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N JUNE 30, 1960, when the Congo became independent, it had fewer than 20 Congolese university graduates and only a few hundred Congolese secondary school graduates. Its two universities had been open but a few years and 6-year academic secondary education had been available to Congolese boys and girls for little more than a decade. Many had attended primary schools, but most had not done so long enough to achieve permanent literacy. Since independence, the Congo has experienced difficulties in administering its educational system. Although primary education has received most of the Congo funds voted for education, it has undergone no real improvement. At the secondary and postsecondary levels important changes have occurred. The Congolese have— • Reformed the secondary educational structure and study programs. • Established several new postsecondary educational institutions. • Introduced new nondegree postsecondary courses to prepare needed middle-level personnel in various fields. • Rapidly expanded secondary and postsecondary enrollments. In bringing about the changes, the Congo has received considerable technical and financial aid from outside the country. The Congolese secondary and postsecondary educational institutions are almost entirely dependent upon foreign teachers and most probably will remain so for many years.