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hands,) exchanged a few passing words, and Mr. Pakenham shortly left us to the society of our other friends in the room. The next morning I mentioned this curious incident to several gentlemen at the breakfast table, and so extraordinary did the whole proceeding appear to them and to me, that we concluded the two official gentlemen must have known each other; that it was impossible to be otherwise ; and, finally, we decided my civility to have been a work of supererogation, and all joined in a hearty laugh at my expense. At ten o'clock, however, my Guardian came to enquire after my health, and I then said to him, “ Tell me candidly one thing, will you?” “Any thing you would wish to know.” terms with Mr. Pakenham ?” - We have not spoken for two years before last night, when, a lady being the mediator, we could do no less."
I believe these gentlemen, whose relative offices should, of necessity, have brought them frequently together, have remained on speaking terms.
Ingersoll wears his hair closely cut to his head, as short before as it is behind ; a most unusual fashion in America; it is of lively brown, and I
66 Are you upon
do not think there are ten grey hairs in the whole. He has a peculiar taste in hats; sometimes he wore an old black shovel ; sometimes I have seen his head enveloped up to the eyes in a huge fur cap of villainous form and figure; sometimes the crown is just touched by a straw broad brim of gigantic dimensions ; sometimes a dust coloured chapeau, shaven and shapeless, like a Yankee stage driver's, in the Prairies. In vain I remonstrated against each of these varieties; in hats he was perfectly unmanageable, and resisted most triumphantly the“ dominion of the Foreign Petticoat." I doubt not that while he is reading this History he has one or other of the offending articles on his head. His figure is active and well made, though slight; his address cordial and completely self possessed; his countenance bright and animated. He is a distinguished lawyer; and, among other trusts, has the management of the estate of the Prince of Musignano, the son of Joseph Buonaparte, who was his dear and intimate friend. My Guardian's character is a mixture of English sense, of French excitement, and of American independence; I believe that he is more attached
to the French, as a nation, than to the English; and I attribute this predilection, not only to the part taken by the latter in the American struggle for independence, but likewise to his admiration for their literature, language and character. He is, however, the strong advocate of classical education, and affirms without reservation “ that the “dead languages and Ancient History are preferable “ to all modern sciences for information, for juvenile
training, for exercising the memory, and for dic“tion ; likewise for inculcating the precepts and “ practice of virtue, they are far superior to all “ modern instruction, and inferior only to the 66 Bible.”
The East, commercial and navigating, for whose vindication the war was undertaken, opposed it; Massachusetts, (then including Maine,) New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Connecticut, with a large part of New York, and the majority of New Jersey. The West and South, with nothing but
principles to fight for, together with the large Central States, Virginia and Pennsylvania, supported it. Vermont, a frontier state, was the only one of New England for the war. As the most violent and influential moral resistance to it came from the Eastern clergy, a view of that curious offspring of freedom, the American Church, is one of the first points for philosophical attention. Not the Church of England or of Rome, the Presbyterian, Methodist, Baptist, or any other particular sect of Christian worship, but the whole, in all their many varieties and modifications, as developed by American institutions and influences, and combined in what may be denominated the American Church, or the voluntary religion of the United States. The political influences of this Church are felt every day throughout this country; its action upon the war of 1812 is among the most striking and memorable of its circumstances.
European misconception or misrepresentation disparages American religion. Liberty is always accused by hierarchies of infidelity and immorality; the want of ecclesiastical rectitude being inferred from the want of political power. Such was the
Pagan, such is the Mahometan dogma; and until exploded by American devotion, it was a Christian doctrine. The origin of the United States of America was more ideal, identical, primordial, and pious, than that of any European nation. Emigrants from various countries sought America from sympathetic motives, and these colonial settlements were not merely accidental, or their governments convulsive, as those of most other nations, but were of one mind. Political and religious freedom was their pervading impulse. Jesuits, Puritans, Quakers, Huguenots, Calvinists, they were all missionaries, and many of them martyrs, fugitives for conscience, not crime. Bringing with them the free thoughts just beginning to arise in Europe, the Bible was the code of many, Christianity the common law of all; and when the French and English colonists were led to war against each other, their religious and political predilections continued still the same, notwithstanding their hostility.
Similarity of language, much more perfect in the United States of America than in any other nation, is not a more effectual amalgamation than