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close of the year, he gave to the public his “ Tour in Scotland," in one 8vo volume, ornamented, as all his works are, with plates. A candid account of that country was such a novelty, that the impression was instantly bought up, and in the next year another was printed, and as soon sold. In this tour, as in all the succeeding, he laboured earnestly to conciliate the affections of the two nations, so wickedly and studiously set at variance by evil-designing people; and he received several very flattering letters on the occasion. In the Philosophical Transactions of this year, he has an account of two new species of tortoises.

On May 18, 1772, he began the longest of his journeys in our island. This was his “Second Tour in Scotland, and Voyage to the Hebrides." My success," he obo serves on this occasion, “ was equal to my hopes: I pointed out every thing I thought would be of service to the country: it was roused to look into its advantages; societies have been formed for the improvements of the fisheries, and for founding of towus in proper places: to all which, I sincerely wish the most happy event; vast sums will be flung away; but incidentally numbers will be benefited, and the passions of patriots tickled. I confess that my own vanity was greatly gratified by the compliments paid to me in every corporated town. Edinburgh itself presented me with its freedom, and I returned rich in civil honours."

In 1773, he published the 8vo edition of “ Genera of Birds,” and perforined a tour through the north of England, where his companion Mr. Griffith made a great many drawings of antiquities, &c. several of which were afterwards used by Mr. Grose, in his “ Antiquities of Eng. land.” In this tour he contracted an acquaintance with Mr. Hutchinson, the historian of Durham, in a singular manner, which we shall give in his own words: mounted on the famous stones in the church-yard of Penrith, to take a nearer view of them, and see whether the drawing I had procured, done by the rev. Dr. Tod, had the least foundation in truth.” Thus engaged, a person of good appearance, looking up at me, observed “what fine work Mr. Pennant had made with those stones.” I saw he had got into a horrible scrape; so, unwilling to make bad worse, I descended, laid hold of his button, and told him, 61 the !" After his confusion was over, I made a short defence, shook him by the hand, and we became from that moment fast friends.” An account of part of

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this journey, Mr. Pennant left in manuscript, illustrated with drawings by Mr. Griffith. Mr. Pennant performed all his journeys on horseback, and to that he attributed his healthy old age. He considered the absolute resignation of one's person to the luxury of a carriage, to forebode a very short interval between that, and the vehicle which is to convey us to our last stage. · In 1774, he published a third edition, with additional plates, of his “ Tour in Scotland,” in 4to, and his Voyage to the Hebrides in the same size. In the same year, he visited the Isle of Man, and journeyed through various parts of England. In 1775, appeared his third and last volume of the “Tour in Scotland," performed in 1772. tours have been translated into Gernian, and abridged in French. In 1777, he published a fourth volume of the “ British Zoology," containing the vermes, the crustaceous and testaceous animals of our country.

After several journeys over the six counties of North Wales, in which he collected ample materials for their history, he published the first volume of them in the form of a tour in 1778; and in 1781, the second, under the title of “ A Journey to Snowdon." In the same year a new edition appeared of his “ Synopsis of Quadrupeds,” in 2 vols. 4to, with considerable improvements. The liberties which the country gentlemen, in the character of deputylieutenants, and militia-officers, now and then took with their fellow-subjects, urged him about this time to publish “ Free Thoughts on the Militia Laws."

In this year, 1781, he was elected an honorary member of the society of Antiquaries at Edinburgh. In the Philosophical Transactions of the same year, was published bis history of the Turkey, which he made appear was a bird peculiar to America, and unknown before the discovery of that continent: also a paper on earthquakes felt in Flintshire. In 1782, he published his “Journey from Chester to London." In 1783, he was elected a member of the Societas Physiographica, at Lund, in Sweden. In 1784, appeared his “ Letter from a Welch Freeholder to his Representative.” The same year he published his “ Arctic Zoology,” two volumes, quarto, containing the classes of quadrupeds and birds. This work gave occasion to his being honoured, in the year 1791, by being elected member of the American Philosophical Society at Philadelphia.

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In May 1784, he was elected member of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Stockholm; and in January 1785, an bonorary member of the Edinburgh Society for promoting of natural knowledge; of the Society of Antiquaries at Perth; and the Agricultural Society at Odiam, in Hampshire. In 1787, he published a Supplement to the Arctic Zoology. As in 1777, be bad again married, he discontinued his tours until the spring 1787, when he visited the dockyards, and travelled by land from Dartford, following the coast to the Land's-end.

Besides these greater works of our author, he at several times gave the public some trifles, which he collected some years ago, and printed for the amusement of his friends, thirty copies at a private press. The principal was his « History of the Patagonians;" which, with some others, he gave to the public, along with his “ Literary Life.”

In 1790, he published his “ Account of London,” the antiquities of which he had studied with great attention. Of this work he says, “ I had so often walked about the several parts of London, with my note-book in my hand, that I could not help forming considerable collections of materials. The public received this work with the utmost avidity. It went through three large impressions in about two years and a half.” Many additions were made to the second edition.

In 1793, he published his life, under the whimsical title of “The Literary Life of the late Thomas Pennant, Esq. by himself.” In the advertisement he states, that the termination of his authorial existence took place on March 1, 1791. He came to life again, however, in 1797, and published “ The History of the parishes of Whiteford and Holywell;" and in the last year of his life, he gave the public his “ View of Hindostan,” 2 vols. 4to, for which he thus accounts: “ A few years ago I grew fond of ima-. ginary tours, and determined on one to climes more suited to my years, more genial than that to the frozen north. I still found, or fancied that I found, abilities to direct my pen. I determined on a voyage to India, formed exactly on the plan of the introduction to the Arctic Zoology, which commences at such parts of the North as are accessible to mortals. From London I follow the coasts southern to part of our Island, and from Calais, along the oceanic shores of Europe, Africa, and Asia, till I have attained those of New Guinea. Respecting these I have collected

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every information possible from books ancient and modern; from the most authentic, and from living travellers of the most respectable characters of my time. I mingle natural history, accounts of the coasts, climates, and every thing which I thought could instruct or amuse. They are written on imperial quarto, and, when bound, make a folio of no inconsiderable size : and are illustrated, at a vast expence, by prints taken from books, or by charts and maps, and by drawings by the skilful hand of Moses Griffith, and by presents from friends. With the bare possibility of the volume relative to India, none of these books are to be priuted in my life-time; but to rest on my shelves, the amusement of my advancing age.” Of these manuscripts there were in all twenty-two volumes originally; but Mr. Pennant, as we have mentioned, printed in his life-time that which relates to India. We may add, in his own words, “ Happy is the age that could thus beguile its Meeting hours, without injury to any one; and, with the addition of years, continue to rise in its pursuits.'

His useful life at last terminated, Dec. 16, 1798, when he left a private character in all respects irreproachable, as a son, husband, and father. He had great public spirit, and rendered himself eminently useful in his county. In his political principles he was a wbig of the old school. His fortune, as well as time, was liberally devoted to learned pursuits. He married first, in 1759, the sister of the late Thomas Falconer, esq, of Chester, and of Dr. Falconer of Bath, by whom he had a son, David, and a daughter; and secondly, in 1777, to miss Mostyn, sister to the late sir Roger Mostyn, who survives him.

Few men have so unceasingly devoted themselves to the promotion of useful knowledge, or published so many volumes, especially on subjects of natural history. His. works have been so generally read, and are in such high esteem with the public, that it would be unnecessary in this place to enter into their respective merits. It is seldom that works so expensive run through so many editions ; but Mr. Pennant bad the happy art of relieving the dullest subjects by enlivening and amusing digressions : and his tours and his account of London are distinguished by a fund of anecdote, an easy familiarity of style, and that pleasant turn for research which engages the reader's attention because it agreeably refreshes his memory, and supplies him with information at a small expence of trouble. VOL. XXIV.

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Dr. Johnson said of him, when some objections were made to his tours, that “he had greater variety of inquiry than almost any man; and has told us more than perhaps one in ten thousand could have done, in the time that he took." In 1800, his Son published the third and fourth volumes of “ The Outlines of the Globe," the title which Mr. Pendant gave to his imaginary tours, and which were the continuation of bis " View of Hindostan."

This work was accompanied by an elegant tribute to his memory by his affectionate Son, who also published, in the following year, Mr. Pennant's last work, left by him nearly finished for the press, entitled “A Journey from London to the Isle of Wight,” 4to.'

PENNI (JOHN FRANCIS), a native of Florence, where he was born in 1488, was called Il Fattore, or the Steward, from having been intrusted with the domestic concerns of Raphael, and soon became one of his principal assistants. He more than any other helped him in the execution of the cartoons of the Arazzi; and in the Loggie of the Vatican painted the histories of Abraham and Isaac. After the death of his master he executed the fresco of the coronation in the stanza of Constantine. The upper part of the Assumption of the Virgin, a work of Raffaellesque grace, at Monte Lupi, in Perugia, is ascribed to him, though Vasari gives it to Perino del Vaga: the under part with the Apostles is painted by Julio. Of the works which he performed alone, no frescoes, and so few oil-pictures remain, that they may be considered as the principal rarities of galleries. Facility of conception, grace of execution, and a singular felicity in landscape, are mentioned as his characteristics. Penni wished much to unite himself with his coheir Julio, but being coldly received by him at Mantua, went to Naples, where his works and principles might bave contributed much toward the melioration of style, had he not been intercepted by death in 1528, in his fortieth year. He left at Naples, with his copy of the Transfiguration, a scholar of considerable merit, Lionardo Malatesta, or Grazia, of Pistoja. He had a brother Lucas, who having a close connection with Perino del Vaga, who had married his sister, worked with that master (see PeriNO) for some years at Genoa, Lucca, and other cities of Italy, with great credit. Afterwards he went to England,

| Literary Life.- History of Whiteford.—Outlines of the Globe.

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