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clxvi. 13.“ A Catalogue of mean, vulgar, cheap, and simple Experiments," &c. ibid. No. clxvii. 14. “ Maps of Ireland, being an actual Survey of the whole kingdom,” &c. 1685, folio. This contained thirty-six accurate maps; viz. a general map; the province of Leinster, consisting of eleven counties, each in a distinct map; that of Munster of six ; Ulster nine; and Connaught five. Another edition was afterwards made from the same plates. Sir William's surveys, says Mr. Gough, as far as they go are tolerably exact as to distances and situations, but neither the latitudes nor roads are expressed, nor is the sea-coast exactly laid down; his design being only to take an account of the forfeited lands; many other tracts are left blank, and from such a survey his maps are formed. 15.“ An Essay concerving the Multiplication of Mankind,” 1686, 8vo. N.'B. The Essay is not printed here, but only the substance of it. 16. " A further assertion, concerning the Magnitude of London, vindicating it from the objections of the French," Phil. Trans. clxxxv. 17. “Two Essays in Political Arithmetic,” &c. 1687, Svo. An extract of these is in Phil. Trans. No. clxxxiii. 18.“ Five Essays in Political Arithmetic,” &c. 1687, 8vo, printed in French and English on opposite pages.
19.“ Observations upon London and Rome,” 1687, Svo, three leaves. His posthumous pieces are, 1. “Political Arithmetic," &c. 1690, 8vo, and 1755, with his Life prefixed; and à Letter of his never before printed. 2. « The Political Anatomy of Ireland,” to which is added, “ Verbum Sapienti,” 1691, 1719. In the title-page of the second edition this treatise is called “ Sir William Petty's Political Survey of Ireland.”. This latter was criticized in “ A Letter from a gentleman,” &c. 1692, 4to. 3.“ A treatise of Naval Philosophy, in three parts,” &c. printed at the end of “ An account of several new Inventions, &c. in a discourse by way of letter to the earl of Marlborough,” &c. 1691, 12mo.
Wood suspects this may be the same with the discourse about the building of ships, mentioned above to be many years in the hands of lord Brounker. 4. " What a complete Treatise of Navigation should contain,” Phil. Trans. No. cxcviii. This was drawn up in 1685. Besides these, the following are printed in Birch's History of the R. S.: 1.“ A discourse of making Cloth and Sheep's Wool.” This contains the history of the clothing trade, as No. 5. above, does that of dyeing; and he purposed to have done the like in other trades, in which
design some other members of the society engaged also at that time. 2. “ Supellex Philosophica." i
PETTY (William), descendant of the preceding, second lord Wycombe, and first marquis of Lansdown, was born in May 1737, and succeeded his father as lord Wycombe, earl of Shelburne, in the month of May 1761. In February 1765 he was married to lady Sophia Carteret, daughter of the late earl Granville, by whom he became possessed of large estates, particularly that beautiful spot Lansdown Hill, Bath, from which he took his last title. By this lady, who died in 1771, he had a son, John Henry, who succeeded him in his titles, and who is since dead, leaving no male heir. The marquis married, secondly, lady Louisa Fitzpatrick, by whom, who died in 1789, he had another son, lord Henry, the present marquis of Lansdown. His lordship being intended for the army, he, at a fit age, obtained a commission in the guards, and served with the British troops in Germany under prince Ferdinand, and gave signal proofs of great personal courage at the battles of Campen and Minden. In December 1760 he was appointed aid-de-camp to the king, George III. with the rank of colonel. As a political man, he joined the party of the earl of Bute; and in 1762 he eagerly defended the court on the question respecting the preliminaries of peice. In the following year he was sworn of the privy coincil, and appointed first lord of the board of trade, wlich he soon quitted, and with it his connexion with the caurt and ministry, and attached himself in a short time to lords Chatham and Camden. When the Rockingham alministration was displaced in 1766, and lord Chatham vas called upon to form a new administration, he appointed lord Shelburne secretary of state of the southern cepartment, to which was annexed the department of the colonies. But this he resigned when lord Chatham withdrew in 1768, and from this period continued in strong opposition to all the measures of government during the American war till the termination of lord North's ministry, in the spring of 1782. He was then appointed secretary of state for the foreign department in the Rockingham administration, and upon the death of that nobleman he succeeded to the office of minister. This measure gave great offence to Mr. Fox and his friends, but his lordship did not quit his post. His first object was to make peace; but when the treaty was brought before the parliament, lord North and Mr. Fox had united in a most disgraceful coalition, which, however, for a time was irresistible, and early in 1783 lord Shelburne resigned. When at the end of that year Mr. Pitt overthrew the coalition administration, it was expected that lord Shelburne would have been at the head of the new government. He formed, however, no part of the arrangement, and appeared to have been satisfied with being created marquis of Lansdown. He now retired to a private life; but on the breaking out of the French revolution, came forward again in constant and decisive opposition to the measures of administration, in which he continued to the day of his death, May 7, 1805. His lordship always had the reputation of a man of considerable political knowledge, improved by a most extensive foreign correspondence, and a study of foreign affairs and foreign relations, which was very uncommon, and gave his speeches in parliament, while in opposition, very great weight. Many of his ablest efforts in this way, however, were rather historical than argumentative, excellent matter of information, but seldom ending in those results which shew a capacity for the formation of able and beneficial plans. It was bis misfortune, throughout almost the whole of his political career, to have few personal adherents, and to possess little of the confidence of either of the great parties who divided the parliament in the memorable contests respecting the policy of the American war, and the propriery of our interfering in the continental effort to suppress tle consequences of the French revolution. His lordship was possessed of perhaps the most valuable and complete li brary of history and political documents, both printed and manuscript, that ever was accumulated by any individua, or family. The printed part was dispersed by auction after his lordship's death, but the manuscripts were rescued from this—shall we say, disgrace? by the interference of the trustees of the British Museum, at whose representation the whole was purchased by a parliamentary grant for the sum of 49251. It is remarkable that this was the average valuation of three parties who had no connection with each other in the inspection of the MSS. They are now deposited in the above great national collection, and besides their importance as a miscellaneous collection of historical, biographical, and literary matter, they must be considered as highly interesting to future politicians and statesmen when we add that they were scarcely, if at all known, to those able antiquaries and inquirers into political history, Collins, Murdin, Jones, or Birch.?
1 Biog. Brit.-Ath. Ox. vol. 11.-Ward's Gresham Professors.-Aubrey MSS. in " Leiters by Eminent Persons," 1813, 3 vols. 8vo.-There are many of sir W. Petty's MSS. in the British Museum; and among others, a sort of confession of his faith corresponding with the concluding passage in his will.
PETTYT, or PETYT (WILLIAM), student of the Middle Temple, bencher and treasurer of the Inner Temple, and keeper of the records in the Tower, was born in 1636, at a place called, in his Latin epitaph, Storithes, near Skip, ton, in Craven, Yorkshire. Of his progress through life we have no information, except that he enjoyed much reputation as a law-writer, and particularly as the collector of a very curious library, and many valuable MSS. now in the Inner Temple library. He died at Chelsea, Oct. 3, 1707, aged seventy-one, but was buried in the Temple church, where is a long Latio epitaph, recording his many virtues and his collections, donations, &c. It is probable Chelsea was his favourite residence, as the year before his death he built a vestry and school-room adjoining the church-yard, with lodgings for the master, entirely at his own expence.
In 1680 he asserted the “ Ancient Rights of the Commons of England, in a discourse proving by records, &c. that they were ever an essential part of parliament,” 8vo. This
gave rise to a controversy, in the course of which the following pieces were published, 1.“ Jani Anglorum facies nova, or several monuments of antiquity touching the great councils of this kingdom and the courts of the king's immediate tenants and officers," 1680, 8vo, said to be written by Mr. Atwood. 2. “A full Answer to a book written by William Pettyt, esq. with a true account of the famous Colloquium, or Parliament 40 Hen. III. and a glossary expounding some few words in ancient records, together with some animadversions on a book called Jani Anglorum facies nova," 1683, 8vo. 3. “ Jus Anglorum ab antiquo, or a confutation of an impotent libel against the government by king, lords and commons, under the pretence of answering Mr. Pettyt, and the author of • Jani Anglorum facies nova,'” 1681, 8vo. 4. “ Argumentum Antinormanicum; or an argument proving from ancient histories and records, that William duke of Normandy made no absolute conquest in England," 1682, 8vo. This is thought by Dr. Brady to be also written by Mr. Atwood; but by others it is attributed to Mr. Cooke. To this an answer afterwards appeared by the principal champion in the dispute, Dr. Robert Brady, who collected all he had written on the occasion into “ An Introduction to the Old English History, in three tracts," and by the same author the same subject was connected with “ An Historical Treatise of Cities and Burghs, or Boroughs,” (See BRADY) 1704, 1711, fol. 1777, 8vo.
1 Collins's Peerage, by sir E. Brydges, &c. &c.
In 1680, 1681, Mr. Pettyt published his " Miscellanea Parliamentaria," 12mo; and other collections were left by him upon the subject of the law of parliament, which, after his death, were published under the title of “ Jus Parliamentarium, or the ancient power, jurisdiction, rights, and liberties of the most high court of Parliament, revived and asserted," 1739, fol. He also left a summary or table of the records kept in the Tower; some MSS. containing copies of records and law matters, relating chiefly to naval concerns; and other MSS. containing a great number of collections from records and other authentic materials, chiefly relating to the law and constitution of England, which are preserved in the Inner Temple library, and are much recommended to the notice of the English lawyer and historian, by Mr. Justice Barrington in his “ Observations on the Statutes."
PEUCER (GASPARD), a celebrated physician and mathematician, was born at Bautzen in Lusatia in 1525, and became a doctor and professor of medicine at Wirtemberg. He married a daughter of Melancthon, whose principles hé contributed to diffuse, and whose works he published at Wirtemberg in 1601, in five volumes folio. He had an extreme ardour for study. Being for ten years in close imprisonment, on account of his opinions, he wrote his thoughts on the margins of old books which they gave him for amosement, making his ink of burnt crusts of bread, infused in wine. He died at seventy-eight, on the 25th of September, 1602. He wrote several tracts, 1. præcipuis divinationum generibus," 1584, 4to. 2. “Methodus curandi morbos internos," Francfort, 1614, 8vo. 3. " De Febribus," 1614, 4to. 4. 66 Vitæ illustrium medicorum.” 5. “ Hypotheses astronomicæ." 6.“ Les noms des Monnoies, des Poids, et Mesures," 8vo. His charac
1 Granger.-Nichols's Bowyer. Bridgman's Legal Bibliography.