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deposed them from the episcopal office, and excommunicated them ; after which he wrote to Aurelius, and the other bishops of Africa, acquainting them with what he had done, and at the same time sending them the acts of his sy nod.

Soon after this, Zosimus received a letter from Praylus, bishop of Jerusalem, successor to John, recommending to him Pelagius's affair in affectionate terms. This letter was accompanied by another from Pelagius bimself, together with the confession of faith before mentioned. In this letter Pelagius said, that his enemies wanted to asperse his character in two points: first, that he refused to baptize infants, and promised them the kingdom of heaven, without the redemption of Jesus Christ; secondly, that he reposed so much confidence in free-will, as to refuse the assistance of grace. He rejected the first of these errors, as manifestly contrary to the gospel; and upon the article of grace be said, “We have our free-will either to sin or not to sin, and in all good works it is ever aided by the divine assistance. We say, that all men have free-will, as well Christians as Jews and Gentiles: all of them have it by nature, but it is assisted by grace in none but Christians. In others this blessing of the creation is naked and unassisted. They shall be judged and condemned; because having free-will, by which they might arrive at faith, and merit the grace of God, they make an ill use of this liberty. The Christians will be rewarded; because they, by niaking a good use of their free-will, merit the grace of the Lord, and observe bis commandments." His confession of faith was like that of Celestius. On baptism he said, “We hold one single baptism, and we assert that it ought to be administered to children in the same form of words, as to adults.” Touching grace he said, “We confess a freewill : at the same time holding, that we stand continually in need of God's assistance; and that those are as well mistaken, who say with the Manicbees, that man cannot avoid sinning, as those who say with Jovinian, that man cannot sin." He concluded with these words: “ Such, blessed pope, is the faith which we have learned in the catholic church, the faith which we have always held, and still continue in. If any thing contained therein shall not have been explained clearly enough, or not with sufficient caution, we desire that you would correct it; you who hold the faith, and the see of Peter. If you approve of

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my confession of faith, whoever pretends to attack it, will shew either bis ignorance or his malice, or that he is not orthodox; but he will not prove me an heretic."

For some time this defence answered its purpose, and Zosimus wrote a second letter to Aurelius, and to all the bishops of Africa, informing them that he was now satisfied with Pelagius and Celestius's confession of faith, and persuaded of their sincerity. Aurelius, however, and his brethren, were more surprised than daunted at this letter, and firmly maintained the judgment they had given, and which had been confirmed by Innocent I. At the head of their decrees they addressed a second letter to pope Zosimus, in these terms: “We have ordained, that the sentence given by the venerable bishop Innocent shall subsist, until they shall confess without equivocation, that the grace of Jesus Christ does assist us, not only to know, but also to do justice in every action ; insomuch, that without it we can neither think, say, or do any thing whatever, that be. longs to true piety.” They added, “That Celestius's having said in general terms, that he agreed with Innocent's letters, was not satisfactory in regard to persons of inferior understandings; but that he ought to anathematize in clear terms all that was bad in his writings, lest many should believe that the apostolical see had approved his errors, rather than be persuaded that he had reformed them.” The bishop of Africa likewise reminded pope Zosimus of his predecessor's decision, relating to the council of Dios, polis; shewed him the artifice made use of in the confession of faith which Pelagius had sent to Rome; and refuted after their manner the cavils of the heretics : and, as Zosimus had reprimanded them for having too easily given credit to the accusers of Celestius, they justified themselves at his expence; by shewing, that he himself had been too precipitate in this affair. They also declared plainly, that this cause arising in Africa, and having been judged there, Celestius could have no right to appeal from thence, nor the pope to take cognizance of it: to which they added a protest, to prevent Zosimus from attempting to pronounce any sentence by default, in favour of Celestius and Pelagius.

Zosimus, either through a persuasion that these heretics had dealt insincerely with him, or finding it prudent to yield to the necessity of the occasion, upon the receipt of this letter, issued out a formal condemnation of the Pelagians, and applied also to Honorius, requesting him to cause all heretics to be driven out of Rome; in compliance with which, the emperor gave a rescript at Ravenna, April 418, directed to the pretorian prefect of Italy, who, in consequence, issued his ordinance jointly with the pretorian prefect of the east, and the prefect of Gaul, purporting, that all such as should be convicted of this error should suffer perpetual banishment, and that all their possessions should be confiscated. The pope also vigorously prosecuting his design to extirpate the friends of Pelagius, caused all the bishops to be deposed who would not subscribe the condemnation of the new heresy, and drove them out of Italy by virtue of the laws of the empire. Atticus, bishop of Constantinople, likewise rejected their deputies. They were driven from Ephesus ; and Theodotus bishop of Antioch condemned them, and drove Pelagius thence, who was lately returned from Palestine, where he had taken refuge from the einperor's rescript. We have no certain account of him after this, but there is reason to believe, that he returned to England, and spread his doctrine there; which induced the bishop of Gaul to send thither St. Germain of Auxerre, in order to refute it. However that be, it is certain that Pelagian heresy, as it is called, spread itself both in the east and west, and took so deep root, that it subsists to this day in different sects, who all go by the general name of Pelagians, except a more moderate part who are called Semi-Pelagians.

This Heresiarch wrote several things, among which are, A Treatise upon the Trinity;" “ A Commentary on St. Paul's Epistles," which oddly enough has been annexed to those of St. Jerom, and was long thought to be written by him, although a decided Anti-Pelagian; “ A Book of Eclogues, or Spiritual Maxims;" several letters, among which is one addressed to a virgin, named Demetrias, which is printed in the works of St. Jerom; several pieces in his own defence; and a treatise on free-will. The History of Pelagianism by Jansenius, in his treatise called “ Augustine,” is thought the best.?

PELL (John), an eminent English mathematician, descended from an ancient family in Lincolnshire, was born at Southwyke in Sussex, March 1, 1610; and educated in grammar-learning at the free-school, then newly founded,

Dupin, Cave, vol. 1.-Mosheim and Milner's Ch. Hist,

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at Steyning in that county. At thirteen, he was sent to Trinity college in Cambridge, where he pursued bis studies with unusual diligence, but although capable of undergoing any trials, and one of the best classical scholars of his

he never offered himself a candidate at the election of scholars or fellows of this college. After taking the degree of B. A. in 1628, he drew up the “ Description and Use of the Quadrant, written for the use of a friend, in two books;" the original MS. of which is still extant among bis papers in the Royal Society; and the same year he held a correspondence with Mr. Henry Briggs on logarithms. In 1630 he wrote “ Modus supputandi Ephemerides Astrononiicas (quantum ad motum solis attinet) paradigmate ad an. 1630 accommodato ;” and “A Key to unlock the Meaning of Johannes Trithemius, in his Discourse of Steganography;" which key Pell the same year imparted to Mr. Samuel Hartlib and Mr. Jacob Homedæ. The same year, he took the degree of master of arts at Cambridge, and the year following was incorporated in the university of Oxford. In June he wrote “ A Letter to Mr. Edward Wingate on Logarithms ;” and, Oct. 5, 1631, “ Commentationes in Cosmographiam Alstedii.” July 3, 1632, he married Ithamaria, second daughter of Mr. Henry Reginolles of London, by whom he had four sons and four daughters. In 1633 he finished his “ Astronomical History of Observations of heavenly Motions and Appearances ;" and his “Eclipticus Prognostica ; or Forek nower of the Eclipses; teaching how, by calculation, to foreknow and foretell all sorts of Eclipses of the heavenly lights." In 1634, he translated “ The everlasting Tables of Heavenly Motions, grounded upon the observations of all times, and agreeing with them all, by Philip Lansberg, of Ghent in Flanders ;” and the same year he committed to writing, “The Manner of deducing his Astronomical Tables out of the Tables and axioms of Philip Lansberg In March 1635, he wrote “ A Letter of Remarks on Gellibrand's Mathematical Discourse on the Variation of the Magnetic Needle; and, June following, another on the same subject. Such were the employments of the first six years of Mr. Pell's public life, during which mathematics entirely engrossed his attention. Conceiving this science of the utmost importance, he drew up a scheme for a mathematical school on an extensive scale of utility and emulation, which was much approved by Des Cartes, but so censured


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by Mersenne in France, that our author was obliged to write in its defence. The controversy, may be seen in Hooke's Philosophical Collections, and with Pell's “ Idea of the Mathematics.”

Mr. Pell's eminence, however, in mathematical knowledge, was now so great, that he was thought worthy of a professor's chair in that science; and, upon the vacancy of one at Amsterdam in 1639, ir William Boswell, the English resident with the States-general, used his interest, that he might succeed in that professorship; which was not filled up till above four years after, 1643, when Pell was chosen to it. The year following he published, in two pages 4to, “A Refutation of Longomontanus's Discourse, De vera circuli mensura,” printed at Amsterdam in 1644. In June 1646, he was invited by the prince of Orange to be professor of philosophy and mathematics at Breda, in the college newly founded there by his highness, with the offer of a salary of 1000 guilders a year. This he accepted, but upon his removal to Breda, he found that he was required to teach mathematics only. His “Idea Ma. theseos,” which he had addressed to Mr. Hartlib, who in 1639 had sent it to Des Cartes and Mersenne, was printed 1650 at London, 12mo, in English, with the title of “An Idea of Mathematics,” at the end of Mr. John Dury's • Reformed Library-keeper.” On the death of the prince of Orange, in 1650, and the subsequent war between the English and Dutch, be left Breda, and returned to England, in 1652; and, in 1654, was sent by Cromwell as his agent to the protestant cantons in Switzerland, his instructions being dated March 30th of that year. His first speech in Latin to the deputies of Zurich was on the 13th of June; and he continued in that city during most of his employment in Switzerland, in which he had afterwards the title of resident. Being recalled by Cromwell, he took his leave of the cantons in a Latin speech at Zurich, the 23d of June, 1658; but returned to England so short a time before the usurper's death, that he had no opportunity of an audience from him. Why Cromwell employed him does not appear, but it is thought that during his residence abroad, he contributed to the interests of Charles II. and the church of England; and it is certain that, after the restoration, he entered into holy orders, although at an unusually advanced period of life. He was ordained deacon March 31, 1661, and priest in June following, by

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