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Turin, willing to give him some marks of their esteem, at his departure, presented him with his freedom, accompanied with some pieces of silver plate. He then remained at Padua, where his stipend was raised to the sum of twelve hundred ducatş. Here he died in June 1599, and was interred in the church of St. Justin, after funeral service had been performed for him in the church of St. Anthony; where Francis Vidua of that university pronounced his funeral oration. He was author of a number of learned works, of which the principal are: 1. “ Commentarii in Notitiam utriusque Imperii et de Magistratibus," Venice, 1593, fol. often reprinted, and inserted in the Roman Antiquities of Grævius; 2. “ De Numismatibus antiquis;" 3. “De quatuordecim Regionibus Urbis Romæ,” printed in the Leyden edition of the Notitia, 1608; 4. “ Rerum Memorabilium jain olim deperditarum, et contra recens atque ingeniose inventarum,” 1599, 2 vols. 8vo, often reprinted and translated. He wrote also a valuable treatise, which was not published till 1637, entitled “ De Claris Legum Interpretibus."


PANTÆNUS, a Christian philosopher, of the Stoic sect, flourished in the second century. Some say he was born in Sicily, others at Alexandria, of Sicilian parents, He is said to have taught the Stoic philosophy in the reign of Commodus, from A. D. 180, in the school of Alexandria; where from the time of St. Mark, founder of that church, there had always been some divine who explained the Holy Scriptures. The Ethiopians having requested Demetrius, bishop of Alexandria, to send a proper person to instruct them in the Christian religion, he sent Pantænus; who gladly undertook the mission, and acquitted himself very worthily in it. It is said, that he found the Ethiopians already tinctured with the truth of Christian faith, which had been declared to them by St. Bartholomew; and that he saw the gospel of St. Matthew in Hebrew, which had been left there by that apostle. St. Jerome says, that Pantænus brought it away with him, and that it was still to be seen in his time in the Alexandrian library; but this story is not generally credited, since no good reason can be given, why St. Bartholomew should leave a Hebrew book with the Etbiopians. Pantænus,

1 Chaufepie. Niceron, vol. IX.--Tiraboschi.--Saxii Onomast.


upon his return to Alexandria, continued to explain the sacred books under the reign of Severus and Antoninus Caracalla, and did great service to the church by his dis

He composed some " Commentaries" upon the Bible, which are lost. Theodoret informis us that Pantænus first started the remark, which has been followed by many interpreters of the prophecies since, " That they are often expressed in indefinite terms, and that the present tense is frequently used both for the preterite and future tenses." We may form a judgment of the manner in which Pantanus explained the Scriptures, by that which Clemens Alexandrinus, Origen, and all those have observed, who were trained up in the school of Alexandria. Their commentaries abound with allegories; they frequently leave the literal sense, and find almost every where some mystery or other; in the explaining of which, they usually shew more erudition than judgment. Milner observes, that the combination of Stoicism

with Christianity must have very much debased the sacred truths; and we may be assured that those who were disposed to follow implicitly the dictates of such an instructor as Pantænus, must have been furnished by him with a clouded light of the gospel. Cave is of opinion that Pantænus's death occurred in the

year 213.2

PANTALEON (HENRY), a learned physician and historian, was born at Basil June 13, 1522. In his early education he made very considerable proficiency, but it appears that his friends differed in their opinions as to his profession, some intending him for a learned profession, and some for a printer, which they conceived to be connected with it. At length after a due course of the languages and polite literature, he studied divinity according to the principles of the reformed religion, but changing that design, he taught dialectics and natural philosophy at Basil for about forty years. He then, at an advanced age, studied medicine, took the degree of doctor in that faculty, and practised with much reputation until his death, March 3, 1595, in the seventy-third year of his age. He composed various works both in medicine and history, some in Latin and some in German, and translated certain authors into the latter language. His most useful work, now scarce, was an account of the eminent men of Germany, published at Basil in 1565, fol. under the title of “Posographia heroum et illustrium virorum Germaniæ,” dedi. cated to the emperor Maximilian II. who honoured him with the title of Count Palatin. He published also a Latin history of the order of St. John of Jerusalem, 1581, folio. “ Historia Militaris ordinis Johannitarum, Rhodiorum aut Melitensium Equitum ;"6 Chronographia Ecclesiæ Christi,” ibid. 1568; “ Diarium Historicum,” 1572; and, in his youth, “Comædia de Zaccheo publicanorum principe,” 1546, 8vo.'

1 Cave, vol. I.-Dupin.-Lardner's Works.Milner's Ch, Hist.

PANVINIUS (ONUPHRIUS), a learned scholar of the sixteenth century, was born at Verona in 1529. He discovered an attachment to history and antiquities in his earliest years, and entered into the order of the Augustins. As soon as he had made profession, the general of his order sent him to Rome to complete his studies, and in 1553 he was appointed to instruct the novices, He then taught scholastic theology at Florence for some time, but his chief residence was at Rome, where he was patronized by cardinal Marcello Cervini, afterwards pope Marcellus II. From thence he passed into the court of cardinal Alexander Farnese, with whom he travelled into Sicily in 1568, where ḥe died in his thirty-ninth year. One of his first Jabours was an edition of the “ Fasti Consulares,” first brought to light by Sigonius, which he published, illustrated with notes, at Venice in 1557. He published treatises also, “De Antiquis Romanorum Nominibus;” “De Principibus Romanis;" “ De Republica;" “ De Triumphis et Ludis Circensibus ;” and “ Topographia Romæ.” These valuable works are founded in a great measure upon ancient inscriptions, of which he had collected and copied nearly three thousand. Some time after, this collection, which had come into the hands of cardinal Savelli, disappeared, and Maffei is of opinion that the collection published at Antwerp by Martin Sanctius, in 1588, and which served as a foundation for Gruterus's great work, was in reality that of Panvinius. Panvinius was also a profound investigator of sacred or Christian antiquities, as appears by his works, “ De Ritu sepeliendi mortuos apud veteres Christianos;" “ De antiquo Ritu baptizandi Catechumenos;”? “De Primatu Petri;” “Chronicon Ecclesiasticum;" De Episcopatibus Titulis, et Diaconis Cardinalium ;"

1 Melchior Adam in vitis Philosophorum.


“ Annotationes et Supplementa ad Platinam de Vitis Pontificum ;" “ De Septem præcipuis Urbis Romæ Basilicis;" - De Bibliotheca Vaticana.” He had undertaken a general ecclesiastical history, for which he collected matter sufficient to fill six large manuscript volumes, which are preserved in the Vatican. He wrote a chronicle of his own order, and a history of bis native city, Verona, including an account of its antiquities, printed many years after his death.'

PANZER (GEORGE WOLFGANG FRANCIS), an eminent bibliographer, was born at Sulzbach in the Upper Palatinate, March 16, 1729, and having been educated for the church, took his doctor's degree in divinity and philosophy, and became pastor of the cathedral church of St. Sebaldus at Nuremberg, where he died in 1805. No farther particulars have yet reached us of this learned and laborious writer, who has long been known here by his “ Annales Typographici, ab artis inventæ origine ad annum M. D. post. Maittairii, Denisii, aliorumque doctissimorum virorum curas in ordinem redacti, emendati et aucti," Nuremberg, 1793-1803, 11 vols. 4to. This is unquestionably a work of the very first importance to bibliographers, and is thought to exceed Maittaire's in clearness of arrangement and accuracy. It comes down, beyond his original intention, to 1536; but is not quite complete without another work of his printed in German, “ Annals of ancient German Literature, or an account of books printed in Germany from the invention of the art to 1520,”. Nuremberg, 1788, 4to. His other works, also unfortunately in German, are an Account of the most ancient German Bibles, printed in the fifteenth century, which are in the library at Nuremberg," 1777, 4to; “ History of Bibles printed at Nuremberg, from the invention of the Art," Nuremberg, 1778, 4to. And a “ History of early Printing at Nuremberg to the year 1500," ibid. 1789, 4to.'

PAOLI (PASCAL DE), a very distinguished character in modern times, born at Rostino, in the island of Corsica, in 1726, was the son of Hiacente Paoli, a Corsican patriot, who, despairing of the freedom of his country, had retired with his family to Naples. Pascal was educated among the Jesuits, and at their college he made a rapid progress in

1 Chaufepie.—Tiraboschi.-Bullart's Academie des Sciences.--Saxii Onom.

Dict, Hist.-- Dibuin's Bibliomania. -- Brunet Manuel du Libraire,

his studies, and displayed an understanding equally solid and capacious. He appeared in so favourable a light to his countrymen, that he was unanimously chosen generalissimo, in a full assembly of the people, when he had attained but to the 29th year of his age. He began with new-modelling the laws of Corsica, and established the appearance, if not the reality, of subordination : he also in. stituted schools, and laid the foundation of a maritime power. In 1761 the government of Genoa, perceiving the change lately effected among the natives, sent a deputation to a general council, convoked at Vescovato, for the express purpose of proposing terms of accommodation; but it was unanimously resolved never to make peace with them, unless upon the express condition of Corsica being guaranteed in the full enjoyment of its independence. A memorial to the same effect was also addressed, at the same time, to all the sovereigns of Europe. But nothing was gained by this step; and in 1768, the Genoese, despairing of rendering the Corsicans subservient to their will, transferred the sovereignty of their island to France, on condition of receiving in lieu of it 40,000,000 of livres. Notwithstanding this, Paoli remained firm to his cause : and a vigorous war commenced, in which, for some time, the French were beaten, and in one instance their general was obliged to capitulate, with all his infantry, artillery, and ammunition ; but an immense force bing now sent from France, overwhelmed the Corsican patriots; they were defeated with great slaughter, and Paoli, left with only about 500 men, was surrounded by the French, who were anxious to get possession of his person : he, however, cut his way through the enemy, and escaped to England with his friends, where they were received with every degree of sympathy and respect. Paoli was introduced at court, and the duke of Grafton, then prime minister, obtained for him a pension of 12001. a-year, which he liberally shared with his companions in exile. From this time he lived a retired life, devoting himself chiefly to the cultivation of literature. During his retirement, which lasted more than twenty years, he was introduced to Dr. Johnson by Mr. Boswell, and lived in habits of intimacy with that eminent scholar. Much of their conversation is recorded by Mr. Boswell.

When the French revolution took place, the national convention passed a decree by which Corsica was num

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