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tion was published, at the end of Eusebius' Chronicle, without date or place, but, as supposed, at Milan in 1475, 4to. It was reprinted at Venice in 1483, 4to. continued to the year 1482, by Matthias Palmieri, who, although almost of the same names, was neither his relation nor countryman. This Matthias was a native of Pisa, was apostolical secretary, and accounted a very able Greek and Latin scholar. He died in his sixtieth year, in 1483.

Besides his “ Chronicle,” Matthew, or Matteo, Palmieri wrote in Latin the life of Nicolas Acciajuoli, grandseneschal of the kingdom of Naples, which is printed in the thirteenth volume of Muratori's "Script. Rer. Ital.;" a work on the taking of Pisa by the Florentines, “ De captivitate Pisarum,” printed in Muratori's nineteenth volume, and, in Italian, “ Libro della vita civile," written in the form of dialogues, and printed at Florence in 1529, 8vo. It was translated into French by Claude des Rosiers, Paris, 1557, 8vo. Palmieri was also a poet. He composed in the terza rima, in imitation of Dante, a philosophical, or rather a theological, poem, which had great celebrity in bis day : its title was “ Citta di Vita,” and was divided into three books, and an hundred chapters. But having advanced, among other singular opinions, that human souls were formerly those angels who remained neuter during the rebellion in heaven against their Creator, and were sent to the world below as a punishment, the Inquisition, after his death, ordered his poem to be burnt, although it had never been published, but read in manuscript. Some assert, that he was burnt along with his poem ; but Apostolo Zeno has proved that he died peaceably in 1475, and was honoured with a public funeral, by order of the state of Florence, that Rinuccini pronounced his funeral oration, and that, during the ceremony, his poem was laid on his breast, as his highest honour.'

PALOMINO (DON Acislo ANTONIO Y Velasco), a. Spanish painter and writer on the art, was born at Bujalance, and studied at Cordova in grammar, philosophy, theology, and jurisprudence. The elements of art he acquired of Don Juan de Valdes Leal; and to acquaint himself with the style of different schools, went, in company of Don Juan de Alfaro, in 1678, to Madrid. Here the friendship of Carrenno procuring him the commission of painting the gallery del Cierzo, he pleased the king and the minister, and in 1688 he was made painter to the king. He was now overwhelmed with commissions, for many

1 Tiraboschi. Ginguené Hist. Litt. d'Italie-Chaufepie,


of which, notwithstanding the most surprising activity, he could furnish only the designs; their ultimate finish was left to the hand of his pupil Dionysius Vidal ; but whatever was designed and terminated by himself, in fresco or in oil, possesses invention, design, and colour, in the essential; and what taste and science could add, in the ornamental parts. His style was certainly more adapted to the demands of the epoch in which he lived, than to those of the preceding one, and probably would not have obtained from Murillo the praises lavished on it by Luca Giordano; but of the machinists, who surrounded him, he was, perhaps, the least debauched by manner.

Palomino may be considered as the Vasari of Spain; as copious, as credulous, as negligent of dates; too garrulous for energy, and too indefinite for the delineation of character, but eminently useful with the emendations of modern and more accurate biographers. His work is divided into three parts, theoretic, practic, and biographic. The two first bear one title, “ El Museo pictorico y escala optica,” 1715, 2 vols. folio. The third part, distinguished by that of “ El Parnaso Espannol Pintoresco laureado, &c. Tomo Tercero, Madrid," 1724, though, perhaps, only intended as an appendix to the two former, is by far the most important and interesting. Palomino died in 1726.'

PALSGRAVE (John), a polite scholar, who flourished in the reigns of Henry VII. and VIII. was a native of London, and educated there in grammar. He afterwards studied logic and philosophy at Cambridge, at which university he resided till he had attained the degree of bachelor of arts; after which he went to Paris, where he spent several years in the study of philosophical and other learning, took the degree of master of arts, and acquired such excellence in the French tongue, that, in 1514, when a treaty of marriage was negotiated between Louis XII. king of France, and the princess Mary, sister of king Henry VIII. of England, Mr. Palsgrave was chosen to be ber tutor in that language. But Louis XII. dying almost immediately after his marriage, Palsgrave attended his fair pupil back to England, where he taught the French language to many of the young nobility, and was appointed by the king one of his chaplains in ordinary. He is said also to have obtained some church preferments, but we know only of the prebend of Portpoole, in the church of St. Paul's, which was bestowed upon him in April 1514, and the living of St. Dunstan's in the East, given to him by archbishop Cranmer in 1553. In 1531, he settled at Oxford for some time, and the next year was incorporated master of arts in that university, as he had before been in that of Paris; and a few days after was admitted to the degree of bachelor of divinity. At this time he was highly esteemed for his learning; and was the first author who reduced the French tongue under grammatical rules, or that had attempted to fix it to any kind of standard. This he executed with great ingenuity and success, in a large work which he published in that language at London, entitled “ L'Eclaircissement de la Language François,” containing three books, in a thick folio, 1530, to which he has prefixed a large introduction in English. This work is now extremely scarce. In the dedication he says that he had written two books on the subject before; one dedicated to his pupil Mary, the other to Charles Brandon duke of Suffolk. He made a literal translation into English of a Latin comedy called “ Acolastus,” written by Fullonius, and published it in 1540. He is said also to have written some

1 Pilkington, by Fuseli.

Epistles.” When Mr. Palsgrave was born, or to what age he lived, are particulars which we have not been able to trace; yet his death probably happened before September 1554, as in that month Edmond Brygotte, S. T. P. was collated to the prebend of Portpoole "per mortem Joh. Pallgrave."

PAMELIUS (JAMES), a learned Fleming, was the son of Adolphus, counsellor of state to the emperor Charles V. and born at Bruges in 1536. He was educated at Louvain and Paris, and became afterwards a learned divine and critic. Obtaining a canonry in the church of Bruges, he collected a library, and formed a design of giving good editions of the fathers; but the civil wars obliged him to retire to St. Omer's, of which place the bishop made him archdeacon. Some time after, Philip II. king of Spain named bim to the provostship of St. Saviour at Utrecht,


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Ath, Ox. vol. I. new edition.—Tanner. ---Ames's Typographical Antiquities. Cole's MS Athenæ in Brit. Mus.

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and after that to the bishopric of St. Omer's : but, as he went to Brussels to take possession of it, he died at Mons in Hainault, in 1587. He is chiefly known for his critical labours upon “ Tertullian and Cyprian;" of both which writers he published editions, and prefixed lives. “The commentaries of this author upon Tertullian," says Dupin,

both learned and useful ; but he digresses too much from his subject, and brings in things of no use to the understanding of his author :" and he passes much the same judgment of his labours upon Cyprian. All the later editors, however, of these two fathers have spoken well of Pamelius, and have transcribed his best notes into their editions.

A new edition of Rabanus, which he was preparing at the time of his decease, has been since published at Cologn, and includes Commentaries by Pamelius on Judith, and St. Paul's “Epistle to the Hebrews.” His other works are, “ Catalogus Commentar. veterum selectorum in universa Biblia," Antwerp, 1566, 8vo; “ Conciliorum Paralipomena," a discourse in Latin, addressed to the Flemish States; “ De non admittendis unâ in Republicâ diversorum Religionum exercitiis," 1589, 8vo; “ Micrologus de Ecclesiasticis observationibus ;” an edition of Cassiodorus “ De Divinis nominibus;" and two books of the “Liturgies of the Latins," 1571, 2 vols. 4to.'

PANARD (CHARLES-FRANCIS), a French poet, was born at Couville near Chartres in 1691, where he remained a long time in obscurity, upon some small employment. At length, the comedian Le Grand, having seen some of his pieces, went to find him out, and encouraged him; and Marmontel called him the Fontaine of the place. Panard had many qualities of Fontaine; the same disinterestedness, probity, sweetness, and simplicity of manners. He knew, as well as any man, how to sharpen the point of an epigram ; yet always levelled it at the vice, not the per

He had a philosophic temper, and lived contented with a little. He died at Paris June 13, 1764. His works, under the title of “ Théâtre & Oeuvres diverses," have been printed, 1763, in 4 vols. 12mo. They consist of comedies, comic operas, songs, and all the various kinds of smaller poetry.'


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*. 1 Moreri.- Foppen Bibl. Belg.--Blount's Censura.Saxii Onomast.;

? Necrologie des Hommes Celebres pour année 1766.-Dict. Hist,

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, PANCIROLUS (Guy), the son of Albert Pancirolus, a famous lawyer in his time, and descended from an illustrious family at Reggio, was born there April 17, 1523. He learned Latin and Greek under Sebastian Corrado and Bassiano Lando, and made so speedy a proficiency in them, that his father, thinking him fit for the study of the law at fourteen, taught him the first elements of that faculty himself; and Guy studied them incessantly under his father for three years, but without neglecting the belles lettres. He was afterwards sent into Italy, in order to complete his law-studies under the professors of that country. He went first to Ferrara ; and, having there heard the lectures of Pasceto and Hyppolitus Riminaldi, passed thence to Pavia, where he had for his master the famous Alciat, and to Bologna and Padua, where he completed a course of seven years study, during which he had distinguished himself in public disputations on several occasions: and the fame of his abilities having drawn the attention of the republic of Venice, he was nominated by them in 1547, while only a student, second professor of the Institutes in the university of Padua. This nomination obliged him to take a doctor's degree, which he received from the hands of Marcus Mantua. After he had filled this chair for seven years, he was advanced, to the first of the Institutes in 1554; and two years after, on the retirement of Matthew Gribaldi, who was second professor of the Roman law, Pancirolus succeeded hiin, and held this post for fifteen years. At length, having some reason to be dissatisfied with his situation, he resigned it in 1571, when Emanuel Philibert duke of Savoy offered bim the professorship of civil law, with a salary of a thousand pieces of gold. Here his patron the prince shewed him all imaginable respect, as did also his son Charles Emanuel, who augmented his appointments with a hundred pieces. The republic of Venice soon became sensible of the loss sustained by his departure, and were desirous of recalling him to a vacant professorship in 1580. This Pancirolus at first refused, and would indeed have been content to remain at Turin, but the air of the place proved so noxious to him, that he lost one eye almost entirely, and was in danger of losing the other; the dread of which induced him to hearken to proposals that were made afresh to him in 1582; and having a salary of a thousand ducats offered to him, with the chair he had so much wished for, he returned to Padua. The city of

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