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des Hospitaux du Roi' à un autre Medecin de ses amis, sur un Nouveau Systeme du Cerveau,” Namur, 1710, 4to. “ Dissertation sur une Nouvelle Methode de faire l'Opera. tion de la Cataracte,” Par. 1727, 12mo.
6 Lettre dans laquelle il est démontré que la Crystallin est fort près de l'Uvée, et ou l'on rapporte de nouvelles preuves de l'Operation de la Cataracte," 1729, 4to. 66 Lettres contenant des Reflexions sur ce que M. Hecquet, M. D. a fait imprimer touchant les Maladies des Yeux," 1729, 4to.
66 Lettres contenant des Reflexions sur les Decouvertes faites sur les Yeux," 1732, 4to.'
PETIT (Samuel), or PETITUS, a celebrated scholar, was born at Nismes in '1594. He studied at Geneva, with a success so uncommon, that; at the age of seventeen, he was admitted to the sacred ministry. Soon after, he was raised to the professorships of theology, and of Greek and Hebrew in that city, where he passed the chief part of his life, and where he died'in December 1645, at the age of fifty-one. He has left behind him several works of great learning. For instance, 1. "Miscellanea," Paris, 1630, 4to, in nine books, containing corrections of passages in a vast number of ancient authors. 2.6 Eclogæ Chronologicæ," Paris, 1632, 4to. 3.," Variæ Lectiones," Paris, 1633, 4to. This is in four books, 'three of which are em: ployed on the customs, ceremonies, &c. of the Old and New Testament. 4. "Leges Atticæ,” first published at Paris, in 1615, but again in 1635, &c. This is a work of the highest reputation, and having been enriched by the subsequent remarks of Palmerius, Salvini, Duker, and Wesseling, was reprinted in 1742, fol. In this shape, it forms a third volume of the collection entitled " Jurisprudentia Romana et Attica," published by Heineccius, Duker, and Wesseling. Petit was the author also of other publications of less consequence, but all evincing profound and extensive learning. His character was not less amiable, than his accomplishments were extraordinary. He was mild and gentle in an uncommon degree. It is related of him, that going once from curiosity into a synagogue at Avignon, a rabbin, supposing himself free from all danger of detection, railed against him in Hebrew, in a very gross mander. Petit, without any anger, coolly answered him in the same language, and thus covered the assailant with 11 Eloy, Dict. Hist. de Medicine. ----Moreri,
confusion. In answer to the apologies and excuses of the Jew, he only, in a mild manner, exborted him to embrace Christianity.'
PETIT-DIDIER (MATTHew), a celebrated Benedictine, of the congregation of St. Vannes, was born December 18, 1659, at St. Nicholas in Lorrain. He taught philosophy and theology in the abbey de St. Michael ; was made abbot of Senones 1715, and bishop of Macra 1726. He died June 14, 1728, aged 69. The principal among his numerous works are, 3 vols. 8vo, of “ Remarks on M. Dupin's Ecclesiastical Library ;” and “An Apology for M. Pascal's Provincial Letters," in seventeen letters. This work he afterwards disavowed in a letter to cardinal Corradini, dated September 30, 1726, where he declares that these seventeen letters have been rashly and falsely attributed to him; but l'Avocat says, that it is nevertheless certain that he wrote them. He wrote also a treatise “ On the Pope's Infallibility,” in favour of the Holy See, and against the liberties of the Gallican church, Luxemburg, 1724, 12mo; and a “Dissertation on the Council of Constance," 1725, 12mo. He not only accepted the constitution “Unigenitus,” but wrote in its defence, and by that means gained the abbey of Senones, which the person to whom it had lapsed disputed with him.”
PETITOT (JOHN), a celebrated painter, was born at Geneva in 1607, of a father who was a sculptor and architect, and who, after having passed part of his life in Italy, retired to that city. His son was designed to be a jeweller; and, by frequent employment in enamelling, acquired so fine a taste, and so precious 'a tone of colouring, that Bordier, who afterwards became his brother-in-law, advised him to attach himself to portrait, believing he might push his art on still to greater lengths; and though both the one and the other wanted several colours which they could not bring to bear the fire, yet they succeeded to admiration. Petitot painted the heads and hands, in which his colour. ing was excellent; Bordier painted the hair, the draperies, and the grounds. These two friends, agreeing in their work and their projects, set out for Italy. The long stay they made there, frequenting the best chemists, joined to a strong desire of learning, improved them in the preparation of their colours; but the completion of their success must be ascribed to a journey they afterwards made to England. There they found sir Theodore Mayerné, physician to Charles I. and a great chemist; who had by his experiments discovered the principal colours to be used for enamel, and the proper means of vitrifying them. These by their beauty surpassed all the enamelling of Venice and Limoges. Mayerne introduced Petitot to the king, who retained him in his service, and gave him a lodging in Whitehall. Here he painted several portraits after Vandyck, in which he was guided by that excellent master, who was then in London; and his advice contributed greatly to the ability of Petitot, whose best pieces are after Vandyck. King Charles often went to see him work; as he took a pleasure both in painting and chemical experiments, to which his physician had given him a turn. Petitot painted that monarch and the whole royal family several times. The distinguished favour shewn him by that prince was only interrupted by his unhappy and tragical end. This was a terrible stroke to Petitot, who did not quit the royal family, but followed them in their flight to Paris, where he was looked on as one of their most zealous servants. During the four years that Charles II. stayed in France, he visited Petitot, and often eat with him. · Then it was, that his name became eminent, and that all the court of France grew fond of being painted in enamel. When Charles Il. returned to England, Louis XIV. retained Pe. titot in his service, gave him a pension, and a lodging in the gallery of the Louvre. These new favours, added to a considerable fortune he had already acquired, encouraged him to marry. in 1661. Afterwards Bordier became his brother-in-law, and ever remained in a firm union with hin: they lived together, till their families growing too numerous, obliged them to separate. Their friendship was founded on the harmony of their sentiments and their reciprocal merit, much more than a principle of interest. They had gained, as a reward for their discoveries and their labours, a million of livres, which they divided at Paris ; and they continued friends without ever having a quarrel, or even a misunderstanding, in the space of fifty years.
1 Chaufepie.--Blount's Censura.-Colomesii Gallia Orientalis.-Saxii Ones Aasticon,
Petitot copied at Paris several portraits of Mignard and Le Brun; yet his talent was not only copying a portrait with an exact resemblance, but also designing a head most perfectly after nature. To this he also joined a softness and liveliness of colouring, which will never change, and will' ever render bis works valuable. He painted Louis XIV. Mary Anne of Austria his mother, and Mary. Theresa his wife, several times. :: As he was a zealous protestant, and full of apprehensions at the revocation of the edict of Nantz in 1685, be demanded the king's permission to retire to Geneva; who finding him urgent, and fearing he should escape, cruelly caused him to be arrested, and sent to Fort l'Evêque, where the bishop of Meaux was appointed to instruct him. Yet neither the eloquence of Bossuet, nor the terrors of a dungeon, could prevail. He was not convinced, but the vexation and confinement threw him into a fever; of which the king being informed, ordered him to released. He no sooner found himself at liberty, than he escaped with his wife to Geneva, after a residence at Paris of thirty-six years. His children remaining in that city, and fearing the king's resentment, threw themselves on his mercy, and implored his protection. The king received them favourably, and told them he could forgive an old man the whim of desiring to be buried with his fathers *.
When Petitot returned to his own country, be cultivated his art with great ardour, and had the satisfaction of preserving to the end of his life the esteem of all connoisseurs. The king and queen of Poland, desirous to have their pictures copied by Petitot, though then above eighty, sent the originals to Paris, believing him to be there. The gentle: man who was charged with the commission went on to Geneva. The queen was represented on a trophy holding the king's picture. As there were two heads in the same piece, they gave him a hundred louis d'ors; and he executed it as if he had been in the flower of his
The concourse of his friends, and the resort of the curious who came to see him, was so great, that he was obliged to quit Geneva, and retire to Vevay, a little town in the canton of Berne, where he worked in quiet. He was about the
* Lord Orford relates this in a man- the time, for a bop-mot, but, a very per very different from his usual flip- flat witticism cannot depreciate the pancy where matters of religion are glory of a confessor, who had suffered concerned." His majesty," says my imprisonment, resisted eloquence, and author, "received them with great good- sacrificed the emoluments of court-fa. ness, and told them, he willingly for- vour to the uprightness of his conscience. gave an old man who had a whim of Petitot did not wish to be buried with being buried with his fathers. I do not his fathers, but to die in their religion.” doubt but this is given, and passed at
picture of his wife, when a distemper carried him off in one day, in 1691, aged eighty-four. His life was always exemplary, and his end was the same. He preserved his usual candour and ease of temper to his last hour. He had seventeen children by his marriage ; but only one of his sons applied himself to painting, who settled in London. His father sent him several of his works to serve him for models. This son died a good many years ago, and his family settled in Dublin, but whether any are now remaining we know not.
Petitot may be called the inventor of painting in enamel; for though Bordier, his brother-in-law, made several attempts before him, and sir Theodore Mayerne had facilitated the means of employing the most beautiful colours, it was still Petitot who completed the work; which under bis hand acquired such a degree of perfection, as to surpass miniature, and even equal painting in oil. He made use of gold and silver plates, and rarely enamelled on copper. When he first came in vogue, his price was twenty loyis a-head, which he soon raised to forty. His custom was, to carry a painter with him, who painted the picture in oil; after which Petitot sketched out his work, which be always finished after the life. When he painted the king of France, he took those pictures that most resembled him for his patterns; and the king afterwards gave him a sitting or two to finish his work. He laboured with great assiduity, and never laid down his pencil but with reluctance; saying, that he always found new beauties in his art to charm him.'
PETIT-PIED (NICHOLAS), a learned doctor of the Sorbonne, was born in 1630, of a respectable family at Paris, He was counsellor clerk to the Châtelet, and curate of the parish of St. Martial, and died sub-chanter and canon of the church of Paris, 1705, aged 75, leaving a learned work, entitled “ Du Droit et des Prérogatives des Eccle, siastiques, dans l'administration de la justice seculaire, 4to. This was occasioned by M. Petit-Pied having offered to preside in the chatelet upon one occasion, which it was said the clergy had no right to do. The work was con șidered as of great merit in point of argument, and contributed to obtain a deeision in favour of the clergy,
| Biog. Brit. vol. VII. Supplement.-Walpole's Anecdotes, ? Dict. Hist.