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former arrangement over two entire years intervened between the study of Botany by illy prepared Freshmen and its resumption by the Seniors; while under the present arrangement it is commenced in the latter part of the Junior year and continued most profitably in the Senior.
By this arrangement my class instruction is limited to the Junior and Senior classes; and my work may be mentioned under these two heads.
I. Anatomy, human and comparative, is taught by lectures, books, charts, skeletons, dissected bodies, special organs and parts, wet and dry preparations, dissections before by and the pupils.
2. Physiology and Hygiene, in order to economize time, are taught in connection with Anatomy.
3. Veterinary Science is next taken up, including comparative anatomy of the domestic animals. Here also the lectures are illustrated by books, plates, skeletons, wet and dry preparations of special parts, of normal and diseased organs, and the examinations of sound and sick animals, and by autopsies as often as practica. ble. Instruction is given also in the principles of breeding, selections for special purposes, improvement, management and treatment of live stock in health and disease. The course is, however, too limited by the little time allowed for it.
4. Botany follows in the last term, the lectures being aided by excellent plates, an herbarium of many thousand plants, indigenous and exotic, wet preparations of plants, several hundred species of woods, and the daily examination by the students of all fresh plants that can be obtained from gardens, fields and forests. Thus, the student practically learns Botany, organic or structural, physiological, systematic, and phytological or descriptive.
5. Simultaneously with this course in Botany, one hour daily is given to Physical Geography. This comes in well here under a new arrangement, being so intimately connected with Botany, Zoology and Geology.
1. In this class, Botany is resumed, with dissections, preparation of sections and drawings, (under the compound microscope) made by the students; each student being furnished with a microscope, accompanied with eye and object pieces of several powers, cameras and other accessories. These investigations extend to fungi and other parasites, and saprophytes.
2. Geology is taught by lectures, books, charts, maps, rocks, minerals, fossils and soils—the specimens from all the more noted localities of the world-especially those of Mississippi.
3. The lectures on Zoology are aided by the latest books and scientific periodicals of the old and new world, and a large quantity of material collected for the purpose.
4. Last session Entomology was temporarily relegated to this
Department; and a course of lectures on Economic Entomology was given with insects, and their work displayed before the class. The class also made many microscopic studies, some dissections and a few drawings of the subjects in their several stages of morphology
MEANS OF ILLUSTRATION.
Appliances, and facilities for utilizing them, have been much increased since our last report; and consequently the instruction has been easier and more satisfactory to the teacher, and much more practical and profitable to the students, who are always eager to attend these courses of study.
Yet very many additional appliances and facilities are much needed for rendering instruction in the subjects confided to this De. partment as efficient and complete as it should be. There is no
ny arrangement adapted to microscopic work; no suitable place or appliances for making dissections; no room that can be arranged for lectures on Anatomy and other subjects in which objects are used for illustration ; no room where live animals can be introduced for clinical or surgical examinations, lectures, operations and treatment, and for the study of parts, points, forms and other matters connected with live stock, as well as the examination of feeds, poisons, etc. A building suitable for these and other important purposes is of paramount importance-an abso. lute and pressing want for the proper development, working, efficiency, and greatest usefulness of the College to the State, and the farmers and other people of the State.
FARMERS' INSTITUTES. Six of these were held last year and five this year. Of these. I assisted at all but one last year and two this year. But two were held this year at which no other member of the Faculty could attend. At one of these held with the Patrons' Union near Lake Station where between 3.000 and 4,500 people were present, I was most efficiently assisted by Messrs. W. C. Welborn and S. A, Wilkinson, students who had just completed the studies of the Junior class. They acquitted themselves with distinguished ability, greatly to the credit of the College and the edification of the large audience. At these Institutes I discussed forage crops, ensilage and silos in all their bearings, diseases of live siock and of plants, cross-fertilization and other modes of improving corn, cotton and other farm and garden crops and many other topics.
CORRESPONDENCE. This has been simply immense. A large portion of the work connected with it was very satisfactorily performed by my faithful Assistant, Mr. W. B. Stark, now a member of the Senior class. Much of the time during these two years he has been occupied several hours daily, doing nearly all the microscopic work and rendering assistance in many other ways. Other assistance also, outside the College, has been obtained part of the time. But
still it has been physically impossible to do all the writing and other work. Many investigations desired have not been instituted and many importart letters remain unanswered for many months and are still on hand.
Almost everything relating to crops of every kind, to all kinds of live stock, feeds and foods, waters, fungi, poisonous plants and soils, new forage and medicinal plants, has been examined and discussed. Many of these matters have been reported on in the S. L. Stock Journal and other publications in other States. Reports on new medicinal plants found in Mississippi have for several years appeared regularly in the annual Reports of the Mississippi State Medical Association.
One Report on unwholsome cistern water used in a State Benevolent Institution in jackson will be found in the biennial Report of the State Board of Health. This Report is now in the hands of the State Printer and will go before our next Legislature,
Hundreds of letters from many States, and many personal interviews, involving questions of veterinary medicine and sur. gery, and the management of millions of dollars worth of live stock; and many most urgent solicitations to visit many localities in order to advise in person and to perform surgical operations ; and the pleadings of every one of our classes in Veterinary Science for the prolongation of the course of instruction; and the urgency of the stockmen all over the State show that.
A CHAIR OF VETERINARY SCIENCE is one of the greatest, most important and pressing wants of the College and of the State.
have often been sent in for identification, for examination as to adulterations, isoundness, germinating power and many other points; some cases requiring expert testimony, by which legal contests have been decided, and in two or more instances amica. bly adjusted.
Several controversies of botanical and entomological subjects have been very successfully and satisfactorily terminated in several leading periodicals of other States.
Our delegation to the Convention of A. & M. Colleges and Experiment Stations, held in July last, at Washington City, was cordially treated and participated in the proceedings of the Con. vention, which have been published and need no further mention here. Much good work was done for all agricultural interests of the whole country. Many benefits were secured for our State and people while we were at the Capital —among which are conspicuously the aid that will be furnished in the examination of all seeds to be distributed to farmers from the Department of Agricul. ture and the assistance promised by the section on Fungi attacking animals and plants. This new section is one recently formed by the head of the Department, and we confidently expect from it most beneficial resulis. Our relations with the indefatigable Chief,
and with his subordinate heads of divisions and sections, are of the most cordial character.
Other matters of importance should perhaps have some men. tion, but the length of this report admonishes of the danger of wearying. Therefore, it is here closed and respectfully submitted with thanks for your uniform courtesy and kindly consideration in all our intercourse.
D. L. PHARES.
REPORT OF PROF. F. A. GULLEY, 1884 AND 1885.
A. & M. COLLEGE, Miss., November, 1885. S. D. Lie, President : SIR-The following report of the work of the Farm Department of the College, for the years 1385-'6 to Nov. 15th, is respectfully submitted:
The work of this department embraces instruction in the classroom and field, Student labor, and the general work of the farm. My own duties include:
ist. Courses of lectures to the Senior, Sophomore, and Freshman classes of each year, resident graduates and students making a special study of Agriculture, on the theory and practice of general agriculture.
2d, Supervision of Student labor. 3d. Management of all farm work, buildings, and experiments.
4th. Attending farmers' Institutes and other meetings and de. livering addresses on farm topics.
5th. Correspondence in reference to the College, College herds, and answering questions referring to a variety of subjects of interest to farmers generally.
The correspondence from all parts of this and from other States indicate the standing of the College with the people.
A considerable portior. of my time has been occupied in preparing plans for farm buildings, silos, suggesting outfits of machinery and implements. I have also been called upon to visit places and submit plans of drainage, arrangement of buildings, construction, etc.
The work of this department is attracting attention throughout this and other States, and the reports of the results of our experi. mnents are copied by papers all over the country.
THE COLLEGE FARM,
The tract of land under the control of the farm department, em. braces some 1,750 acres, lying in an irregular, narrow body, varying from one-fourth to three-fourths of a mile in width, and four and
one-half miles long. About 200 acres are covered with timber ; the remainder is branch bottom and rolling uplands; the former amounting to about 400 acres on the entire tract and mostly con. tained in a narrow strip, running lengthwise through the center of the farm. The College and farm buildings are located near the center of the farm and one mile from one end. The peculiar shape of the farm makes any convenient arrangement of the fields almost impossible, and adds very largely to the cost of improving the land, draining, working and harvesting crops, and calls for a large amount of fencing to enable us to make the land available for cropping and pasture, Previous to being occupied by the College, about two-thirds of the bottom land had been partially cleared and cropped, but at the time purchase was made nearly all the land was lying out, the owners being unable to find renters at any price. The uplands were badly scored by washing, and the ditches in the bottoms had been allowed to fill and the land to grow up in brush.
The work of the first and second year after the opening of the College, was expended on the land adjacent to the buildings to protect the soil from further washing. The fields were fenced, hill-side ditched, planted in corn, oats and peas, followed by grass, ard finally turned into pastures, with the exception of what is used for growing ensilage crops near the farms. Com. mencing in 1833, it has since been the policy of the department to drain and fit the bottom land for cropping and turn the upland inio pastures for stock. As there were no fences or ditches on the farm, some twenty-four miles of fence, and half as many miles of ditches have been built and opened to make all of the land available for cropping and pasture, The greater part of the labor on the farm has been expended in improving the lands and has as yet made no return except adding to the value of the property. The result of this work is fast becoming apparent in the crops of the present year, and the noticeable change that has been made in the condition of the larger portion of the upland. now affording a large amount of grazing and effectually protected from washing away.
We now have 200 acres of bottom land cleared up, well drained, broken thoroughly and fitted for high cultivation; 100 acres inore will be ready to crop next spring. A considerable part of this land will be worked in a five year rotation, the crops following each other in regular succession, planting one-fifth of the land to each crop, each year, using the concentrated fertilizers on the corn and cotton.
ist year corn, followed by peas.
The plan, or system, that has been adopted on the College farm embraces stock growing and diversified cropping. This is believed