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To provide for
calling forth
the militia.
To provide for
organizing the
militia, &c.

To exercise exclusive jurisdiction over a territorial district not exceeding ten miles square.

To make all laws necessasary to the execution of their powers.

Importation of certain persons not to be prohibited until after 1808.

The writ of habeas corpus recognized,

, &c.
No bills of at-
tainder, or ex
st facto
Direct taxes
according to
No export
duty, nor
preference of
one state to
another, in

Money to be expended by legal appropriation only.

the laws of the union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions:

15. To provide for organizing, arming and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the states, respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia, according to the discipline prescribed by congress:

16. To exercise exclusive legislation, in all cases whatsoever, over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states, and the acceptance of congress, become the seat of government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the legislature of the state in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock yards, and other needful buildings —And

17. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper, for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this constitution, in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.


1. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the states, now existing, shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the congress, prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight; but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person. 2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it. 3. No bill of attainder, or ex post facto law, shall be passed. 4. No capitation, or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken. 5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state. No preference shall be given, by any regulation of commerce or revenue, to the ports of one state over those of another; nor shall vessels bound to or from one state, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another. 6. No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and ex

penditures of all public money, shall be published from time to time.

7. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United Notitles of States; and no person holding any office of profit or o trust under them, shall, without the consent of the con- i. §. y gress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title States; nor of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or for ... ." eign state. . * [See amendments, art.13.]

1. No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or Powers withconfederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin oro money; emit bills of credit; make anything but gold ..." and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any y. bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts; or grant any title of nobility.

2. No state shall, without the consent of the congress, Powers which lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except the state, an what may be absolutely necessary for executing its in- only spection laws; and the net produce of all duties and im- sanction of ports laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be for congress. the use of the treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the congress. No state shall, without the consent of congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops or ships of war, in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another state, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.




1. The executive power shall be vested in a presi- Executive dent of the United States of America. He shall hold Po" o: his office during the term of four years, and, together with opendent, the vice-president, chosen for the same term, be elected as follows:

2. Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the le: Electors of gislature thereof may direct, a number of electors, equal : to the whole number of senators and representatives to ...” ent, which the state may be entitled in the congress; but no senator or representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector.

3. [Annulled. See Amendments, art. 12.]

4. The congress may determine the time of choosing Congress o the electors, and the day on which they shall give their ...: votes; which day shall be the same throughout the Uni- ing electors of ted States. president, &c.

The president to be natural born, or a citizen in 1788;

aged 35; and 14 years a resident of the

United States.

In case of vacancy in the office of president, the vicepresident to act, &c.

Compensation of the president.

The president to take an oath.

Form of the oath.

His powers.

5. No person, except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United States, at the time of the adoption of this constitution, shall be eligible to the office of president ; neither shall any person be eligible to that office, who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United States. i 6. In case of the removal of the president from office, or of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the vice-president; and the congress may, by law, provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inability, both of the president and vice-president, declaring what officer shall then act as president, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a president shall be elected. 7. The president shall, at stated times, receive, for his services, a compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected; and he shall not receive, within that period, any other emolument from the United States, or any of them. 8. Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath or affirmation: 9. “I do solemnly swear [or affirm] that I will faithfully execute the office of president of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the constitution of the United States.”


1. The president shall be commander in chief of the army and navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several states, when called into the actual service of the United States; he may require the opinion in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices ; and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offences against the United States, except in cases of impeachment.

2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, to make treaties, provided two thirds of the senators present, concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the senate, shall appoint, ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls, judges of the supreme court, and all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law. But the congress may, by law, vest the appointment of such inferior officers as they think roper, in the president alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments. 3. The president shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at the end of their next session.


1. He shall, from time to time, give to the congress, information of the state of the union, and recommend to their consideration, such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors, and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed; and shall commission all the officers of the United States.


1. The president, vice-president, and all civil officers of the United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.


1. The judicial power of the United States shall be wested in one supreme court, and in such inferior courts

as the congress may, from time to time, ordain and es- .

tablish. The judges, both of the supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall, at stated times, receive, for their services, a compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.

SEction 2.

1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases in law and equity, arising under this constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority; to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which the United States shall be a party; to controversies between two or more states, between a state and citizens of another state, between citizens of different states, between citizens of the same state claim

His duties.

President, &c. removeable on impeachment and conviction.

Judicial powers vested in a supreme court, C.

Judges to
hold their of
fices during
good behavior,

Extent of the judicial power.

[*See a restriction of this provision, amendments, art. 11.]

Original and appellate jurisdiction of the supreme court.

Trial of crimes to be by jury, &c.

Definition of treason.

Congress to declare the punishment of treason, &c.

Credit to be given in one state to the public acts, &c. of another, &c.

of citizenship
the states.
Criminals fly-
ing from one
state to ano-
ther, to be de-
livered, up on

ing lands under grants of different states, and between a state or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens, or subjects.”

2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a state shall be a party, the supreme court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned, the supreme court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and under such regulations as the congress shall make.

3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury; and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crimes shall have been committed ; but when not committed within any state, the trial shall be at such place or places as the congress may by law have directed.


1. Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason, unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.

2. The congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason; but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture, except during the life of the person attainted.


1. Full faith and credit shall be given, in each state, to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state. And the congress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in which such acts, records, and proceedings, shall be proved, and the effect thereof.


1. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several states.

2. A person charged in any state with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall flee from justice, and be found in another state, shall, on demand of the executive authority of the state from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the state having jurisdiction of the crime.

3. No person held to service or labor in one state, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in con

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