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stock, and we hope to realize quite a handsome profit on the money invested.
Strawberries, raspberries, and other small fruits promise well. From 212 acres, planted early last spring, were picked several bushels of choice fruit. Later 212 acres more were planted. The five acres produced during the summer a sufficient number of young plants to plant five acres more. A new planting of four acres has just been completed. Other plantings will follow shortly. The raspberries ( 34 of an acre) planted last spring have made an excellent growth, and promise a fine yield next season. We hope to increase the area in small fruits to fifteen or twenty acres.
A few of the oldest orchard trees bore some fruit this season ; a part of which was used on the grounds, the rest shipped to market. Several shipments of vegetables were made during the sum
So far, the work done in the Horticultural Department has been largely one of preparation for success in future.
The means appropriated to the Department, together with the proceeds received from time to time from it, have been expended as judiciously as was possible.
The policy I have adopted, and to which I shail adhere so long as I am connected with this institution, is not to cultivate broad acres for the sake of show; but, on the contrary, to demonstrate to the students, and to those interested in our work, what may be accomplished by proper management on small areas.
In general terms, as may be seen by referring to the valuation of College property made by the Committee of Appraisers, the Department of Horticulture is equipped as follows: Permanent improvements, including teamster's house, stable, store room, cold frames and such, $500.00; four mules, 8500.00; implements, $290.00; growing crops and produce, $428.00; orchards, and nursery stock, $5,390.00. The five acres just planted in strawberries, and a small house just finished for the protection of plants during winter, were not included in the above appraised property. The least cost of plants, preparation of land, and setting out four acres in strawberries, is $160.00; cost of house. $55.00. Total valuation of property, $7,033.00.
There are planted on the grounds some 250 ornamental trees. The orchard contains 1,250 apple, 2,000 peach, 500 pear, 300 plum, 375 mulberry, 20 Japanese persimmon, and 30 apricot trees. The vineyard contains 1,000 vines, six hundred trees, apple, peach and pear, were planted in 1882. Seventeen hun. dred trees, principally apple, mulberry, and ornamental, in 1883. Two hundred grape vines were pri out in 1883; eight hundred in 1885.
Taking care of the campus and the ornamental grounds is a part of the Horticultural work. The grounds are being planted in our native grasses, and such others as promise well in this section. Bermuda grass, orchard grass, blue grass, and clover, carpet the premises about the buildings.
Students are required to labor three hours each day. Excepting the work done by two teamsters (whom it is necessary to have, in order to keep the teams employed during the whole day) all the work in the Department has been done by the students. They plant, cultivate, and gather the vegetables of the garden. They do all the work of laying off, planting, anů pruning, the orchard and vineyard. In the nursery they learn by actual practice the art of budding, grafting, packing, and shipping nursery stock.
The Horticultural interest in the South is increasing rapidly ; especially is this the case in Mississippi. Her soil and climate are admirably adapted to the growth and perfection of fruits, flowers, and vegetables. Her geographical position gives her many shipping advantages which the adjoining States do not possess. At the New Orleans Exposition, Mississippi won more prizes on fruit than did any other Southern State. Her apples, peaches, and pears, took many 'premiums over those of the North and West. She also took premiums on oranges. Mississippi ships one hundred bushels of fruits and vegetables now where she shipped ten five years ago. Extensive commercial orchards and gardens are being dotted all along her lines of railroad. Fifteen years ago to attempt to send such tender fruits as the strawberry, raspberry, and blackberry, to Chicago, was thought a foolislı thing. To-day they go from Mississippi by the carload. Cars are now made that will carry these fruits a distance of 1000 miles, and open them upon the market almost as fresh as when taken from the field. In the near future it will require a ng train of cars daily to move the Horticultural products of Mississippi to market. These statements are not magnified in the least. They are made to show you the beginning of Mississippi's achievements in this industry.
I claim that Horticulture should in Mississippi stand second to no other industrial pursuit; that its future is as bright, and its practice as elevating, as beneficial, and as lasting, as is that of any other branch of agriculture. I believe it is in accordance with the spirit of this institution, and with the wishes of its patrons, that a first-class commercial nursery be established here; that a propagating house, and other appliances for forwarding trees, shrubs, flowers and early garden plants, for home use and for market. be constructed and put in operation, that the garden, orchard, and vineyard, should furnish fruits and vegetables, both fresh and dried, not only for the students and officers of the College, but also for market.
But the Horticultural interest cannot be developed in a day. It requires capital, diligent labor, and time, to stock a nursery with choice and valuable varieties of trees, vines and plants; to make a good paying garden soil ; to bring orchards into full bearing. Failure need not be apprehended is the plan is well formed, and each step carefully taken. I think we are progressing in the right direction, and as rapidly as our means will allow. With more capital to invest in a propagating house, nursery stock, and
a proper building for keeping fruits and vegetables our work would be much more satisfactory.
I shall endeavor to do what I can with the means given nie, to make the Horticultural Department what it should be, to make its study a mental discipline for the student as well as an attract ve employment
The garden, orchard, nursery and ornamental grounds once well equipped, and in good running order, the expenses of the Department will be nominal when compared with the profits.
With these aids, it will not be difficult to show the student what there is in the science and art of Horticulture. The student himself will combine theory and practice, and when he leaves College, will be well fitted to pursue intelligently any branch of this industry in a practical, business like manner.
To conclude: much of the success of this Department is due to the support given it by the Honorable Board of Trustees, and President, and it is to you, Mr. President, that I owe a debt of gratitude for your encouragement, and your willingness to hold up my hands whenever it was within your power. Very respectfully submitted,
A. B. MCKAY, Acting Professor of Horticulture.
REPORT OF INSTRUCTOR IN BOOK-KEEPIDG.
A. AND M. COLLEGE OF MISSISSIPPI,
Nov. 2 Sth, 1885. Gen. S. D. Lie, President :
Dear Sir-In accordance with your instructions I hereby submit my report as Instructor in Book-keeping :
In this study the Freshman Class is instructed during the last term about three months. We endeavor to teach Book-keeping practically, as far as we are able, during the very limited time given to the subject. Last session we had seventy students in Freshman Class, which required it divided into three sections. The students were much interested in the subject and made very •satisfactory progress. The text-book used is Bryant & Stratton's. While the time devoted to the subject is too limited to give a thorough course, still, with diligence and application a student can obtain a practical knowledge of the subject, as is evidenced in the fact that several students who attended here, and without any other instruction, are now successful book-keepers in the State.
T. F. WATSON, Instructor in Book-Keeping.
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND FREE-HAND DRAWING.
REPORT OF A. ZUCKER. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND FREE Hand DRAWING. 'Gen. S. D. Lu, President:
Sir-I have the honor to submit to you herewith the Fourth Annual Report of the operations of the Department of the Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical College under my charge.
The work has since the date of my first report been highly satisfactory and encouraging to me. Several causes have contrib. uted to make it so, and have, also, given this branch an acknowl. edged standing among the departments of the College.
The department is well equipped with small tables and stools to admit double the number of students in former years, and has also a sufficient number of model drawings, both for mechanical and free hand drawing.
The most urgent and imperative need of the department is a large andwell-lighted room to accommodate the increased number of students in the Junior and Sophomore classes. The room used in former years proved to be entirely too small for the purpose, and the College library has partly been assigned to the department this year.
Following is the statement of attendance in the classes during the terms:
FIRST TERM-MECHANICAL DRAWING.
..Free Hand Drawing. A great number of students have been taking every year an enthusiastic interest in the work of the department, and made a success in copying farm buildings of the College, and also in map drawing. Despite the disadvantages of room, etc., the general progress of students in both classes has been satisfactory, and the samples of the students' work sent to the Exposition at New Orleans have showed that this department has as good results as those of institutions of the same kind.
Many superior drawings are often willingly given to the department by students, and these I intend to frame, using them as samples and guides to future students.
I hope to be able to add to the courses of mechanical and free. hand drawing those of crayon drawing, painting in water colors, and modeling in clay, and thus bring the department up to the standard of similar departments of other Colleges.
It is my endeavor to add to the equipment of the department, as much from year to year, as are, in the judgment of the Board of Trustees, wise expenditures.
Very respectfully submitted,
Instructor in Drawing. Mississippi Agriculture and Mechanical College, Nov. 25, 1885.
REPORT OF LIBRARIAN.
A. & M. COLLEGE, MississiPPI, I
November 23, 1885. S Genl S. D. Lee, President :
Dear Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report as Librarian of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Mississippi, covering the period that has elapsed since my appointment, by resolution of the Faculty, December 3, 1883.
The work in the Library is performed by a student appointed by the President ard Faculty, but is done under the direction of the Librarian, who makes, with the sanction of the Faculty, such rules and regulations for the government of the affairs of the Library as he deems expedient.
During the remainder of the session of 1833-'4 which elapsed after my appointment to the place of Librarian, I had an inventory taken of ail books and property belonging to the Library. I had all the books re-numbered and re-arranged; duplicate lists, in alphabetical order, were made, giving both the title of each book and its author. One of these lists has been placed in the Reading-room for the convenience of the students and others desiring to get books from the shelves.
Students taking books from the Library give a receipt for the same, and before the Secretary settles with any student leaving College, either during the session or at its close, the student is required to furnish a certificate to the Secretary that there are no charges on account of lost books, or on account of damage to Library property against the student leaving.
Monthly reports are required of the student-librarian, and these, when necessary, are laid before the President, who, when he thinks proper, refers them to the Faculty for their action.
The number of bound volumes now belonging to the Library is two thousand, three hundred and thirty-six (2,336), 136 yolumes having been added by purchase or donation since Dec. 3, 1883. A majority of the bound volumes consists of donations from the different departments of the General Government, and from our State government, such as reports of the Fish Commission, reports of the Bureau of Education, etc. The number of volumes belonging to the scientific and literary departments of the College is one thousand, one hundred ard eighty seven (1,187), of which only five hundred and sixty-eight (568) volumes belong to the literary department.
These figures show the limited supply of reading matter offered to the large number of students now in attendance upon the instruction given here. I reiterate here what I said in my report of the Department of English: there is a great deficiency of works illustrative of the different periods of English literature, and almost a total absence of historical works, charts, etc. Biography—that portion of history so attractive to the young-is not represented at all in our list of books. I recommend that the Legislature be