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bered among the departments of France, and entitled to all the privileges of the new constitution, and Paoli was induced, by the promising appearance of affairs, and the solicitations of the French assembly, to return to the island. Accordingly he resigned his pension from the English court, took a grateful leave of the country in which he had been so hospitably entertained, and in the month of April 1790, presented himself at the bar of the national assembly at Paris, together with the Corsican deputies. Soon after this he embarked for Corsica, where he was received with an extraordinary degree of attachment and respect. He was elected mayor of Bastia, commander-in-chief of the national guard, and president of the department; and, in short, he at once acquired more authority in the island, than before its subjugation by the French. He was, bowever, not quite contented; he was ambitious of seeing Corsica wholly independent, which, upon the execution of Louis XVI. was the prevailing wish of the Corsicans. The French convention, however, meant nothing less, and at length declared Paoli a traitor. On this he resolved upon an expedient which, though it was a renunciation of independence, promised to secure all the advantages of real liberty. This was an union of Corsica with the crown of Great Britain ; after effecting whicb, he returned to England, having unfortunately lost all his property, by the failure of a mercantile house at Leghorn, and passed the remainder of his life in great privacy. He died in London, February 5, 1807, in the eighty-first year of his age. Few foreigners, however distinguished, have been so much caressed in England as general Paoli. By living in habits of familiarity with men of letters, his name and exploits acquired high celebrity : and Goldsmith, Johnson, and many others, equally eminent in the literary world, although differing in almost every thing else, cordially united in his praise. On the continent his reputation was greatly respected : it was usual to compare Paoli to Timoleon and Epaminondas. He was unquestionably a great man ; but it is the opinion of those who have enjoyed the opportunity of studying his character, that he was a politician rather than a soldier: that be shone more in council than in arms; and that the leading feature of his public conduct was a certain degree of Italian policy, which taught him to refine and speculate on every event.'

| Boswell's Account of Corsica.-Atheneum, rol. I.-Rees's Cyclopædia.

of his age.

PAPENBROCH (DANIEL), a native of Antwerp, was born in 1628, and was educated as a Jesuit. He has al-' ready been mentioned in our account of Bollandus, as the coadjutor of that writer in the compilation of the “ Acta Sanctorum.” He died in 1714, in the seventy-eighth year

He was, according to Dupin, less credulous than Bollandus, and became involved in a controversy with the Carmelites respecting the origin of their order. There is little else interesting in his bistory; but in addition to the account given in our article BOLLANDUS, of the “ Acta Sanctorum," we may now mention that the work has been continued to the fifty-third volume, folio, which appeared in 1794, but is yet imperfect, as it comes only to October, 14th. Brunet informs is that there are very few perfect copies to be found in France, some of the latter volumes being destroyed during the revolutionary period. The reprint at Venice, 1734, 42 vols. is of less estimation.

PAPIAS, bishop of Hierapolis, a city of Phrygia in Asia Minor, near to Laodicea, was the disciple of St. John the Evangelist, or of another of that name; but Irenæus says positively, that he was the disciple of St. John the Evangelist ; for Polycarp was his disciple, and he. Papias was Polycarp's companion. Papias wrote five books, entitled “ The Expositions of the Discourses of the Lord;" of which there are only some fragments left in the writings of Irenæus and Eusebius. He made way for the opinion several of the ancients held touching the temporal reign of Christ, who they supposed would come upon earth a thousand years before the day of judgment, to gather together the elect, after the resurrection, into the city of Jerusalem, and let them there enjoy all felicity during that period. Irenæus, who was of the same judgment, relates a fragment he took out of Papias's' fourth book, where he endeavours to prove that opinion from a passage in Isaiah; and Eusebius, after having quoted a passage taken out of Papias's Preface, 'adds, “ That that author relates divers things which he pretended he had by unwritten tradition; such as were the last instructions of our Lord Christ, which are not set down by the Evangelists, and some other fabulous histories, amongst which number bis opinion ought to be placed touching the personal reign of Christ upon earth after the resurrection. “ The occasion of his falling into

e says,

1 Dupin.-.-Moreri.--Dict. Hist.-Brunel's Manuel du Libraire.

that error," says Eusebius again," was his misunderstanding of the discourses and instructions of the Apostles, as not thinking that those expressions ought to bear a mystical sense; and that the Apostles used them only for illustration, for he was a man of a mean genius, as his books manifest, and yet several of the ancients, and, among the rest, Irenæus, maintained their opinions on the authority of Papias." I

PAPILLON (PHILIBERT), a learned canon of la Chapelle-au. Riche, at Dijon, in which city he was born, May 1, 1666, was the son of Philip Papillon, advocate to the parliament. He was a man of literature, and an able critic, and furnished Le Long of the Oratory, Desmolets, Niceron, and several others among the learned, with a number of important memoirs and anecdotes. He died February 23, 1738, at Dijon, aged seventy-two. His principal work is, “ La Bibliotheque des Auteurs de Bourgogne," Dijon, 1742, 2 vols. folio, printed under the inspection of his friend M. Joly, canon of la Chapelle-auRiche. ?

PAPILLON (JOHN), was one of a family of engravers on wood, who obtained considerable reputation in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. He flourished about 1670, but attained less fame than his son John, who was born at St. Quentin in 1661. The grandson JOHN BAPTIST MICHEL was the most successful in his art, especially in those engravings which represent foliage and flowers, many beautiful specimens of which are inserted in his pub. lication on the art of engraving in wood; and the whole prove that he was a very skilful master in every branch of the art he professed. The human figure he seems to have been the least acquainted with, and has consequently failed most in those prints into which it is introduced. He died in 1776; about ten years before which event be published in 2 vols. 8vo, his “ Traité historique et pratique de la gravure en bois,” a work of great merit as to the theory of an art, which, it is almost needless to add, has of late years been brought to the highest perfection by some ingenious men of our own country, led first to this pursuit by the excellent example and success of the Messrs. Bewickes.

3

i Cave, vol. I.-Lardner's Works.-Dupin. & Moreri.--Dict. Hist.

3 Strutt.--Moreri. -Dict. Hist.

PAPIN (DENYS), an ingenious physician, the son of Nicholas Papin, also a physician, was born at Blois. He took the degree of doctor, and travelled to England, where he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society, in December 1680. He passed the following year in London, and published in English an account of a machine which he had invented, and which still bears his name: this was “ The New Digester, or Engine for the softening of Bones," 1681, 4to. It soon appeared in French, with the title of “ La Manière d'amollir les Os, et de faire cuire toutes sortes des Viandes en peu de tems et à peu de fraix,” Paris, 1682. The machine consists of a very strong metal boiler, with an air-tight cover screwed down with great force; hence the contained matter, being incapable of escaping either by evaporation or by bursting the machine, may be heated to a degree far beyond that of boiling water, so as to dissolve the gluten of bones and cartilages. He afterwards improved this digester, and it has since been much employed in chemical and philosophical experiments. He assisted Boyle in various experiments, of which an account is given in the history of the Royal Society. Papin was a protestant, and being therefore prevented from returning home by the revocation of the edict of Nantes, be took up his residence at Marpurg, where he taught the mathematics, and published a “Fasciculus Dissertationum de quibusdam Machinis Physicis," 1696, 12mo; and in 1707 he published at Francfort an account of a machine which he had invented for raising water by the action of fire, entitled “ Ars nova ad aquam ignis adminiculo efficacissimè elevandam."

His father, NICHOLAS PAPIN, was author of several works, which, however, are nearly forgotten. Two of them related to the powder of Sympathy, which be defended ; and one to the discovery of Harvey, which he opposed."

PAPIN (ISAAC), some time a minister of the church of England, and afterwards reconciled to that of Rome, was the author of some pieces which made a great noise in the seventeenth century. From an account of his life, publisbed by himself, it appears that he was born at Blois in 1657, and descended from a family of the reformed religion. He passed through his studies in divinity at Geneya. That university was then divided into two parties

Moreri.Eloy, Dict. Hist. de Medicine.-Rees's Cyclopædia.

vour.

upon the subject of grace, called “particularists” and “universalists," of which the former were the most numerous and the most powerful. The universalists desired nothing more than a toleration; and M. Claude wrote a letter to M. Turretin, the chief of the predominant party, exhorting him earnestly to grant that fa

But Turretin gave little heed to it; and M. de Maratiz, professor at Groningen, who had disputed the point warmly against Mr. Daille, opposed it zealously; and supported his opinion by the authority of those synods who bad determined against such toleration. There happened also another dispute upon the same subject, which occasioned Papin to make several reflections. M. Pajon, who was his uncle, admitted the doctrine of efficacious grace, but explained it in a different manner from the reformed in general, and Jurieu in particular; and though the synod of Anjou in 1667, after many long debates upon the matter, dismissed Pajon, with leave to continue his lectures at Saumur, yet as his interest there was not great, his nephew, who was a student in that university in 1633, was pressed to condemn the doctrine, which was branded with the appellation of Pajonism. Papin declared, that his conscience would not allow him to subscribe to the condemnation of either party ; on which the university refused to give him a testimonial in the usual form. All these disagreeable incidents put him out of humour with the authors of them, and brought him to view the Roman catholic religion with less dislike than before. In this disposition he wrote a treatise, entitled “The Faith reduced to its just bounds;" in which he maintained, that, as the papists professed that they embraced the doctrine of the Holy Scriptures, they ought to be tolerated by the most zealous protestants. He also wrote several letters to the reformed of Bourdeaux, to persuade them that they might be saved in the Romish church, if they would be reconciled to it.

This work, as might be expected, exasperated the protestants against him; and to avoid their resentment, he crossed the water to England, in 1686, where James II. was endeavouring to re-establish popery. There he received deacon's and priest's orders, from the hands of Turner, bishop of Ely; and, in 1687, published a book against Jurieu, entitled “ Theological Essays concerning Providence and Grace, &c.” This exasperated that miVOL. XXIV.

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