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Sanderson, bishop of Lincoln; and, on the 16th of that month, instituted to the rectory of Fobbing in Essex, given him by the king. On Dec. the 5th following, he brought into the upper house of convocation the calendar reformed by him, assisted by Sancroft, afterwards abp. of Canterbury. Io 1663, he was presented by Sheldon, bishop of London, to the rectory of Laingdon in Essex; and, upon the promotion of that bishop to the see of Canterbury in the next month, became one of his grace's domestic chaplains. He was then doctor of divinity, and expected, as Wood tells


to be made a dean; but being not a person of activity, as others who mind not learning are, could never rise higher than a rector.” The truth is, adds Wood, “ he was a helpless man as to worldly affairs; and his tenants and relations dealt so unkindly by him, that they defrauded him of the profits of his rectory, and kept him so indigent, that he was in want of necessaries, even ink and paper, to his dying day.” He was for some time confined to the King's-bench prison for debt; but, in March 1682, was invited by Dr. Whistler to live in the college of physicians. Here he continued till June fol. lowing, when he was obliged, by his ill state of health, to remove to the house of a grandchild of his in St. Margaret's church-yard, Westminster. From this too he was again removed, for we find that he died at the house in Dyot street) of Mr. Cothorne, reader of the church of St. Giles's in the Fields, Dec. the 12th, 1685, and was interred by the charity of Busby, master of Westminster school, and Sharp, rector of, St. Giles's, in the rector's vault under that church. Besides what have been mentioned, Dr. Pell was the author of, 1.“ An Exercitation concerning Easter," 1644, in 4to. 2. “ A Table of 10,000 square numbers, &c. 1672, folio. 3. An Inaugural Oration at his entering upon the Professorship at Breda. 4. He made great alterations and additions to “ Rhopius's Algebra," printed at London 1668, 4to, under the title of “ An Introduction to Algebra ; translated out of the High Dutch into English by Thomas Branker, much altered and augmented by D. P. (Dr. Pell)." Also a Table of odd numbers, less than 100,000, shewing those that are incomposite, &c. supputated by the same Thomas Branker. 5. His Controversy with Longomontanus concerning the Quadrature of the Circle, Amsterdam, 1646, 4to.

He likewise wrote a Demonstration of the 2d and 10th books of Euclid; which

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piece was in MS. in the library of lord Brereton in Cheshire: as also Archimedes's Arenarius, and the greatest part of Diophantus's six books of Arithmetic; of which author he was preparing, Aug. 1644, a new edition, with a corrected translation, and new illustrations. He designed likewise to publish an edition of Apollonius, but laid it aside, in May, 1645, at the desire of Golius, who was engaged in an edition of that author from an Arabic manuscript given him at Aleppo 18 years before. This appears from the letters of Dr. Pell to sir Charles Cavendish, in the Royal Society.

Some of his manuscripts he left at Brereton in Cheshire, where he resided some years, being the seat of William lord Brereton, who had been his pupil at Breda. A great many others came into the hands of Dr. Busby; which Mr. Hook was desired to use his endeavours to obtain for the society. But they continued buried under dust, and mixed with the papers and pamphlets of Dr. Busby, in four large boxes, till 1755; when Dr. Birch, secretary to the Royal Society, procured them for that body, from the trustees of Dr. Busby. The collection contains not only Pell's mathematical papers, letters to him, and copies of those from him, &c. but also several manuscripts of Walter Warner, the mathematician and philosopher, wbo lived in the reigns of James the First and Charles the First,

Dr. Pell invented the method of ranging the several steps of an algebraical calculus, in a proper order, in so many distinct lines, with the number affixed to each step, and a short description of the operation or process in the line. He also invented some mathematical characters."

PELLEGRIN (SIMON Joseph), an abbé, and an author by profession, of some celebrity at Paris, was born at Marseilles in 1663, and became a religious of the order of Servites. Being tired of this mode of life, he took some voyages as chaplain to a vessel. On bis return, he wrote a poem called “An Epistle to the King on the glorious Success of his Arms,” which gained the prize in the French academy in 1704. With this Epistle Pellegrin had sent an Ode on the same subject, which proved the only formidable rival to his Epistle, and for some time divided the opinions of the academy. This singular success made him known at court.

Madame Maintenon took notice of

1 Ath. Ox. vol. I.-- Biog. Brit.--Martin's Biog. Philos.--Hutton's Dictionary.

rary labours.

him, and gained him a brevet to be translated into the order of Cluni. Pellegrin subsisted solely by the prizes be gained in several literary academies, and his other lite

He even kept a kind of shop, where those who wanted occasional verses, as epigrams, sonnets, madrigals, &c. were supplied at certain prices, according to the number and goodness of the lines. This trade growing slack, he began to write for the theatres, but here a new obstacle arose. The cardinal de Noailles insisted that he should either cease to write for the stage, or to officiate at the mass.

He would fain have had a dispensation on this subject, but, the cardinal being inexorable, he gave up the mass, as least profitable. He would, however, have felt the loss of the latter, had not his friends procured him à salary for writing the account of the theatrical entertainments in the Mercure. Pellegrin deserved to be in better circumstances, for a great part of what he earned so laboriously was distributed among his relations : and his disposition was singularly candid and modest. He was, at the same time, negligent of bis appearance, and had an impediment in his speech; circumstances which conspired to plunge him in that neglect he so severely experienced. He lived, however, to the age of 82; and closed this long life on the 5th of September, 1745. His works are very various ; poems of all kinds, sacred and profane ; versions of the Psalms and other parts of Scripture; comedies, operas, &c.; the general character of all which is, that they are seldom excellent in their plans, and that the versification is almost invariably flat and tedious."


PELLEGRINI (CAMILLO), an Italian historian and antiquary, was born in 1598, at Capua, and educated at the Jesuits' school at Naples. He entered into the clerical order, but appears to have passed his whole time in the researches of an historian and antiquary, which produced, 1. “ L'Apparato alle Antichita di Capua," printed in 1651, in which he minutely describes all the parts of Campagna Felice, and relates its history and revolutions. 2. « Historia Principum Longobardorum,” containing several historical pieces not yet published, illustrated with learned annotations and dissertations. This was republished in the collections of Burmann and Muratori, and with various

1 Moreri. Dict. Hict.

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additions, at Naples, 1749, by Sig. Fr. Moria Pratilli. Pellegrini died at Naples in 1660, at the age of sixty-five."

PELLERIN (JOSEPH), famous for his collection of medals, and his publications respecting them, was for a long time commissary-general, and chief-clerk of the French marine. He united the knowledge of a man of letters with all the activity of a man of business; but having, after forty years of service, obtained leave to retiro, he thenceforth gave himself up entirely to the study of antiquities, and wrote upon the subject after he was blind with age, by means of an invention described in the last volume of his works. His cabinet of medals, which was purchased by the king in 1776, was the richest ever formed by a private individual; and learned men of all countries highly respected the collector of so valuable a treasure. He died in August 1782, at the surprising age of ninety-nine. He enriched the science of medals by a valuable set of works on that subject, forming altogether, with the supplements, ten volumes in quarto, with many plates; these were published at different times from 1762 to 1778, and contain judicious and learned explanations of the plates, which are executed with great exactness and beauty. It is to Pellerin that we are indebted for the first plates of medals perfectly representing the originals in every flaw and irregularity of edge and impression, which is a most capital improvement, and makes the view of such plates almost equal to the coins themselves.

PELLETIER (BERNARD), a chemist of considerable eminence, was born at Bayonne in 1761. He acquired the rudiments of pharmacy in his father's house, and afterwards studied the subject at Paris with such constant application, that at a very early age he was familiarly acquainted with chemical

processes, and even with the exact state of the science. At the age of twenty-one he published a set of experiments on the arsenic acid, in which he explained the properties of Macquer's neutral arsenical salt, and demonstrated the real nature of Macquer's process. In these observations he had been anticipated by Scheele, by Bergman, by the Dijon academicians, and by Berthollet'; but it was no inconsiderable merit in so young a man to have advanced as far in the subject as these masters of the science.


i Moreri.--Landi Hist, Lit. D’Italie. 2 Dict. Hist.-Pinkerton's Essay on Medals, preface.

Soon after, he published several observations on the crystallization of sulphur and cinnabar, on the distillation of phosphorus from bones, on deliquescent salts, on oxymuriatic acid, on the formation of ethers, and particularly on muriatic and acetic ethers. His success in these encouraged him to attempt the analysis of the zeolite, at that time a much more difficult task than at present, when the mode of analyzing minerals has been reduced to a regular system. In 1785 he undertook the analysis of plumbago, à labour in which he had been anticipated by Scheele, and which was completed the year following, in the course of the celebrated experiments made upon iron and its combinations, by Berthollet, Monge, and Vandermonde. His next object was the combination of phosphorus with the metals; the existence of which had been merely pointed out by Margraff. To Pelletier we owe almost all the knowledge concerning the metallic phosphurets which we at present possess. The next object of his researches was aurum Musivum, a brownish yellow scaly powder sometimes used in painting. He demonstrated it to be a compound of sulphur and the oxide of tin, and pointed out several improvements in the method of preparing it.

In 1790, when the churches of France were stript of their bells, and it was proposed to extract the copper from them, Mr. Pelletier pointed out a method of scorifying the tin, which constitutes the other ingredient, by means of the black oxide of manganese. His first essays were made in Paris, but be demonstrated in the foundery of Romilly that his process succeeded also in the large way. Soon after he analyzed the blue pigment manufactured in Eng. land, and known in France by the name of cendres bleues d'Angleterre, and gave a process for preparing it. Nothing more was necessary than to precipitate copper from nitrous acid by means of a sufficient quantity of lime. His next set of experiments consisted in an examination of strontian, and in a comparison of it with barytes. They confirmed the previous experiments of Dr. Hope and Mr. Klaproth. He had formerly examined a small specimen of carbonat of strontian without finding in it any thing peculiar.

In 1791, on the death of Tillet, he was admitted a member of the academy of sciences, and on the abolition of the academy, he was chosen one of the original members of the national institute which was substituted in its place.

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