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James Smith,
George Taylor,
James Wilson,
George Ross.

Cesar Rodney,
George Read,
Thomas M'Kean.

Samuel Chase,
William Paca,
Thomas Stone,
Charles Carroll, ofCarrol-

virginia. [ton.

George Wythe,
Richard Henry Lee,
Thomas Jefferson,

Benjamin Harrison,
Thomas Nelson, jr.
Francis Lightfoot Lee,
Carter Braxton.
William Hooper,
Joseph Hewes,
John Penn.
Edward Rutledge,
Thomas Heyward, jr.
Thomas Lynch, jr.
Arthur Middleton.
Button Gwinnett.
Lyman Hall,
George Walton.


We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, ensure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of libert to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and ... this constitution for the United States of America.



1. All legislative powers herein granted, shall be vested in a congress of the United States, which shall consist of a senate and house of representatives.

Legislativo powers vested in congresss.

sEction 2.

House of representatives ;

1. The house of representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year, by the people of the several states ; and the electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislature.

2. No person shall be a representative, who shall not have attained to the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

its members; by whom chosen; qualifications of electors.

Qualifications of representatives.

Representatives and taxes to be apportioned according to numbers.

Actual enumeration every ten years.

Limitation of the ratio of representation, &c.

First apportionment of representatives.

Writs of election for filling vacancies.

The house of representatives to choose their speaker, &c.

Two senators chosen by the legislature of each state, for 6 years; each a vote.

The senate divided into three classes.

One third of the senatorial seats vacated, and filled, every two years.

Excutives of states to fill vacancies in the recess of Jegislatures, &c.

Qualifications of senators,

3. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several states which may be included within this union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each state shall have at least one representative: and until such enumeration shall be made, the state of New-Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three ; JMassachusetts eight; Rhode-Island Providence Plantations one ; Connecticut five ; JNewYork six; New-Jersey four; Pennsylvania eight; Delaware one; JMaryland six; Virginia ten ; JNorth-Carolina five ; South-Carolina five ; and Georgia three.

4. When vacancies happen in the representation from any state, the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.

5. The house of representatives shall choose their speaker and other officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment.


1. The senate of the United States shall be composed of two senators from each state, chosen by the legislature thereof, for six years; and each senator shall have one vote.

2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided, as equally as may be, into three classes. The seats of the senators of the first class, shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second class, at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class, at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by resignation or otherwise, during the recess of the legislature of any state, the executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.

3. No person shall be a senator, who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state for which he shall be chosen.

4. The vice-president of the United States shall be president of the senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided. 5. The senate shall choose their other officers, and also a president pro tempore, in the absence of the vicepresident, or when he shall exercise the office of president of the United States. 6. The senate shall have the sole power to try allimpeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the president of the United States is tried, the chief justice shall preside ; and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two thirds of the members present. 7. Judgment, in cases of impeachment, shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit, under the United States; but the party convicted shall, nevertheless, be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law.


1. The times, places, and manner of holding elections for senators and representatives, shall be prescribed in each state, by the legislature thereof; but the congress may, at any time, by law, make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing senators.

2. The congress shall assemble at least once in every year; and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.


1. Each house shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and qualifications, of its own members; and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorised to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties, as each house may provide.

2. Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behaviour, and, with the concurrence of two thirds, expel a member.

3. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may, in their judgment, require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house on any question, shall, at the desire of one fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.

dent to be pre-
sident of the
The senate to
choose their
president pro-
tempore, &c.

The sole pow-
er to try im-
in the senate,

Extent of judgment in cases of impeachment. Party liable also to judgment, &c. accordingtolaw.

Times, &c. of holding elections for senators and representatives, regulated.

Congress to assemble annually on the first Monday in December, &c.

Each house to judge of the election of its own inembers.


Each house to determine its own rules, &c. .

Journals to be kept by each house, and published, &c.

Adjournment of both houses.

Senators and representatives to be paid, &c. Privileged from arrest, &c.

Concerning the holding of offices by scnators and representatives.

Revenue bills to originate in the house of representatives, &c.

Powers of the president and of congress in the enacting of laws, and the forms of proceeding on bills in that respect.

4. Neither house, during the session of congress, shall. without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting.


1. The senators and representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury of the United States. They shall, in all cases, except treason, felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest, during their attendence at the session of their respective houses, and in going to or returning from the same ; and for any speech or debate in either house, they shall not be questioned in any other place.

2. No senator or representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil of fice under the authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased, during such time ; and no person holding any office under the United States, shall be a member of either house, during his continuance in office.


1. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the house of representatives; but the senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other bills.

2. Every bill, which shall have passed the house of representatives and the senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the president of the United States : if he approve, he shall sign it; but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to that house in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, two thirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that house, it shall become a law. But in all such cases, the votes of both houses, shall be determined by yeas and nays; and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill, shall be entered on the journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned, by the president, within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the congress, by their adjournment, prevent its return; in which case it shall not be a law.

3. Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the concurrence of the senate and house of representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the president of the United States; and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be re-passed by two thirds of the senate and house of representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.


The congress shall have power— 1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises ; to pay the debts, and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States: 2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States: 3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes: 4. To establish an uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies, throughout the United States: 5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures : 6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States: 7. To establish post-offices and post-roads: 8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing, for limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries : 9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the supreme eourt: To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offences against the law of nations : 10. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water: 11. To raise and support armies; but no oppropriation of money to that use, shall be for a longer term than two years: 12. To provide and maintain a navy: 13. To make rules for the government and regulation ef the land and naval forces: 14. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute

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