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NAPOLEON, on the 17th October, a resolution of proposing the inva1797, signed the celebrated treaty of sion and permanent occupation of Campo Formio, by which the French Egypt, a project which he had conRepublic acquired all the Austrian ceived, and the plans of which he Netherlands, and Austria consented had matured even during the activity to acknowledge the Cisalpine Re- and exertions of his campaign in public, better known under the name Italy. This was a gigantic concepof the Lombardo-Venetian Republic. tion of attacking Great Britain in On the 1st of December following the East where she was more vulneNapoleon, at the Congress of Ras- rable; and the Directory, influenced tadt, signed, with the Count de by an anxiety to get rid of a man Cobentzl, the military, convention whose presence concentrated every relative to the reciprocal evacuation ray of national admiration and esof the French and German territo- teem, immediately fitted out the exries. In the preceding month (No. pedition for the invasion of Egypt. vember), the Directory had appoint- Forty thousand land forces and ten ed Napoleon Commander-in-Chief of thousand marines were assembled in the armies destined to the invasion the ports of the Mediterranean, and of England.

thirteen sail of the line, fourteen On Napoleon's return to Paris frigates and four hundred transports from Rastadt, the popular sentiment and smaller vessels were put under in his favour rose to enthusiasm. sailing orders at Toulon; the fleet The Directory now saw that the was under the command of Admiral mighty genius of this young con Brueys, and Vice-Admirals Villequeror would infallibly place him at neuve, (who subsequently commandthe head of the nation. They fore- ed at Trafalgar), Duchayla, Decres, boded their own downfall ; but, al- and Gantheaume. The land-officers though replete with jealousy, they were, Berthier, Caffarelli, Kleber, had not the courage to oppose the Desaix, Regnier, Lannes, Damas, public feelings, and they therefore Murat, Andreossy, Belliard, Menou voted a great national fête in honour and Zayouscheck, afterwards Viceof Napoleon. The directory receiv- Roy of Poland. One hundred memed Napoleon with theatrical pomp, bers of almost every branch of art and dressed in magnificent antique and science were atrached to the excostumes; the conqueror eclipsed pedition. Among Napoleon's aidtheir splendour by the simple uni- de-camps were his brother Louis, form of Lodi and Arcola. The Con- Duroc, Eugene, Beauharnois, the suls of the Republic gave him a son of the director Merlin, and Sulnational fête equally magnificent, kowski, a brave and noble Pole. and decreed that the street in which The squadrons of Genoa, Civita-Veche resided (La rue Chanteraine), chia, and Bastia were ordered to should be called the Street of Vic- join the Toulon fleet. Talleyrand tory. The Institute chose him as was dispathed to Constantinople to successor of Carnot, then proscribed conciliate the Divan. Even the as a royalist; Talleyrand, the Mi- smallest minutiæ of this celebrated nister of Foreign Affairs, gave him expedition were exclusively planned a great public fête; and the homage by Napoleon. of royalists and republicans was But' on the eve of its departure equally offered at his shrine. the whole of these plans were nearly

Napoleon, having inspected the frustrated by a threatened rupture army on the coast, was convinced of between France and Austria; the the impracticability of invading Eng- populace of Vienna had assaulted land, and he returned to Paris with the hotel of Bernadotte, the French

bassador, who failing to receive pro- morning, he took the town of Alextection or satisfaction from the Go- andria by assault. His proclamation vernment, demanded his passports, to his troops commanded them to and had left the German capital. respect the manners, customs, and. In this apprehension of a war the even the superstition of the country. bopes of all France were directed to He prohibited pillage and violence Napoleon, and he was invested with to females, and his orders were dicunlimited authority to treat with the tated by the most enlightened poAustrian cabinet. He assumed the licy and liberal principles. His fear most dictatorial tone in his corre- of our fleet induced him to hurry spondence, and brought the dispute the landing of the army; and he to a speedy and favourable termina. gave those orders to the admiral, tion. It was on this occasion that that had they been executed would, in a violent dispute with the Direc- it has since been proved, have rentory Napoleon threatened his resig. dered its destruction by Nelson a nation, and when the Director Rew. matter, if not impossible, at least of bell is said to have presented him great difficulty. with a pen, desiring him at once to General Desaix, with one division sign it.

and two pieces of cannon, passed the Napoleon arrived at Toulon on the desert, and arrived the next day at 9th of May, 1797, he made one of Demenhour, fifteen leagues from his usual bold and comprehensive Alexandria. Kleber being wounded addresses to the soldiery, told them was left in command of the latter city, not where they were going, but pro- and General Dugua marched upon inised them victory, and the value Rosetta, which he captured, in order of six acres of land to each private to protect the entry into the Nile on his retarn. On the 9th of June of the French fotilla, which was to the fleet reached Malta, the army accompany the army marching on disembarked, and the next day this the left bank to Cairo. Napoleon impregnable fortress surrendered to arrived and concentrated his troops Napoleon. Thus terminated the Or- at Demenhour, and appeased the der of the Knights of Malta, after it seditious spirit which they had mani. had existed 268 years. Napoleon fested against him. At break of liberated all the Mahommedan cap. day he marched upon Rahmanieh; tives that the Catholic cruelty had the troops were exhausted with exkept prisoners in Malta.

cessive thirst and with the heat of On the 22d of June, the Arabian the burning sands of the desert, towers and the minarets of Alexau- when they suddenly perceived the dria announced to the army the de- Nile. They spontaneously rashed stination of their voyage; four and into the water, but had scarcely twenty hours before, the fleet of assuaged their thirst when they were Nelson had touched at Alexandria, attacked by the Mamelukes, who, inquest of the French. Napoleon ap- however, were defeated by General preciated his extraordinary good for. Desaix's cannon. The French waited tane in thus escaping by so short an two days at Rahmanieh, when the interval, and he immediately order- flotilla' having come up, they proed the landing of the troops, when a ceeded in the night towards Cairo. strange sail was seen in the offing - The flotilla in its passage up the " Fortane," exclaimed Napoleon, Nile was attacked by a very superior “ wilt thou abandon me! I ask of force, which it beat off, capturing thee but five days.". The sail, how the armed vessels of the enemy. erer, was not of Nelson's feet, it Napoleon hearing the cannonade on was a French frigate; Napoleon and his left marched to support his vesKleber landed together, and that sels, and fought a very severe action aight planted the tri-coloured flag at the village of Chebreis, where the at Marabou. In order to strike ter Mamelukes left 600 men dead on the ror into the inhabitants, and to im field. The army reste a day at press the people with an idea of the Chebreis, and arriving the next day vigour of European armies, Napo at two o'clock in the afternoon at leon did not wait the total disem- Embabé saw the Mamelukes drawn barkation of the troops, but with up before the village, the pyramids ane division, at two o'clock that being in rear of their left, and the

Eur. Mag. March, 1823.

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majestic Nile with the city of Cairo focus from which the rays of civili.
appearing behind their right. The zation might have spread through
French were animated by this coup the surrounding nations of Asia and
d'oeil of ancient scenery, but they Africa, giving a totally different
were almost dropping with fatigue character to the inhabitants of those
and thirst, and the enemy were too beautiful but almost devastated re-
sensible to allow them any repose. gions.
The Mamelukes inspired with rage At the approach of the overflow-
and religions enthusiasm, and from ing of the Nile, the people of Cairo
their ignorance of discipline holding preserve an ancient superstition of
infantry in great contempt, threw celebrating the deity or genius of
their beautiful cavalry against the the river. Napoleon skilfully availed
solid square of French foot. Euro himself of this opportunity to gain
pean discipline had the ascend an ascendancy over the minds of the
ancy; the Mamelukes left 3000 dead inhabitants. "He presided at the fes-
on the field, Embabé was carried at tival in company with the Pacha of
the point of the bayonet ; 40 pieces Egypt—he himself gave the signal
of cannon, 400 camels, with all før throwing the statue of the mar-
the arms, baggage, provisions, and riage of the Nile into the river-he
treasure of the Mamelukes, were scattered gold among the people
taken by the French. This des bestowed the Cafetan on the prin-
perate fight was called the battle of cipal officers, and performed the
the Pyramids, and lasted nineteen ceremony of putting the black pe-
hours. In the night, General Dupuy lisse upon the Molah or guardian of
entered Cairo, and marched through the Mekias, in which is enclosed the
its long, strait, and silent streets. statue of the Nile river god. The

Cairo had been abandoned by the air was rent with cries of Mahomet
two Beys who ruled over Egypt. and Bonaparte.
Mourad Bey took the route of Upper Shortly after, the birth of Maho-
Egypt; Ibrahim Bey marched upon met was celebrated with the usual
Syria. Desaix was ordered to pur magnificence. Napoleon appeared
sue Mourad, and to carry a fortified at the ceremony in an eastern cos-
camp four leagues before Giza; le tume, he did all the honours of the
took up his position at old Cairo ceremony, and accepted the title of
and at Boulae. A corps was sent to Ali Bonaparte. At the departure
Elkanka (spelt in the map Elhanka) of the caravan from Cairo to Mecca,
to watch Ibrahim. The army, headed he afforded it his protection, went
by Napoleon, joined this corps, in through the ceremonies of the occa-
tending to drive Ibrahim out of sion, and with his own hand wrote
Egypt. At Belbeis they fell in with a letter to the Scheriff of Mecca.
a caravan, and rescuing the mer. But amidst all these ceremonies he
chants from the Arabs escorted it was vigilant in establishing a vigor-
safely to Cairo. At Salahie, Napo ous government, yet having no
leon defeated Ibrahim, and drove means of supporting his army but
him into Syria. He established by levying contributions, it was im-
Regnier's division at Salabie and re- possible to preserve the attachment
turned to Cairo. On his route he of the inhabitants. Ibrahim and
heard of the destruction of his fleet Mourad hy their emissaries excited
at Aboukir. Thus shut up in the insurrection, which put the skill of
land that he had conquered, with a Napoleon and the valour of his army
powerful army under his command, to the severest test. The people,
and with the means of founding semi- accustomed to the most degrading
naries of literature, of science, and slavery, were insensible to the bene-
of art, it is to be lamented that Na- fits which a regular government
poleon did not direct his views to would have conferred upon them ;
becoming the Sovereign of Egypt. and the military executions, and the
He might have reclaimed the inha- destruction of whole towns in the
bitants from their erratic and preda- revolted districts, roused the strong-
tory modes of life; have brought the est hatred throughout the coun-
country under a regular and esta- try. Independent of which, the Ko-
blished government, and Egypt be ran expressly denounces vengeance
ing civilized might have been the against all innovations in the laws

and system of government; and The French soldiery were assimiwhich obstacle even the assumption lated as much as possible to the inof the Koran by Napoleon could habitants, and all ‘natives, indiscrinot overcome: the French, therefore, minately, from the age of 16 to 24, maintained themselves solely by were admitted into the French ranks. their superior force.

Three thousand seamen who escaped On the 22nd September, 1798, the from the battle of the Nile reached establishment of a republic in France the French army in safety, and were was announced to the army, and formed into a nautical legion. The Napoleon resolved to celebrate it gates of Cairo were closed every with splendour. He constructed in night to protect the city from the Cairo an immense circus; it was Arabs, and the numerous cloisters surrounded by 105 columns, each were destroyed, from the protection bearing a flag with the name of one they might afford to the inhabitants of the departments. In the middle in the event of insurrection. was a colossal obelisk covered with. These precautions were absolutely irscriptions ; seven antique altars nécessary, for the situation of Napowere also loaded with trophies, and leon was critical in the extreme. with lists of the names of those Mourad Bey maintained his position who had fallen in battle. At the in Upper Egypt in spite of the entrance was a triumphal arch or. efforts of the sagacious and indefanamented with a representation of tigable Desaix. The English atthe battle of the Pyramids, and tacked the maritime towns possessed amongst other inscriptions in the by the French. Generals Menou Arabian character was that of and Dugua could scarcely retain “There is no God but God, and possession of Lower Egypt. The Mahomet is his prophet.” The fact Arabs joined to the Felahs were in is, that Napoleon's situation was árins in the deserts, and the Direccritical, and he saw the necessity of tory of France, instead of performBattering the conquered as well as the ing their duty by negociating for conquerors. Hymns were, however, the neutrality of the Turks, left their sung to him by the people, the bur, countrymen in Egypt to their fate. den of which was, that Allah had The English circulated throughout sent him to rescue the Egyptians the country the sanguinary proclafrom the yoke of the Mamelukes. mations of the Turks, exciting the

Napoleon established at Cairo a people to a religious war of extermiDivan, composed of the most consi. nation, and amidst all these difficul. derable citizens, and formed similar ties, on the 22nd of October, 1798, municipal bodies in the other towns. the Cheicks excited the inhabitants He established also the Institute of of Cairo to rise en masse and massaEgypt, with classes for mathema cre the French. Napoleon was at tics, natural philosophy, political Old Cairo, when the people of Cairo economy, literature and the fine assembled at the grand mosque, at arts. These formed a library, a the call of the priests. Arming cabinet of natural history, an ob- themselves, they massacred General servatory, a botanical garden, a la Dupuy, the commander of the town, boratory, a cabinet of antiquities, and the brave General Salkowsky, and a menagerie. Egypt was now the friend of Napoleon. The French, explored by the Spavans with great without distinction, fell victims to zeal. Napoleon 'ordered them to the fury of the populace, who closed ascertain the difference between the the two gates of the city, repulsing standards of the French and Egyp- Napoleon's attempt to enter by that tian weights and measures, and to of Cairo, and who at last forced his compose vocabularies of French entrance by the opposite gate of and Arabian words, as well as an Boulak. At this moment, what is Egyptian, Coptic, and European a phenomenon in Egypt, the skies calender. Two newspapers, the were obscured by clouds, and peals “ Decade Egyptienue, and the of thunder strnck the superstitious " Courier d'Égypte,” were daily Egyptians with terror, they conpublished ; and, in short, Cairo ceived it to be an interference on the seemed as if by magic to have been part of heaven in favour of their converted into a European capital. enemies; they implored the mercy


of their conquerors, but the French 10,000 men into Syria; Generals had forced an entrance into the Bon, Kleber, Lannes and Regn:er city and took a summary and a commanded the infantry, Murat the dreadful vengeance for their slaugh- cavalry, Dammartin the artillery, tered companions. The cannon de and Caffarelli-Dufalga the engistroyed all their mosques, the gates

Vice-Adiniral Perez, with of the city were beaten down, seve three frigates, was to cross to Jaffa, ral of the cheicks or priests were and to carry the battering train; sentenced to be shot, the city was the army had 50 other pieces of deprived of its municipal Govern- artillery with them. In a few days ment, was put under that of the Regnier took the town of El-Arish, military, and was farther subject to destroyed a part of the garrison, a heavy contribution; finally, the forced the remainder into the castle, press was made the engine of sub defeated the Mamalukes of Ibrahim duing the people by disseminating Dey, making himself master of their Mahomet's anathemas against sedi camp. The English attempted a tion. These measures were so effec division by bombarding Alexandria, tual that this proved the last insur- but Napoleon penetrated their derection against the French. Napo- sign, and despising their efforts leon

afterwards brought Lower proceeded to El-Arish, arriving seEgypt under his thorough com ven days after his departure from mand, and formed advantageous Cairo. "He took the castle of Eltreaties with the Bedouin Arabs. Arish, part of the garrison entered He again gave to Cairo a municipal the French ranks, and after a dreadGovernment, consisting of sixty of ful march of 60 leagues the army the principal inhabitants; and, con arrived at the beautiful plains of the sidering his authority as established, ancient Gaza; Gaza was captured, he set out out on an expedition to and in five days the French were Suez to discover the remains of the before Jaffa. The town was well great canal of Sesostris, which was fortified, and garrisoned by numeintended to unite the Mediterranean rous and choice troops. A breach with the Red Sea.

being made, Napoleon sent a Turk, His caravan consisted of 300 men, summoning the town to surrender, commanded by Berthier and Dam- his messenger was beheaded; the martin, and he was accompanied town was then carried by assault, by Berthollet, Monge, Dutertre, and the infuriated French committed Castaz, and Caffarelli - Dufalga. a dreadful carnage in the garrison. After three days travelling in the The numerous dead infected the air deserts he arrived at Suez, inspect- and produced a plague. Napoleon ed the coast, crossed the Red Sea, established at Jaffa a Divan, a and visited the fountains of Moses. Grand Hospital, and garrisoned the He established more equitable cus- place. Alarmed at the despair which tom-duties at Suez, communicated the plague was spreading throughhis orders to the Scheriff at Mecca, out his troops, Napoleon, accompaand received deputations from the nied by Desgenettes, the chief phyArabs, who solicited a peace from sician, and by Berthier and others, the French, Two leagues from visited the infected ; touched their Suez he discovered the remains of sores, and thus inspired confidence the great canal, which at two into their troops. The army, after leagues further was lost in the the numerous battles at Saffet, Nasands. Returned to Suez, he learn. sareth, Sour (the ancient Tyre,) ed that the advanced guard of Djez. Loubi, Sedjarrà, and Mount Thazar, Pacha of Syria, had occupied ber, and after capturing Kaiffa, El-Arish, which is situated ten miles arrived at Acre. The town resisted in the desert, and is the frontier de- the French for 60 days. During fence Egypt. This measure of this time the Firman of the Turks the Pacha convinced Napoleon that had raised against the French the war must have been declared be. whole population of Bagdad, and tween the Turks and the French of the banks of the Euphrates. A He hastened to Cairo, ordered on large Turkish army was about to be his way a corps of dromedaries to be transported into Syria by the Turkformed, and marched directly with ish fleet, another was assembled at

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