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is computed at, viz. 6371. per ann. 'to make the whole 1,4871. per ann. which addition of 6371. and 8501. being deducted out of the aforementioned 6,6001. leaves 5,1131. for my two sons; whereof I would my eldest son should have two-thirds, or 3,4081. and the younger 1,705l. and that, after their mother's death, the aforesaid addition of 6371. should be added in like proportion, making for the eldest 3,8321. and for the youngest 1,9161. and I would that the improvement of the estate should be equally divided between my two sons; and that the personal estate (taking out 10,000l. for my only daughter) that the rest should be equally divided between my wife and three children; by which method my wife would bave 1,5871. per ann. and 9,000l. in personal effects; my daughter would have 10,000l. of the Crame, and 9,0001. more, with less certainty : my eldest son would have 3,800l. per ann. and half the expected improvement, with 9,000l. in hopeful effects, over and above his wife's portion : and my youngest son would have the same within 1,900l. per ann. I would advise my wife, in this case, to spend her whole 1,5871. per ann. that is to say, on her own entertainment, charity, and munificence, without care of increasing her children's fortunes : and. I would she would give away one-third of the above mentioned 9,000l. at her death, even from her children, upon any worthy object, and dispose of the other two-thirds to such of her children and grand-children as pleased her best, without regard to any other rule or proportion. In case of either of my three children's death under age, I advise as follows; viz. If my eldest, Charles, die without issue, I would that Henry should have three-fourths of what he leaves; and my daughter Anne the rest. If Henry die, I would that what he leaves may be equally divided between Charles and Anne: and if Anne die, that her share be equally divided between Charles and Henry. Memorandum, That I think fit to rate the 30,000l. desperate debts at 1,100l. only, and to give it my daughter, to make her abovementioned 10,000l. and 9,0001. to be full 20,000l. which is much short of what I have given her younger brother; and the elder brother may have 3,800l. per ann. and 9,000l. in money, worth 900l. more, 2,000l. by improvements, and 1,300l. by marriage, to make up the whole to 8,000l. per ann. which is very well for the eldest son, as 20,000l. for the daughter.”—He then leaves his wife executrix and guardian during her widowhood,

VOL. XXIV.

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and, in case of her marriage, her brother James Waller, and Thomas Dame : recommending to them two, and his children, to use the saine servants and instruments for management of the estate, as were in his life-time, at cer, tain salaries to continue during their lives, or until his youngest child should be twenty-one years, which would be the 22d of October, 1696, after which his children might put the management of their respective concerns into what hands they pleased. He then proceeds:

“I would not have my funeral charge to exceed 3001. over and above which sum I allow and give 150l. to set up a monument in the church of Rumsey, near where my grandfather, father, and mother, were buried, in me. mory of them, and of all my brothers and sisters. I give also 5l. for a stone to be set up in Lothbury church,

London, in memory of my brother Anthony, there buried · about 18th October, 1649. I give also 50l. for a small mo

nument to be set up in St. Bride's church, Dublin, in memory

of

my son John, and my near kinsman, John Petty, supposing my wife will add thereunto for her excellent son, Sir William Fenton, bart. who was buried there 18th March, 1670-71; and if I myself be buried in any of the said three places, I would have 100l. only added to the above-named sums, or that the said 100l. shall be bestowed on a monument for me in any other place where I shall die. As for legacies for the poor, I am at a stand; as for beggars by trade and election, I give them nothing; as for impotents by the hand of God, the public ought to maintain them; as for those who have been bred to no calling nor estate, they should be put upon their kindred; as for those who can get no work, the magistrate should cause them to be employed, which may be well done in Ireland, where is fifteen acres of improvable land for every head; prisoners for crimes, by the King; for debts, by their prosecutors; as for those who compassionate the sufferings of any object, let them relieve themselves by relieving such sufferers, that is, give them alms pro re nata, and for God's sake relieve those several species above-mentioned, where the above-mentioned obligers fail in their duties: wherefore I am contented that I have assisted all my poor relations, and put many into a way of getting their own bread, and have laboured in public works, and by inventions have sought out real objects of charity ; and do hereby conjure all who partake of my estate, from time

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to time to do the same at their peril. Nevertheless, to answer custom, and to take the surer side, I give 20l. to the most wanting of the parish wherein I die. As for the education of my children, I would that my daughter might marry in Ireland, desiring that such a sum as I have left her, might not be carried out of Ireland. I wish that my eldest son may get a gentleman's estate in England, which, by what I have gotten already, intend to purchase, and by what I presume he may have with a wife, may amount to between 2000l. and 3000l. per ann. and buy some office he may get there, together with an ordinary superlucration may reasonably be expected; so as I may design my youngest son's trade and employment to be the prudent management of our Irish estate for himself and his elder brother, which I suppose his said brother must consider him for. As for myself, I being now about three-score and two years old, I intend to attend the improvement of my lands in Ireland, and to get in the many debts owing unto me; and to promote the trade of iron, lead, marble, fish, and timber, whereof my estate is capable : and as for studies and experiment, I think now to confine the same to the anatomy of the people and political arithmetic; as also to the improvements of ships, land-carriages, guns, and pumps, as of most use to mankind, not blaming the studies of other men. As for religion, I die in the profession of that faith, and in the practice of such worship, as I find established by the law of my country, not being able to believe what I myself please, nor to worship God better than by doing as I would be done unto, and observing the laws of my country, and expressing my love and honour to Almighty God by such signs and tokens as are understood to be such by the people with whom I live, God knowing my heart, even without any at all; and thus begging the Divine Majesty to make me what he would have me to be, both as to faith and good works, I willingly resign my soul into his bands, relying Conly on his infinite mercy, and the merits of my Saviour, for my happiness after this life, where I expect to know and see God more clearly than by the study of the Scriptures and of his works I have been hitherto able to do. Grant me, O Lord, an easy passage to thyself, that, as I have lived in thy fear, I may be known to die in thy favour. Amen."

His family, at his death, consisted of his widow and three children, Charles, Henry, and Anne; of whom Charles

was created baron of Shelbourne, in the county of Waterford, in Ireland, by king William III. ; but dying without issue, was succeeded by his younger brother Henry, who was created viscount Dunkeron, in the county of Kerry in that kingdom, and earl of Shelbourne, Feb. 11, 1718. He married the lady Arabella Boyle, sister to Charles earl of Cork, who brought him several children. He was member of parliament for Great Marlow in Buckinghamshire, a fellow of the royal society; and died April 17, 1751. Anne was married to Thomas Fitz-Morris, baron of Kerry and Lixnaw, and died in Ireland, anno 1737. The descent to the present marquis of Lansdown may be seen in

the peerage.

Before concluding this article, we may glean a few mnemoranda of his personal history from Aubrey, who appears to have lived in intimacy with him.

“ I remember there was a great difference between him and sir (Hierom Sankey), one of Oliver's knights, about 1660. They printed one against the other. * The knight had been a soldier, and challenged sir William to fight with him. Sir William is extremely short-sighted, and being the challengee it belonged to him to nominate place and weapon. He nominates for the place a dark cellar, and the weapon to be a great carpenter's axe. This turned the knight's challenge into ridicule, and it came to nought. Sir William can be an excellent droll, if he bas a mind to it, and will preach extempore incomparably, either in the presbyterian way, independent, capucin friar, or Jesuit.. “ He had his patent for earle of Kilmore and baron of

166-, which he stiftes during his life to avoyd envy, but his sonne will have the benefitt of the precedency t. He is a person of an admirable inventive head, and practicall parts. He hath told me that he hath read but little, that is to say, not since 25 ætat. and is of Mr. Hobbes his mind, that had he read much, as some men have, he had not known so much as he does, nor should have made such discoveries and improvements.

“ I remember one St. Andrew's day (which is the day of

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* “ The knight was wont to preach at Dublin, which out of envy obstructed at Dublin.” Aubrey.

the passing of his patent." 'Aubrey, of “ I expected that his sonne would who is probably here speaking of a kave broken out a lord or earle, but it period before the restoration, seemes that he had enemies at the court

the general meeting of the royal society for 'annual elections) I sayd, Methought 'twas not so well that we should pitch upon the patron of Scotland's day, we should rather have taken St. George or St. Isidora (a philosopher canonized).' No,' said sir William, I would rather that it had been on St. Thomas's day, for he would not believe till he had seen and putt his fingers into the boles, according to the motto Nullius in verba.'

“ He told me that he never gott by legacies in his life but only 10l. which was not payd. He bath told me, that whereas some men bave accidentally come into the way of preferment by lying at an inne, and there contracting an acquaintance, on the roade; or as some others have donne: he never had any such like opportunity, but hewed out his fortune himselfe.”

The variety of pursuits in which sir William Petty was engaged, shews him to have had a genius capable of any thing to which he chose to apply it; and it is very extraordinary, that a man of so active and busy a spirit could find time to write so many things, as it appears he did by the following catalogue: i.“ Advice to Mr. S. Hartlib,” &c. 1648, 4to. 2.“ A brief of Proceedings between sir Hierom Sankey and the author," &c. 1659, fol. 3. “Reflections upon some Persons and Things in Ireland," &c. 1660, 8vo. 4. “A Treatise of Taxes and Contribution,” &c. 1662, 1667, 1685, 4to, all without the author's name. This last was republished in 1690, with two other anonymous pieces, “ The Privileges and Practice of Parliaments,” and “The Politician discovered;" with a new title-page, where they are all said to be written by sir William, which, as to the first, is a mistake. 5. Apparatus to the history of the common practice of Dyeing,” printed in Sprat's History of the R. S. 1667. 6. " A Discourse concerning the use of Duplicate Proportion, together with a new hypothesis of springing or elastic Motions,” 1674, 12mo. See an account of it in “ Phil. Trans." No. cix. and a censure of it in Dr. Barlow's “ Genuine Remains," p. 151. 1693, 8vo. 7. Colloquium Davidis cum anima sua,” &c. 1679, fol, 8. “ The Politician discovered,&c. 1681, 4to. 9. “An Essay in Political Arithmetic,” &c. 1682, 8vo. 10.“ Observations upon the Dublin Bills of Mortality in 1681,” &c. 1683, 8vo. 11. “ An account of some Experiments relating to Land-carriage,” Phil. Trans. No. clxi. 12.“ Some Queries, whereby to examine Mineral Waters," ibid. No.

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