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Begon. Of the letter-press, we have an English translacion by Ozell, 1704-5, 2 vols. 8vo. Perrault was determined by the public voice in the choice of his heroes, whom he confined to an hundred; but there are an hundred and two in the collection; the reason of which was this. Arnauld and Pascal were deservedly in bis list; but the Jesuits made interest to have them excluded, and prevailed. Perrault thought it necessary to substitute two fresh ones; but the public refused to accept the work, unless Arnauld and Pascal might keep their places; and hence it arose, that instead of a hundred lives, wbich was Perrault's ori. ginal design, we find an hundred and two. There are other works of Perrault, which are much esteemed, as Le Cabinet de Beaux Arts," &c. or, A Collection of Copper-plates relating to Arts and Sciences, with Illustrations in Verse and Prose, 4 vols. oblong 4to; “ Faernus's Fables, translated into French Verse,” &c.

Perrault died in 1703, aged seventy-seven. Madame Dacier, in the preface to her translation of “ Homer's Odyssey," has given the following character of this author. " He was," says she, “ a man of talents, of agreeable conversation, and the author of some little works, which have been deservedly esteemed. He had also ali the qualities of an honest and good man; was pious, sincere, virtuous, polite, modest, ready to serve, and punctual in the discharge of every duty. He had a considerable place under one of the greatest ministers France ever had, who reposed the utmost confidence in him, which he never employed for himself, but always for his friends." Such a character from madarre Dacier must suggest to us the highest opinion of Perrault as a man, when it is considered, that, as an author, she thought him guilty of the greatest of all crimes, an attempt to degrade the ancient writers, whom she not only reverenced, but adored.

Besides Claude and Charles, there were two other brothers, Peter and Nicholas, who distinguished themselves in the literary world. PETER, the eldest of them all, was receiver-geueral of the finances, and published, in 1674, a piece, “ De l'Origine des Fontaines ;" and, in 1678, a French translation of Tassoni's “ La Secchia rapita." NiCOLA'S 'was admitted doctor of the Sorbonne in 1652, and died in 1661; leaying behind him a work, entitled “La Morale des Jesuites, extraite fidèlement de leurs livres, which was printed in 1667, 4to.

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Charles Perrault is said to have had a son, PERRAULT D'ARMANCOURT, who, although he made a less figure in the learned world than his father or uncles, was the author of a book of tales, lately transferred from the nursery to the stage. The French edition is entitled " Contes de ma Mere l'Oye.” Hague, 1745, with a translation, “Mother Goose's Tales.'

PERRENOT (ANTHONY), better known by the name of cardinal de Granvelle, was born 1517, at Besançon, and was son of Nicholas Perrenot, seigneur de Granvelle, chancellor to the emperor Charles V. Born with an ambitious, intriguing, and firm temper, joined to great abilities, he speedily raised himself, was made canon and archdeacon of Besançon, then bishop of Arras, in which character he spoke very forcibly at the council of Trent wben but twenty-four years of age, and afterwards served the emperor Charles V. in several embassies to France, England, and elsewhere. This prince had so particular an esteem for Granvelle, and such confidence in him, that on abdicating the empire, he recommended him to his son Philip II. who scarce ever took any step relative either to private or public affairs, without his advice and assistance. Granvelle was afterwards appointed the first archbishop of Malines, was made cardinal in 1561, by Pius IV. and at length counsellor to Margaret of Parma, governess of the Netherlands, where, according to Strada's account, his ambition and cruelty occasioned part of the outrages which were committed. Philip II. recalled him a second time to court, and entrusted himn with all the affairs of the Spanish monarchy. Cardinal de Granvelle died at Madrid September 21, 1586, aged seventy, after having been nominated to the archbishopric of Besançon. His Life, written by D. Prosper Levêque, a Benedictine, was printed at Paris, 1753, 2 vols. 12mo. It is interesting, but the author is unpardonably partial, and conceals the cruelty, ambition, and other faults of this celebrated cardinal."

PERRIER (FRANCIS), a French artist of merit, born at Maçon in 1590, was a goldsmith's son ; but contracting dissipated habits, ran away from his parents, and is said to have literally begged his way to Rome, in partnership with a blind man. At Rome, after suffering much for want.

D'Alembert's Eulogies by Aikin, vol. II.-Niceron, vol. XXXIII. 9 Moreri,Dict. Hist.

of resources, he had recourse to his pencil, and was soon enabled to maintain himself. Having become acquainted with Lanfranco, he endeavoured to follow his manner, and was not unsuccessful. This giving him a confidence in his powers, he resolved to return to France; and stopping at Lyons, he painted the Carthusians cloister there. From Lyons be proceeded to Paris; and having worked some time for Vouet, who engrossed all the great works, he took a second journey to Italy, where he stayed ten years, and recurned to Paris in 1645. About this time he painted the gallery of the Hotel de la Villiere, and drew several easel. pieces for private persons. He died professor of the academy, in 1655. He etched several things with a great deal of spirit, and, among others, the finest basso-relievos that are in Rome, a hundred of the most celebrated antiquities, and some of Raphael's works. He also engraved, in the chiaro oscuro, some antiquities, after a manner, of which, it was said, he was the first inventor; but Parmegiano used it a long time before him. It consists of two copper-plates, whose impression is made on paper faintly stained: the one plate is engraved after the usual way, and that prints the black; and the other, which is the secret, prints the white *.

PERRIER (CHARLES), or Duperier, a French poet, was born at Aix in Provence. He first devoted himself to Latin versification, in which he succeeded greatly ; and he boasted of having formed the celebrated Santeuil. They quarrelled afterwards from poetic jealousy, and made Menage the arbitrator of their differences; who, however, decided in favour of Perrier, and did not scruple to call him “ The prince of Lyric poets." They afterwards became reconciled, and there are in Perrier's works several translations of pieces from Santeuil. Perrier afterwards applied himself to French poetry, in which he was not so successful, though he took Malherbe for his model. His obtrusive vanity, which led him to repeat his verses to all who came near him, made him at last insupportable. Finding Boileau one day at church, he insisted upon repeating to him an ode during the elevation of the host, and desired his opinion, whether or no' it was in the manner of Malherbe.


* This invention has been much perfection by Mr. Kent, who performed improved since, and especially of late it in any two other colours as well as in Eogland has been carried to great black and white.

! Pilkington and Strutt.--D'Argenville, vol. IV.-Moreri.

Pope's lines, "No place so sacred from such fops is barrd,” &c. are literally a translation of Boileau's on Perrier, “ Gardez-vous d'imiter ce rimeur furieux,” &c. Indif. ferent, however, as his French poetry was, he obtained the academy-prize two years together, namely, in 1681 and 1682. He died March 28, 1692.

His Latin poems are to be found in various collections, but have never been published in a separate volume, although they amply deserve that distinction.'

PERRON (JAMES DAVY DU), a cardinal more eminent for great talents and learning than for principle, was descended from ancient and noble families on both sides, His parents, having been educated in the protestant religion, found it necessary to remove from Lower Normandy to Geneva; and settled afterwards in the canton of Berne, where be was born, Nov. 25, 1556. His father, Julian Davy, an able physician, and a man of learning, instructed him till he was ten years of age, and taught him mathematics and the Latin tongue. Young Perron seems afterwards to have built upon this foundation, for, while his parents were obliged to remove from place to place by civil wars and persecution, he taught himself the Greek tongue and philosophy, beginning that study with the logic of Aristotle : thence be passed to the orators and poets; and afterwards applied to the Hebrew language with such success, that he could read it without points, and lectured on it to the protestant clergy

In the reign of Henry III. he was carried to the French court, which was then at Blois, where the states were assembled in 1576; and introduced to the king as a prodigy of parts and learning. His controversial talents were already so conspicuous, that few cared to dispute with him. His ingenuity does not, however, appear to bave greatly advanced his interest, for we are told that when, after this, he came to Paris, he had no other resource than to teach Latin for bread, and that at a time when he held public conferences upon the sciences, in the grand hall of the Augustines. He set himself afterwards to read the “Sum, ma" of St. Thomas Aquinas, and cultivated a strict friendship with Philip Desportes, abbot of Tiron; who procured bim his own place of reader to Henry III. and was the first to advise him to renounce his religion. Previously to

Bing. Univ. art. DUPERIER.

his taking this step, he is said to have offended Henry III. by an avowal of religious indifference, which is thus related : one day, while the king was at dinner, he made an admirable discourse against atheists; on which the king commended him much for having proved the being of a God by arguments 80 solid. Perron instantly replied, that “ if his majesty was disposed to hear him, he would prove the contrary by arguments as solid;" which so offended the king, that he forbad him to come into his presence. This story has been denied by some French writers, as derogatory to Duperron's religious principles; but others say that, granting it to be true, it means no more than that Du Perron vaunted his ability to take either side of a question, a practice universal at that time in the schools; yet they allow that his reply to the king was rather ill-timed, and ill-expressed.

He recovered, however, from any loss of character which this affair might occasion, by abjuring the religion in which he had been educated. It is rather singular that he is said to have acquired a distaste of the protestant religion by studying the “Summa” of St. Thomas Aquinas, and the writings of St. Austin ; ,but having by this or by some other means, reconciled his mind to the change of his religion, he displayed all the zeal of a new convert by labouring earnestly in the conversion of others, even before be had embraced the ecclesiastical function. By these arts, and bis uncommon abilities, he acquired great influence, and was appointed to pronounce the funeral oration of Mary queen of Scots, in 1587; as he had done also that of the poet Ronsard, in 1586. He wrote, some time after, by order of the king, “A comparison of moral and theoJogical virtues ;” and two “ Discourses,” one upon the soul, the other upon self-knowledge, which be pronounced before that prince. After the murder of Henry III. he -retired to the house of cardinal de Bourbon, aud laboured more vigorously than ever in the conversion of the reformed. Among his converts was Henry Spondanus, afterwards bishop of Pamiez; as this prelate acknowledges, in his dedication to cardinal du Perron of his “ Abridgment of Baronius's Annals." But bis success with Henry IV. is supposed to redound most to the credit of his powers of persuasion. He went to wait on that prince with cardinal de Bourbon, at the siege of Rouen; and followed him at Nantes, where he held a famous dispute with four protes.

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