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Corte, and of which the present result of his exertions. In reward eminent Russian Ambassador, Pozzo of his services he was on the day di Borgo, was the secretary. The of the capture promoted to the party of Paoli was assisted by Eng. rank of General of Brigade, and land, and great excesses were com- appointed to the command of the mitted between that faction and artillery of the army of Italy. The those who adhered to the French astonishing effects of his genius interests. It is related that Paoli were displayed by the influence which convived at, and even promoted dui he rapidly acquired over the minds merous plots for the assassination of of the troops, of the Commander, and Napoleon, all of which he escaped, of the Commissaries of the Convenand eventually formed a junction at tion. But on the 9th Thermidor, 27th Calvo, with Salicetti and Lacombe July, the mountain party or TerroSaint-Michel, the representative of rists, at Paris, were destroyed, and the people, and who had disem- General Buonaparte was arrested at barked with troops. These forces Nice by the order of Salicetti and were directed against Ajaccio, but Albitte, the Commissaries at Tou. their efforts were unsuccessful and lon, to whom he owed his extraorNapoleon, sicceeding better in his dinary promotion. Fifteen days plans for rescuing his family from after, Buonaparte resumed his rank the vengeance of Paoli, finally left in the Army of Italy, in consequence his native country and disembarked of Salicetti and Albitte reporting to at Marseilles, a soldier of fortune, the Committee of Pablic Safety, that under the banners of freedom. it was impossible to carry on the

He placed his family at Toulon, military operations without the taand joined his regiment, the fourth lents of Buonaparte. The capture foot artillery, at Nice. In July, of Oneille, and of Le Col du Tende, 1793, he was promoted to the cap with the victory at Cairo, are the taincy of the 20th company by se successes in Piedmont conseqkent niority. It was in this and in the on Buonaparte's re-appointment.following year that the mountain The Commander in chief, Dumerparty, triamphing equally over roy. bion, after the battleof Cairo, wrote alty and freedom, levied 14 armies to the Commissaries of the Governto resist foreign invasion, and to ment; “ It is to the talents of Gesupport their own usurpation of the neral Buonaparte that I am indebted polítical power which they wielded for those able dispositions which with such sanguinary violence. The have procured as the victory. “The Convention determined to inflict extensive grasp of Napoleon's mind upon Toulon similar horrors to was now displayed by his suggestthose, which they had perpetrated ing and pressing the plan of carry. upon the unfortunate inhabitants of ing the entrenched camp at Ceva; Lyons; and Salicetti, Albitte, Fre and he gave in that plan for the inron, Ricord, Robespierre, and Bar- pasion of Italy, which was then reras, were appointed commissioners jected, but which he subsequently to superintend the siege of Toulon. carried into execution, to the glory That city, on the 27th August, 1743, of his name, and to the establishhad been treacherously surrendered ment of his own subsequent supreby the royalists to the English, macy: The army of Italy then reSpanish, and Neapolitan forces. Of jected that plan, and the victory of 1$ sail of the line, It had been de- Cairo terminated the campaign. The livered to the English, and the white jealonsy of a rival now contrived Aag of the Bourbons hoisted in the that Buonaparte should be snatched city. Captain Buonaparte was dis- from this scene of grand and enpatched to Lyons to obtain powder larged warfare, and he was appointfor the siege-he even repaired to ed to the command of the artillery of Paris for this object, and on his re the army of the West, destined to turn to Toulon was appointed to the subdue the honest, but fanatical command of the artillery and of and mistaken partisans of La Venthe engineers. He immediately dis- dée. Buonaparte refused the applayed consummate judgment and pointment, and when the same coun. vigour ; and on 19th of Decembercil contrived his nomination to the the recapture of Toulon was the command of a brigade of the line,

after vain remonstrances to Barras Cairo, in Piedmont, was entrusted to and Freron, he declined the commis, his execution; and, a few days after sion, and retired to Paris. Napoleon his narriage with Madame Beauharmight now have lived unnoticed, nois, he set out for Nice. It is now and have died unknown to history; well known that Napoleon bad but the Deputy Pontecoulant rescu conceived those gigantic plans of ed him from his obscurity, by em personal aggrandizement, which his ploying him on the plan of a cam stupendous power of intellect subpaign then in contemplation; and sequently enabled him to carry into the goodness of Napoleon's heart effect. At the age of 27 he had to was subsequently evinced by his appease the jealousy, and to concilipatronage of this man, After the ate the opinions of the many able retirement of Pontecoulant from and renowned officers, who, aloffice, Buonaparte was again ne though veterans, were rendered subglected, and he conceived the design ordinate to him by his appointof offering his services to Turkey. ment to the supreme command of From this intention he was deterred Italy. He found among the suby subsequent events, but what asto-perior commanders Augereau, Masnishing results might have ensued sena, Laharpe; Kellermann, now to the Eastern parts of Europe, and in years, commanded the divito Asia, had he proceeded in his sion of the Alps, and Serrurier the desigo. Perhaps his life might have army of observation. His discern, been equally glorious, and his death ment of merit restored to command more happy than it has been. It General Scherer, who had just suswas during this retirment in Paris tained the fine fight of Vado. Napothat he had opportunities of appre

leon found the troops young and ciating the merits, and forming a enthusiastic, but the army was withpassion for Madame de Beauhar, out money, provisions, clothing, and nois.

almost without arms; destitute of The 13th Vendemiaire, the sections artillery, and with a discipline too of Paris revolted against the Con- relaxed to sustain defeat, or to resist vention. Barras commanded the the allurements of so rich and luxthe troops, and, recollecting Buona- urious a country as Italy. Opposed parte's abilities displayed at Tou to him was a numerous army, highlon, he employed him as a General ly disciplined, well appointed, adof Division, and the safety of the vantageously situated, and possessed Convention was effected by a loss of of every collateral advantage. The lives insignificant to what might position of the French army was have been consequent upon obsti- bad, and its center and its right were Dacy or vigour, unaccompanied by in the greatest peril. Four years discrimination and talents. From bad the French army been couped this success of Buonaparte arose, up in the rocky districts of Laguira in the year three, the government - discontent pervaded the ranks, of the Directory, under which he and anarchy paralized the commanwas nominated Commander in Chief ders. “ Comrades," said Buonaof the Army of the Interior, suc parte on his arrival at the army, ceeding Barras, who became one of is amidst these rocks we are in want the Directory, and did the honours of every thing; behold those rich of the Republic with great pomp. plains at your feet; they are Six years after he married Madame our's ; let us march and take possesBeauharnais, and at length, by the sion of them".

and the army sagacity of Carnot, was appointed was electrified by his tone of conCommander in Chief of the Army fidence. of Italy.

The stratagem of Buonaparte's At this crisis, so awful to France, campaign was to separate the Piedthere was a coalition against her of montese army,

commanded by England, Austria, Piedmont, Na Provera and Colli, from the Ausples, Bavaria, and of all the smaller trians commanded by Beaulieu and states of Germany and Italy. In Argentan, and this Napoleon efthis emergency, the fine plan of an fected by the most masterly and Italian campaign which Buonaparte daring manœuvre. At the moment had given in after the battle of of Napoleon's surprising their point


of junction, he found his center enemy defended the long narrow attacked by Argentau, and a move bridge with heroic bravery. Masment on bis right by Beaulieu. sena and Berthier exerted themBy a fine manæuvre he threw his selves the utmost - amidst the whole force upon Argentau and most murderous fire, Napoleon himoverwhelmed him, obliging Beau- self planted two cannon in the lieu to repair to the support of his critical direction. The French were comrade; after six days fighing, victorious ; the Adda was crossed, Napoleon had effected the separation and Lombardy was the prize of the of the two armies, he had possessed fight. Pizzighitone and Cremona himself of the rich country, they fell three days after the battle of had previously occupied, and had Lodi, and Napoleon was thus in captured 40 pieces of cannon, had possession of the whole of the destroyed 12,000 Austrians, and had Milanese. The Directory became taken the strong fortresses of Coni, jealous of his power, but Carnot Cera, and Alexandria, in Piedmont. prevented their sacrificing the naThe King of Sardinia was oblig- tional success to their personal aped to sue for peace; and the prehensions. A treaty of peace triumphant Napoleon chased the

was signed with Piedmont; all the Austrians within their own terri- strong places in that kingdom, as tories of upper Italy. These fine bat well as Savoy, Nice, and Tende betles astounded military men with the ing yielded to France. An insurvast superiority of Napoleon's con rection of the Italians took place centric system over the excentric or against the French, which Buonadeployed system of the old school. parte suppressed by dint of promp; Massena, Joubert, and Augereau titude and severity: The citadel gained their laurels in this cam of Milan, with a hundred pieces paign. It was but one month after of cannon, surrendered to his for Napoleon had assumed the com He crossed the Mincio, drove mand of this disorganised army, General Beaulieu out of Italy. that he wrote an account of his Massena held the Austrians in victory to the Directory, adding, check in the Tyrol; Serrier had " to-morrow I march against Beau- carried the suburbs of Mantua, lieu, I shall oblige him to cross the which he blockaded. Augereau Po, I shall immediately follow him, crossed the Po, and compelled the I shall possess myself of all Lom- Pope to sign a treaty with General bardy; and before one month, I Vaubois, who captured Livournia hope to be on the mountains of the from the possession of the English. Tyrol, to communicate with the The whole of Italy from the Alps to army of the Rhine, and, in concert the papal territories was in poswith it, to carry the war into Ba session of the French, whilst Naples, varia." The throne of Austria Modena, and Parma, accepted of a trembled. The invulnerale Mantua' peace at the dictation of Napoleon. was the key to Austrian Italy. Na But the siege of Mantua was the poleon judged it to be insufficiently object on which Napoleon bent all garrisoned, and resolved to throw his thoughts. The possession of this his whole army against it by a strong fortress was necessary to the rapid march. The manæuvre was security of his little army in the perilous, and Salicetti, the Commis- extensive line of country he had acsary of the Directory, and Berthier quired, and it was indispensably neprevented the design; but subse- cessary to the magnificent plans quent events proved tbat Napoleon's which he cherished of carrying the views had been correct; and he war into Austria by the side of the resolved in future to submit to Tyrol. By the capture of Milan, no such interference. The Po was Ferrara, Bologna and Fort Urbin, now to be crossed; and by a he had at length acquired a suffimovement upon Valencia he dis- ciency of heavy cannon for the siege; tracted the attention of the enemy, but in the mean time Austria bad and threw bis army, by a rapid thrown 13,000 troops into Mantua, movement, upon Plaisance, and and General Wurmser, with an army forced the passage of the river. of 60,000 men marched to its relief, He then inarched upon Lodi. The Napoleon with but 40,000 men had

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to cover the siege, and to guard all his commanders. He anxiously surthe passes from Brescia to Verona veyed the enemy, and resolutely and Legnago. The danger to the formed his plan of action. He or French was imminent, when, to his dered the troops to march promptly surprise Napoleon learnt that the against the narrow cause-way of Austrians had divided their_force, Arcola and to carry the bridge: his marching 25,000 men upon Brescia column of grenadiers was thrown under General Quosdanovich, and into confusion by the terrific fire 35,000 upon Mantua, through the upon its flank. All was lost! Navalley of the Adige, under Wurmser. poleon threw himself from his horse, The idea struck Napoleon to beat seized a standard, rallied the grenathem in detail. Abandoning all his diers, and led them to the charge. artillery before Mantua, he rapidly Lannes was wounded, Murion fell concentrated his army upon Rover- dead at Napoleon's feet, who still bella, defeated Quosdanovich in the pressed on, till he was entangled in two fine fights of Sals and Lonato, the marshy ground. The troops and drove him into the Tyrol. With were again staggered by the enemy's incredible rapidity he fell back upon fire; General Belliard pointed to General Wurmser, and totally de them their general in advance, they feated him by a masterly battle at rushed to his rescue and bore him Castiglione, and by his exquisite from the enemy : Napoleon wished manoeuvres cut him off from the

to take advantage of the momentary Mincio, and obliged his shattered enthusiam, and to lead them again forces to take the direction of Tenda. to the charge, but they refused to Augereau subsequently took his du- follow, and the battle of Arcola was cal title from this battle of Castig- a negative victory to the Austrians. lione. These battles were all fought Napoleon, however, fertile in rebetween the 1st and 5th of August, sources, concealed his maneuvres and the Austrians lost 20,000 men, by continuing a heavy fire upon Arand 50 pieces of cannon. Napoleon cola, and threw himself upon Ronco, pursued the Austrians into the Tyrol attacked the main body of Austrians and beat them at Serravalia, St. under Alvinzi, killed 5000, and took Marco and Roveredo, and in the 8000 prisoners with 30 pieces of defiles of Caliano. Wurmser could cannon, and drove him beyond Viform no junction with Quosdanovich, cenza. The next day he drove into but he succeeded in reaching Mantua. the Tyrol the second corps under

Napoleon now found time to drive Davidovich, and obliged Wurmser to the English from Corsica, to check shut himself up in Mantua. Alvinzi the designs of the aristocratical parti- and Provera however united the scatzans in Genoa and Venice, and to tered Austrians in the Tyrol and check the machinations of the Pope, marched again to attack the French. who bad openly violated the peace Joubert retreated to Rivoli, Napoleon of Bologna. The success of Austria was at Bologna, 40 leagues distant ; upon the Rhine, enabled her to des he intuitively saw through Alvinzi's patch to the relief of Italy 45,000 plan and quickly sent a message men under the able and fortunate to Joubert to maintain his post Alvinzi. This general led 30,000 at Rivoli coute qui coute. Alvinzi, men upon Mantua, by the States of confident in victory over Joubert's Verona, whilst he ordered the re little corps, attacked it with his chief maining 15,000, under Davidovich, force, and carried the fortified point to descend through the valleys of or plateau of the position, moving a the Adige. Napoleon could bring corps, under Lusignan, round the but 33,000 men into the field, and mountains to take the French in the of these he left 3,000 in garrison at rear. Napoleon had, by rapid marVerona. With the remainder he ches, completely surrounded the difrapidly marched upon Ronco, threw ferent bodies of Austriaps. Alvina bridge over the Adige, crossed zi, to his astonishment, found Nathe river, and directed his course to poleon at Rivoli to support Joubert; Arcola. Never, perhaps, was Na he was entirely defeated; Lusignan poleon's genius and mental courage was himself attacked in the rear and so severely tried as at this point. taken, with all his forces, by Massena. Massena, Lannes and Augereau were Provera thought to form a junction

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with Warmser at Mantua, and fol. Austria signed an armistice at Jadenlow up the anticipated success of burg on the 7th of April, and the preAlvinzi, but was fallen upon by liminaries of peace, at Leoben, on Napoleon, and obliged to surrender. the 15th of that month. Wurmser was driven back into Man It was at this period that Napotua, and, 27 days after the victory of leon's complaint to the directory of Rivoli, Mantua itself fell into the Moreau's want of activity, in the hands of the French. In three days command of the army of the Rhine, Austria had lost 45,000 men. Na produced an hostility between these poleon imposed the treaty of Tolen- great captains. Moreau had not suptine upon the Pope, despising his ported Napoleon's operations, having anathema.

crossed the Rhine to his assistance In less than one year, Napoleon, only on the 19th of April, four days at the age of 28, had successively after Napoleon had conquered the destroyed four powerful Austrian peace of Leoben. In Napoleon's disarmies, commanded by the first ge- patch of the 19th of April to the DiDerals in Europe ; he had annexed a rectory, he says, that had he followed part of Piedmont to France, esta- the directions of his government, so blished two republics in Lombardy, far from being at Vienna, he should and had subdued all Italy from the have ruined the Republic; and he Alps to the Tiber, imposing treaties proceeds to state that his victories, upon Naples, Rome and Parma. are an infallible presage, that she The Austrian cabinet was astonished can, in two campaigns, subjugate by these reverses; and at the moment the continent of Europe.' " I have when the Emperor, availing himself not levied a single contribution in of his better fortune on the Rhine, Germany ; there is not a single comwas about to invade France, he found plaint against us, and I feel that the his capital menaced by a warrior time will come when we shall des whose name now struck terror into rive our advantage from this prudent his forces, and whose gigantic mind conduct;" of himself he says, I have seemed to spurn all the petty plans never regarded myself in my opeof former warfare. Under the ablest rations; I have thrown myself upon general, Prince Charles, Austria Vienna, having acquired more glory assembled the flower of her victo- than is necessary to happiness, and rious army of the Rhine at Taglia- having left the superb plains of Italy mento; Napoleon saw the gathering behind me.” From this it is evident storm; his forces were increased to that Napoleon then contemplated 53,000 meo, besides the divisions of the subversion of the ignorant and Delmar and Bernadotte. Napoleon, tyrannical government of Austria, at the head of 37,000 men, carried and the happiness of the people. Tarvis which he intended to make In the mean time the Priests of his point of stratagem, he then beat Venice and of Italy had stimulated the Archduke, in person, at Taglia- the superstitious populace to the mento, and drove him upon the massacre of the French; the sick, Izonso, captured Palma Nova, carried the wounded, whether military or the entrenched position of Gradisca, civilians, were indiscriminately the whilst Massena captured Villach, victims of religious enthusiasm ; and threatened Vienna by the routs of and, as a climax of religious crime, Saltzbourg and Frioul. In four days Easter day was that of the massacre. Austria lost a quarter of her Army, Napoleon, in consequence of these and the Archduke was obliged to scenes, on the 16th of May, 1797, abandon Klagenfurth and the line destroyed the odious oligarchy of of the Drave. In the mean while Venice, and established a more popu. Napoleon's divisions, under Joubert lar Government in that city, as well and Bernadotte, had respectively con- as in Genoa. He founded the Ligu. quered the Tyrol, and had captured rian republic in Italy, and united the Laybach. On 31st March, Napo- whole of the Austrio-Italian states leon, at Klagenfurth, offered the into one government under the name enemy peace, which was refused of the Cisalpine Republic; intending with disdain, but the subsequent to establish Republicanism throughsuccesses of Massena accelerated out all Italy. the crisis of a decisive battle, and

(To be continued )

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