit he sometimes advanced very bold opinions in natural pbilosophy, which met with opposers, who charged bim with starting absurdities: but he was ingenious enough to give bis notions a plausible turn, so as to clear them seemingly from contradictions. His reputation procured him a call to Paris, as professor of rhetoric in the college of Louis the Great. He also taught the mathematics in that city, as he had before done in other places ; but the high expectations which his writings very reasonably created, were all disappointed by his early cieath, in 1673, at thirty-seven years of age. He tell a victim to his zeal, baving caught a contagious disorder by preaching to the prisoners in the Bicetre.
Pardies wrote with great neatness and elegance. His principal works are as follow: 1. “ Horolog uin Thaumaticum duplex," 1662, 4to. 2. “ Dissertatio de Motu et Natura Cometarum," 1665, 8vo. 3. “Discours du Mouvement Local,” 1670, 12mo. 4. “ Elemens de Geometrie,"
! Biog. Univ. art, Deparcieux.
1670, 12mo. This has been translated into several languages; in English by Dr. Harris, in 1711. 5.
6. Discours de la Connoissance des Betes," 1672, 12mo. 6. 6 Lettre d'un Philosophe à un Cartesien de ses amis," 1672, 12mo. 7. “ La Statique ou la Science des Forces Mouvantes," 1673, 12ino. 8. “ Description et Explication de deux Machines propres à faire des Cadrans avec une grande facilité,” 1673, 12mo. 9.“ Remarques du Mouvement de la Lumiere." 10.“ Globi Cælestis in tabula plana redacti Descriptio," 1675, folio. Part of his works were printed together, at the Hague, 1691, 12mo; and again at Lyons, 1725. Pardies had a disputę also with sir Isaac Newton, about his new theory of light and colours,. in 1672. His letters are inserted in the Philosophical Transactions for that year.
PARE (AMBROSE), a French sưrgeon of eminence, was born at Laval, in the district of the Maine, in 1509. He commenced the study of his profession early in life, and practised it with great zeal both in hospitals and in the army; and when his reputation was at its height, he was appointed: surgeon in ordinary to king Henry Il. in: 1552; and be held the same office under the succeeding kings, Francis II. Charles IX. and Henry III. To Charles IX. especially he is said to bave on one occasion conferred great professional benefits, when some formidable symptoms had been produced by the accidental wound of a tendon in: venesection, which he speedily removed. His services appear to bave been amply aeknowledged by the king; wbo spared him in the horrible massacre of St. Bartholomew's, although a protestant. “ Of all those,” says. the duke of Sully, “ who were about the person of this prince (Charles IX:) none possessed so great a share of his confidence as Ambrose Paré, his surgeon. This man, though a Huguenot, lived with him in so great a degree of familiarity, that, on the day of the massacre, Charles telling him, the time was now come when the whole kingdom would be catholics; he replied, without being alarmed, “By the light of God, sire, I cannot believe that you have forgot your promise never to command me to do four things; namely, to enter into my mother's womb*, to be present in the day of battle, to quit your service, or to go to mass. The king soon after took him aside, and disclosed to him freely the trouble of his soul : Ambrose,' said he, 'I know not what has happened to me these two or three days past, but I feel my mind and body as much at enmity with each other, as if I was seized with a fever; sleeping or waking, the murdered Huguenots seem ever present to my eyes, with ghastly faces, and weltering in blood. I wish the innocent and helpless had been spared!'. The order which was pub. lished the following day, forbidding the continuance of the massacre, was in consequence of this conversation.” Paré, after having been long esteemed as the first surgeon of his time, and beloved for his private virtues, died Dec. 20, 1590, at the age of eighty-one; and as he was buried in the church of St. Andrew, Eloy would' from that circumstance infer that he died 'a. Roman catholic, of which we have no proof.
* This absurd promise seems intended as an illustration of the impossibility of the king's breaking his word with him in the other cases.
1 Chaufepie.Niceron, I. and X.-Martin's Biog. Philos.-Hutton's Dict.
Paré was not a man of learning, although we meet with learned references and numerous quotations from the ancients, in his writings; but he must be considered as a bold and successful operator, and a real improver of his art; particularly in the practice of tying divided arteries, which he effected by drawing them out naked, and passing a ligature over them; and in the treatment of guv-shot wounds. Even in anatomy, in which he did not excel, he was, by frequent dissections, enabled to add some observations of his own to what he had borrowed from Vesalius. As an author he had high fame, and his works were universally read and translated into most of the languages of Europe. His first treatise, “ Manière de traiter les playes faites par harquebuses, fleches, &c.” was published at Paris in 1545, and again in 1552 and 1564. He afterwards Jaboured strenuously to put his brethren in possession of a body of surgical science in their native tongue; and in 1561 published the first edition of his works, in folio. This was translated by Thomas Johnson, Lond. 1634, and reprinted with additions in 1649. His treatise on gun-shot wounds was published by Walter Hammond in 1617, and that on the plague in 1630.
Numerous editions of his whole works were afterwards printed in German, Dutch, and French ; and his pupil, Guillemeau, who was also surgeon to Charles IX. and Henry IV. translated them into Latin. This translation has been frequently reprinted at variousplaces, with the title of “Ambrosii Paræi, Opera,