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the following: "Archiepiscopale Bonnoniense;" “ De ima. ginibus Sacris, et Profanis," 1582, 4to, in Italian; and in Latin, 1594; “ De Sacri Consistorii Consultationibus ;"? “De Nothis, Spuriisque Filiis," Francfort, 1573, 8vo; " De Bono Senectutis ;" Pastoral Letters, &c.?
PALESTRINA (John Peter Louis), called by Dr. Burney the Homer of the most ancient music that has been preserved, was, as his name imports, a native of the ancient Præneste, now corruptly called Palestrina, and is supposed to have been born some time in 1529. All the Italian writers who have mentioned him, say he was the scholar of Gaudio Mell. Fiamingo, by which name they have been generally understood to mean Claude Goudimel, of whom we have given some account in vol. XVI.; but this seems doubtful, nor is there any account of his life on which reliance can be placed. All that we know with certainty is, that about 1555, when he had distinguished himself as a composer, he was admitted into the Pope's chapel, at Rome; in 1562, at the age of thirty-three, he was elected maestro di capella of Santa Maria Maggiore, in the same city; in 1571 was honoured with a similar appointment at St. Peter's; and lastly, having brought choral harmony to a degree of perfection that has never since been exceeded, he died in 1594, at the age of sixty-five. Upon his coffin was this inscription, “ Johannes Petrus Aloysius Prænestinus Musicæ Princeps."
By the assistance of signor Santarelli, Dr. Burney procured at Rome a complete catalogue of all the genuine productions of Palestrina, which may be classed in the following manner: masses in four, five, and six parts, twelve books ; of which lib. i. appeared at Rome in folio, 1554, when the author was in the twenty-fifth year of his age; and in that city only went through three several editions during his life. Lib. ii. of his masses, which includes the celebrated composition entitled “Missa Papa Marcelli,” was published likewise at Rome, in 1567. Of this production it has been related by Antimo Liberati, and after him by Adami, Berardi, and other musical writers, that the pope and conclave having been offended and scandalized at the light and injudicious manner in which the mass had been long set and performed, determined to banish music in parts entirely from the church ; but that
Moreri. Landi Hist. de la Litterature D'Italie, vol. IV.—Dict. Hist.
Palestrina, at the age of twenty-six, during the short pontificate of Marcellus Cervidus, intreated his holiness to suspend the execution of his design till he had heard a mass composed in what, according to his ideas, was the true ecclesiastical style. His request being granted, the composition, in six parts, was performed at Easter 1555, before the pope and college of cardinals, who found it so grave, noble, elegant, learned, and pleasing, that music was restored to favour, and again established in the celebration of sacred rites. This mass was afterwards printed, and dedicated to the successor of Marcellus, pope Paul IV. by whom Palestrina was appointed chapel-master.
The rest of his masses appeared in the following order : Lib. iii. Romæ per Valerium Doricum, 1570, in folio, Ven. 1599 ; Lib. iv. Venet. per Ang. Gardanum, 1582, quarto ; Lib. v. Romæ, 1590; Lib. vi. Ven. 1596; Lib. vii. 1594; Lib. viii. and ix. Ven. 1599; Lib. x. and xi. Ven. 1600 ;. and lib. xii. without date, or name of the printer. Besides this regular order of publication, these masses were reprinted in different forms and collections, during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, in most of the principal cities of Italy. The next division of Palestrina's works consists of Motets for five, six, seven, and eight voices, five books, at Rome and Venice, 1569, 1588, 1589, 1596, and 1601. Motets for four voices, lib. i. Romæ, 1590; Lib. ii. Venet. 1604; Two books of Offertorij, a 5 and a 6 voc. Romæ, 1593; Lamentationi, a 4 voc. Romæ, 1588; Hymns for five voices, Ven. 1598; Litanie, a 4, Ven. 1600; Magnificat, 8 tomum. Romæ, 1591; Madrigali Spirituali, two books, Rome and Venice, 1594.
To the above ample list of the works of this great and fertile composer, are to be added “ La Cantica di Salomone," a 5; two other books of “Magnificats,” a 4, 5, and 6 voc.
One of “Lamentationi," a 5; and another of secular Madrigals. These have been printed in miscellaneous publications after the author's death; and there still remain in the papal chapel, inedited, another mass, with his “ Missa Defunctorum,” and upwards of twenty motets, chiefly for eight voices, a due cori. Nothing more interesting remains to be related of Palestrina, than that most of his admirable productions still subsist. Few of his admirers are indeed possessed of the first editions, or of all his works complete, in print or manuscript; yet curious and diligent collectors in Italy can still, with little difficulty,
furnish themselves with a considerable number of these models of counterpoint and ecclesiastical gravity. The best church compositions since his time have been proverbially called alla Palestrina."
PALEY (WILLIAM), a very celebrated English divine, and one of the most successful writers of his time, was born at Peterborough in July 1743, and was educated by his father, who was the head master of Giggleswick school, in Yorkshire, vicar of Helpstone in Northamptonshire, and a minor canon of Peterborough. In his earliest days he manifested a taste for solid knowledge, and a peculiar activity of mind. In Nov. 1758 he was admitted a sizar of Christ's college, Cambridge, and before he went to reside there was taught the mathematics by Mr. William Howarth, a master of some eminence at Dishworth, near Rippon. In December 1759, soon after he took up his residence in the university, he obtained a scholarship, and applied to his studies with such diligence as to make a distinguished figure in the public schools, particularly when he took his bachelor's degree in 1763. He was afterwards employed for about three years as assistant at an academy at Greenwich ; in 1765 he obtained the first prize for a prose Latin dissertation; the subject proposed was “A comparison between the Stoic and Epicurean philosophy, with respect to the influence of each on the morals of a people,” in which he took the Epicurean side.
Having received deacon's orders, he became curate to Dr. Hinchliffe, then vicar of Greenwich, and afterwards bishop of Peterborough; and when he left the academy above-mentioned, continued to officiate in the church." In June 1766 he was elected a feliow on the foundation of Christ's college, and at the ensuing commencement took his degree of M. A. He did not, however, return to his residence in college until Oct. 1767, when he engaged in the business of private tuition, which was soon followed by his appointment to the office of one of the college tutors. On the 21st of December 1767, he was ordained a priest by bishop Terrick.
The duties of college tutor Mr. Paley discharged with uncommon assiduity and zeal; and the whole of his systém of tuition, as given by his biographer, appears to have been eminently calculated to render instruction easy, pleasant, and of permanent effect. It is somewhat remarkable, that
• Hawkins's and Burney's Histories of Musick.--and Burney in Rees's Cyclopæd.
while thus employed in improving others, he was laying the foundation of his future fame; for his lectures on moral philosophy, and on the Greek Testament, contained the outlines of the very popular works which he afterwards published. He maintained an intimate acquaintance with almost every person of celebrity in the university ; but his particular friends were Dr. Waring, and Dr. John Jebb, well known for his zeal in religious and political controversy, , and with whom, in some points, Mr. Paley was thought to have coincided more closely than afterwards appeared to be the case. Even now they could not persuade him to sign the petition for relief in the matter of subscription to the thirty-nine articles, although he was prevailed on, to contribute to the cause, by an anonymous pamphlet, entitled “A Defence of the Considerations on the propriety of requiring a subscription to Articles of Faith,” in answer to Dr. Randolph's masterly pamphlet against the “Considerations." After he had spent about ten years as college-tutor, he quitted the university in 1776, and married. His first benefice in the church was the rectory of Musgrove, in Westmoreland, worth only about eighty pounds a-year, which he obtained in the month of May 1775, and in December 1776 he was inducted into the vicarage of Dalston, in Cumberland ; and not long after to the living of Appleby, in Westmoreland, worth about 300l. per annum. 1 : In 1776, a new edition of bishop Law's “Reflections on the Life and Character of Christ,” originally published in the “ Consideration on the Theory of Religion," was given in a separate form at Cambridge, for the use of the students. To this treatise some brief “ Observations on the character and example of Christ” were added, with an " Appendix on the Morality of the Gospel ;" both from Mr. Paley's pen. From a passage in this little essay it appears, that his theory of morals was not then altogether firmly fixed on the basis which supports it now.
While at Appleby, he published a small volume selected from the Book of Common Prayer, and the writings of some eminent divines, entitled “The Clergyman's Companion in visiting the Sick.” This useful work at first appeared without his name, but it has passed through ninę editions, and is now printed among his works. In June 1780, he was collated to the fourth prebendal stall in the cathedral church of Carlisle, and thus became coadjutor in
the chapter to his friend Mr. Law, who was now 'archdeacon ; but in 1782, upon Dr. Law's being created an Irish bishop, Mr, Paley was made archdeacon of the diocese, and in 1785, he succeeded Dr. Burn, author of “The Justice of Peace," in the chancellorship. For these different preferments he was indebted either to the venerable bishop of Carlisle, Dr. Law, or to the dean and chapter of the cathedral church. While his residence was divided between Carlisle and Dalston, Mr. Paley engaged in the composition of his celebrated work, “ The Elements of Moral and Political Philosophy;" but hesitated long as to the publication, imagiving there would be but few readers for such a work; and he was the more determined on this point after he had 'entered on the married state, thinking it a duty that he owed his family to avoid risking any extraordinary expense. To remove this last objection, Dr. John Law presented a living then in his gift to Mr. Paley, on the promise that he would consider it as a compensation for the hazard of printing, and he immediately set about preparing his work for the press, which appeared in 1785, in quarto. Of a work * so generally known and admired, and so extensively circulated, it would be unnecessary to say much. Although the many editions which came rapidly from the press stamped no ordinary merit on it, yet some of his friends appear to have not been completely gratified. They expected, that from his intimacy with Jebb, and the latitudinarian party at Cambridge, he would have brought forward those sentiments which Jebb in vain endeavoured to disseminate while at the university ; and they were surprized to find that his reasoning on subseription to articles of religion, and on the British constitution, in which he not only disputes the expediency of reform in the House of Commons, but vindicates the influence of the crown in that branch of parliament, was diametrically opposite to their opinions and wishes.
When at Dalston, in addition to his ordinary duties, he gave a course of lectures on the New Testament, on the
* In this work there are some opi- system was also attacked by Mr. Pear: nions equivocally expressed, without son, tutor of_Sidney college, Capı, the characteristic decision which be- bridge, in “ Remarks on the Theory comes 'a public teacher; and the of Morals," 1800, and " Annotations foundation of his system has also been on the practical part of Dr. Paley's thought liable to objection. In 1789, Principles of Moral and Political Phi. Mr. Gisborne published strictures on it, losophy," 1801. All these deserve under the title of “ The Principles of the attention of the readers of Paley. 1 Moral Philosophy investigated.” His