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i True swains in love shall in the world to come
Approve their truths by Troilus : when their rhymes,
Full of protest, of oath, and big compare,
Want fimilies : truth, tir'd with iteration,
As true as steel, as e plantage to the moon,

'True fwains in love fall in the world to come

Approve their truths by Troilus : when their rhymes,
Full of proteft, of oath, and big compare,

Want families: truth, tir'd with iteration, The metre, as well as the sense, of the last verse will be improved, I think, by reading,

Want fimilies of truth, tir'd with iteration, So, a little lower in the same speech,

Yet after all comparisons of truth. Observations and Conje&tures, &c. printed at Oxford, 1766.

plantage to the moon,) I formerly made a filly conjecture, that the true reading was,

planets to their moons. But I did not reflect that it was wrote before Galileo had discovered the Satellites of Jupiter; so that plantage to the moon is right, and alludes to the common opinion of the influence the moon has over what is planted or sown, which was therefore done in the increase.

“ Rite Latonæ puerum canentes,
“ Rite crefcentem face noctilucam,
“ Profperam frugum". Hor. lib. 4. od. 6.

WARBURTON. Plantage is not, I believe, a general term, but the herb which we now call plantain, in Latin, plantago, which was, I suppose, imagined to be under the peculiar influence of the moon.

JOHNSON. It is to be considered, that Shakespeare might think he had a right to form or new create a word as well as others had done before him. The termination of words in age was very common in the time of our poet. In Holland's translation of Pliny, tom. ii. p. 12. we meet with the word gardenage for the herbs of the garden; and page 96. he says, “Here an end of gardens and garderage.Shakespeare uses guardage for guardianship. Holland uses guardenage in the same sense; and bospitage is a word we meet with in Spenser. Tollet.

Shakespeare speaks of plantain by its common appellation in Romeo and Juliet: and from a book entitled, The prostable Art of Gardening, &c. by Tho. Hill, Londoner, the third edition, printed in 1579, I learn, that neither sowing, planting, nor grafing, were ever undertaken without a scrupulous attention


As sun to day, as turtle to her mate,
As iron to adamant, as earth to the center-
Yet after all comparisons of truth,
3 As truth's authentic author to be cited
As true as Troilus, shall crown up the verse,
And fanctify the numbers.

Cre. Prophet may you be!
If I be falfe, or swerve a hair from truth,
When time is old and hath forgot itself,
When water-drops have worn the stones of Troy,
And blind oblivion swallow'd cities up,
And mighty states characterless are grated
To dusty nothing; yet let memory
From false to false, among false maids in love,
Upbraid my fallhood! when they have faid-as false
As air, as water, wind, or sandy earth,
As fox to lamb, as wolf to heifer's calf,
Pard to the hind, or step-dame to her fon;
Yea, let them say, to stick the heart of falshood,
As false as Creftid.-

Pan. Go to, a bargain made. Seal it, seal it ; I'll be the witness. -Here I hold your hand; here, my cousin's. If ever you prove falíe to one another, fince I have taken such pains to bring you together, let all pitiful goers-between be called to the world's end after my name; call them all Pandars. Lec all 4 inconstant men be Troilus's, all false women Cressid's, and all brokers-between Pandars ! Say, Amen.

to the encrcase or waning of the moon.-Dryden does not appear to have understood the passage, and has therefore altered it thus:

“ As true as flowing tides are to the moon.” Steev. 3 As TRUTH'S AUTHENTIC AUThor to be cited] Troilus mall crotun the verse, as a man to be ciied as the authentic author of truth; as one whole protestations were true to a proverb.

JOHNSON. inconstant men--] So HANMER. In the copies it is constant. JOHNSON.

Troi. Amen!
Cre. Amen!

Pan. Amen! Whereupon I will shew you a bedchamber; which bed, because it shall not speak of your pretty encounters, press it to death. "Away.

And Cupid grant all tongue-ty'd maidens here,
Bed, chamber, Pandar to provide this geer!

[Exeunt. S CE N E IV.

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The Grecian camp.

Enter Agamemnon, Ulyses, Diomed, Nejor, lijex,

Menelaus, and Calchas.

Cal. Now, princes, for the service I have done you,
The advantage of the time prompts me aloud
To call for recompence.

5 Appear it to your mind


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Appear it to you,
That, through the light I bear in things to come,

I have abandon’d Troy. ] This reasoning perplexes
Mr. Theobald; “ He foresaw his country was undone ; he ran

over to the Greeks; and this he makes a merit of (says the

editor). I own (continues he) the motivés of his oratory " seem to me somewhat perverse and unnatural. Nor do I “ know how to reconcile it, unless our poet purposely intended “ to make Chalcas act the part of a true prieli, and so from 56 motives of self-interest insinuate the merit of service.” The editor did not know how to reconcile this. Nor I neisher. For I do not know what he means " the motives of his " oratory,” or, “ from motives of feif-interest to infinuate “ merit.” But if he would intimuate, that it was the poet's design to make his priek felf-intertried, and to represent to the Grocks that what he did for his own preservation was done for their service, he is mistaken. Shakespeare thought of nothing so ally, as it would be to draw his priest a knave, in order to make him talk like a fool. Though that be the fate which generally attends their abusers. But Shakespeare was no such; and consequently wanted not this cover for dulness. The perverseness is all the editor's own, who interprets,

through the fight I have in things to come, I have abandon'd Troy


That, 6 through the sight I bear in things, to Jove I have abandon’d Troy, left my possession,


To fignify, “ by my power of prescience finding my country “ muit be ruined, I have therefore abandoned it to seek refuge “ with you ;” whereas the true sense is, “ Le it known unto

you, that on account of a gift or faculty I have of seeing things to come, which faculty I suppose would be esteemed

by you as acceptable and useful, I have abandoned Troy my “ native country.” That he could not mean what the editor supposes, appears from those considerations, Firit, If he had represented himself as running from a falling city, he could never have said,

I havem -expos'd myself,
From certain and pofiefs'd conveniencies,

To doubtful fortunes ; Secondly, The absolute knowledge of the fall of Troy was a secret hid from the inferior gods themselves ; as appears from the poetical hiftory of that war. It depended on many contingences whole existence they did not foresee. All that they knew was, that if such and such things happened Troy would fall. And this secret they communicated to Casandra only, but along with it, the fate not to be believed. Several others knew each a several part of the secret ; one, that Troy could not be taken unless Achilles went to the war; another, that it could not fall while it had the palladium; and so on. But the secret, that it was absolutely to fall, was known to none. The sense here given will admit of no dispute amongst those who know how acceptable a jeer was amongst the Greeks. So that this Calchas, like a true priest, if it must needs be so, went where he could exercise his profession with most advantage. For it being much less common amongst the Greeks than the Afiatics, there would be a greater demand for it. WARB.

I am afraid, that after all the learned commentator's efforts to clear the argument of Calchas, it will still appear liable to objection; nor do I discover more to be urged in his defence, than that though his skill in divination determined him to leave Troy, yet that he joined himself to Agamemnon and his army by unconstrained good-will; and though he came as a fugitive eic:ping from defru&ion, yet his services after his reception, being voluntary and important, deserved reward. This argument is not regularly and distinctly deduced, but this is, I shink, the best explication that it will yet admit. Johnson.

through the fight I bear in things, to Jove) This passage in all the modern editions is filently depraved, and printed thes: through the light I bear in things to come.


Incurr'd a traitor's name; expos’d myself,
From certain and posseft conveniencies,
To doubtful fortunes ; fequeftring from me all
That time, acquaintance, custom, and condition,
Made tame and most familiar to my nature;
And here, to do you service, am become
As new into the world, strange, unacquainted.
I do beseech you, as in way of taste,
To give me now a little benefit,
Out of those many registred in promise,
Which, you say, live to come in my

behalf. Aga. What wouldst thou of us, Trojan? make

demand. Cal. You have a Trojan prisoner, callid Antenor, Yesterday took: Troy holds him very dear. Oft have you (often have you thanks therefore) Desir'd

my Cressid in right great exchange,
Whom Troy hath still deny’d: but this Antenor,
I know, is such a wrest in their affairs,
That their negotiations all must slack,
Wanting his manage; and they will almost
Give us a prince o' the blood, a son of Priam,
In change of him. Let him be sent, great princes,
And he shall buy my daughter; and her presence
Shall quite strike off all service I have done,
7 In most accepted pain.

Aga. Let Diomedes bear him,
And bring us Creffid hither ; Calchas shall have

The word is co printed that nothing but the sense can determine whether it be love or Jove. I believe that the editors read it as love, and therefore made the alteration to obtain some. meaning. JOHNSON.

? In most accepted pain.] Sir T. HANMER, and Dr. WARBURTON after him, read,

In moit accepted pay. They do not seem to understand the construction of the passage, Her presence, says Calchas, fall strike off, or recompence the Jervice I have done, even in these labours which were molt accepted. JOHNSON,


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