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France is making way, through all the obstruction | rest, is not to be the terminating object of this latelyof her revolutions and uncertainty as to her political formed convention of the people of many lands. We destinies. Strangers cannot be shut out. Books, live in “the last times,” and, as we have reason to letters, opinions of all shades have their sway, and believe, not far from the winding up of a grand inake their appeal to the ears of her inquisitive historic era, when “ many shall run to and fro, and people. They themselves travel, and, as is common knowledge be increased”-knowledge and science we with men of aspiring genius, they affect the society may presume in every line; but chiefly and always of those from whom they can learn the most. Eng. converging toward the central point in the Divine land and America lay open their capital of mind to economy, the manifestation of the character of God, them. They would shoot far ahead of us in their and the establishment, through human agency, of his theories of liberty, but yet stand again to inquire reign in righteousness over the family of mankind. what it is that gives the solidity and firmness, the
(To be continued.) peace, security, and permanence, to the share of it that we enjoy ?
They will find our sound Protestant principles to RAGGED SCHOOLS IN GERMANY– THE be at the bottom of this, and that sincere honesty
RAUHE HAUS, NEAR HAMBURG. and faithfulness form the sleepers on which our structure of patriotism is reared. Some have been in the Numbers of this Magazine for March and May, struck with the respect shown to the laws in our we gave some account of the German Home Miscountry, the power of self-government among the sion. We showed what its general principles were, people, the interest taken by all in the preservation and also what was the field of its operations. We of peace and good order. There is no boastfäl asser- are still far from having exhausted the subject, tion of liberty, nor restless struggle to maintain it. and accordingly proceed to give some account of We are settled in its peaceful enjoyment, under a the personal labours of Wichern, who may be restable government, and well-defined laws. There is garded as the representative of this movement, and nothing romantic or highflown in our appreciation of whose life is spent in the cause of true Christian phi. our advantages. We feel our difficulties and drawlanthropy. Many of our readers must have heard of backs, which are many. A sober, hard working the Institution over which he presides,—the “RAUHE people are, in our day, the people of “merry old Haus," near Hamburg,-a name which has no partiEngland!” Our strong point, the salt that preserves cular meaning, and was simply the appellation given us, is the sound piety, the practical scriptural religion to the locality before it became the field of this intethat has place among us. Through these we rise resting moral experiment. The circumstances confrom our defeats, renew our endeavours, and still nected with its origin will go far to explain its general press onwards. The attention of our stranger friends character, as well as to show from how small beginhas been drawn sometimes of late to this trait of our nings the greatest Christian undertakings have risen. nationality, as exhibited in the private walks of life. In 1832, a society existed in Hamburg whose object They remark the intimate union in families, the was the visiting of the poorer districts of the town, harmony and order, the respect to relative duties, the instruction of the ignorant, the comforting of the observable by those who penetrate our dwellings, and sick, the reclaiming of the outcast and profligate. share for a season our domestic hospitality. Those One case of special destitution occurred to which rewho have not seen religious services condncted but as lief was granted. The children were sent to school, a performance, with the ceremonial of time, place, work was provided for the other members of the and outward objects of devotion, have been caught family, and yet the result was, that the whole family as with a new impression, in seeing the father of a fell back at last into the deepest degradation and fair.ily open and read the Word of God," that maketh profligacy. Similar cases were constantly occurring, wise unto salvation,” among his assembled household, until the conviction gained ground that assistance inviting them afterwards to prayer, and carrying them must be rendered in another way, and that the true with him to the throne of grace, to acknowledge their method of rescuing such children from the ruin of common sins, mercies, hopes, and consolations. body and soul, was the establishment of an instituWe rejoice in the scope given by the freedom of tion for their especial behoof. Those who were enthe British soil, for the pent-up feelings of exiled gaged in the work of this society were unable to supindignant patriots to find utterance. Fervent sym- ply the necessary means for such a work. One of pathy, hearty counsel, renewed patience, reviving their meetings broke up with the resolution, that all hope, have of late visited many a dejected spirit of them should make the subject one of special under our cloudy sky-while the avenues to future prayer, and the hope was even then expressed that influence and communion on subjects whose interest | God would speedily vouchsafe to them some token does not terminate with this life, have been opened of his goodwill. When the members of the society to a greater extent than ever •before. Our London met each other, the common inquiry was, whether Exhibition of the Industry of all Nations, the marvel they were praying earnestly that God would crown of this summer, will be fruitful in consequences be- their labours with success. Nor was their faith in yond those immediately designed by its ingenious his promise misplaced: for, at that very time, one projectors. A happy conception it has been for fusing of the members of the society was visited by a perdown the barriers of exclusive nationality, and draw. son almost entirely unknown to him, who, with no ing together, on terms of friendly communication, knowledge whatever of their plans as a society, the active practical middle classes from all countries, handed him 100 dollars, with the request that it from whom the wealth of nations is derived, and by should be devoted to the poor. It was farther added, whose interests their peace and prosperity are ce- that, if possible, the money should be applied to some mented and continued --and Providence, doubtless, Christian institution; and, best of all, to one which has ulterior desigos. Traffic in the world's gewgaws, was in the course of being established. It would be and good understanding on matters of secular inte difficult to give a better example of an answer to prayer; and yet, in the statistics of Christian bene- | by God, in the spiritual results that followed, which volence, we find many examples of help coming so altogether have been of the most remarkable kind. unexpectedly, and yet so opportunely, as to prove It was also usual to employ the children from the that the gift came less from man than from God, and very first in giving what assistance they could,-as in that it was given as the reward of believing prayer. clearing the ground, or bringing building materials to This was only the pledge and earnest of greater the spot, and the like. On these festive occasions, liberality; for, shortly after, a very large sum was large assemblages came from Hamburg and the paid oyer, owing to the terms of a will made se- surrounding neighbourhood; and thereby, while the veral years before, one of whose provisions was, good of the children was directly aimed at, multithat the money should be devoted to such an insti- tudes were interested in the work, and aided it by tution as the one now proposed. The whole matter their alms and their prayers. was successfully concluded, when, after many vain We may give a few examples of the kind of inciattempts to obtain ground, a rich proprietor in the dents which Wichern sought to improve. In July 1838, neighbourhood of Hamburg made over to them a every preparation was made for one of these anniver: most eligible locality on his estate as the scene of sary festivals. According to custom, that particular their future labours. The house itself, the so-called building whose history was commemorated, had been Rauhe Haus,-was an unpretending cottage of one profusely ornamented with flowers and wreaths by one storey, with a thatched roof, in a fertile and beauti- of the boys. After doing this, he went to bathe in the ful neighbourhood, and commanded a wide expanse adjoining pond, and was drowned. The bell which of view all around. Into this humble dwelling Wich- summoned them to a festival, was rather the call to ern entered in November 1833, accompanied by his a funeral; and the whole household stood in tears mother, and by three children, who were the first of around the water's edge until the body was found. those whom they sought to pluck as brands from the It so happened that this youth had been utterly ignoburning.
rant of divine truth till he entered the Rauhe Haus, Since that time this building has been surrounded and that few of its inmates had given more decided by a cluster of others, to the number of thirteen. evidence of having undergone the great spiritual Year after year some new addition was made, accord-change. He was a favourite with all; and his suding as the institution prospered and grew. Nor, in- den call was peculiarly fitted to make a deep impres. deed, has it yet attained its limit,-for we believe sion on those who stood so closely connected with that Wichern is still contemplating the erection of him. other buildings for the farther development of his Other incidents which Wichern sought to improve noble plan. These separate buildings are severally were in connection with the opening of the building of the most unpretending kind, and yet the history for the girls. At that very time notice was given of each supplies us with an additional example of them, that unless they were prepared to buy the Christian zeal, as it also shows the singular complete- ground attached to the institution, it could no longer ness of detail which characterises the institution. The be rented to them as it had been. Their treasury whole now comprises several separate residences for was empty; and yet the ground was of vast service the boys and for the girls, a Church, the workshops to them, both in the way of supplying food to the of the different trades, with a considerable piece of house, and also of training the inmates in the work ground for gardening, agriculture, &c. Wichern has of gardening and field labour. What happened ? shown remarkable skill in interesting the children in Intimation was sent to Wichern that a Christian the history of the institution under whose shadow and lady, who had died, had left the very sum that was shelter they live, and in connection with which they needed to make the purchase, and thereby enabled have received the rudiments of Christian education. them to live on in peace and plenty. Such things, As each little edifice rose up, he celebrated a kind of indeed, were often occurring, and gave good opporhousehold festival, consisting partly of some religious tunity to prove to the children that a higher than service,—an address to the children on the design of earthly Hand was supplying their wants. Shortly the building to be raised, -its solemn dedication to afterwards came the great fire of Hamburg, which God,—and the recording of any little incident con- laid a large quarter of the town in ashes. The awful nected with the working of the institution. All this sight was well seen from the Rauhe Haus—as for was well fitted to impress the hearts of those who had three days the destructive element blazed on every here all the privileges of a Christian home, in ex- side. The doors of this benevolent institution were change for the vice, and misery, and crime to which thrown open to multitudes of the houseless fugitives. they had been early familiarized. The whole was The children who had been rescued from far greater sometimes brought to a close by an “apple-feast,” danger, were practically taught the lesson of gratitude which was furnished by shaking one of the large to their benefactors, and of sympathy for those who garden-trees, and permitting all and sundry to scramble had not such mercies as they had. Wichern repeatfor the fruit as it fell. At other times, such festivals edly referred to the eyents of that terrible week in were observed after the building was completed, 1842; and it is easy to see how full of moral lessons and a long address in rhyme was delivered by one it was to all, and especially to the children of his of the workmen; and at other times, on the anniver. charge. One result of it was, that six children of saries of the day when possession might be taken of parents who had lost every thing by the fire, were the new dwellings by the successive detachments of added to the institution; and then also new meads outcast children who were brought to the institution. were placed at their disposal for extending its blesse In many ways of this kind, Wichern seeks to im- ings more widely. The accommodation for the girls prove every opportunity of reaching the consciences had hitherto been of a very insufficient kind, and of his scholars, and to lead their hearts away from great joy was expressed among them when the new the blessings of their earthly benefactors to those building was ready for their reception. On the day of better blessings which God gives to all his children, this domestic festival, the girls were all tidily attired, Many of these occasions were signally acknowledged to form a procession from the old to the new dwell
ing. Wichern addressed them in a touching spirit, s time for the evening religious service. Thereafter on the change about to take place. He recalled to work and instruction are combined. Instruction is the memory of his youthful audience the many given in all the elementary branches by regular blessed hours they had spent in their old, moss- teachers, the two head superintendents, students covered dwelling; and how truly many of them had preparing for the ministry, and by Wichern himself, there, for the first time, been told of that house which in presence of the whole school. Singing enlivens is not made with hands, but which is eternal in the the whole procedure of the establishment, and is heavens. Tears streamed down their cheeks; and heartily joined in by all, whether masters or pupils. they took their departure, singing an appropriate Tho arrangements followed as to the girls are, of hymn-each one led by the hand of some of the course, in part different. They are occupied with visitors who were present on the occasion. Such the household affairs, and are superintended by were the incidents which were always improved for Wichern's mother and wife, who both heartily cothe spiritual profit of those committed to his care. operate with him in his labours of love. Besides
But it is time for us to look more closely at the in- these general regulations, the superintendents keep ternal arrangements of the establishment. As it now minute journals of the doings of each day. These stands, the organization of the Rauhe Haus is exceed- undergo a weekly examination, and thereby the case ingly complete-so much so, that, as has been re. of each separate child is fully understood. The most marked, days are required to understand the relations friendly feeling has ever existed between Wichern of its several circles, from the least to the greatest. and those who share in these labours; and the whole No little skill is needed to superintend the many appearance of the place is truly that of a large family arrangements that are requisite to give elasticity circle. Much, indeed, has taken place to encourage and life to the whole. The remarkable circum- them in their labours. Many have been truly made stance is, that the inmates of the place do not consti- partakers of the new name and the new heart; and tute a miscellaneous assemblage, without order or but few indeed have fallen back into gross sin. plan. The principle of individualizing is carried out There are two of the buildings in the Rauhe Haus to a great extent, and gives both its variety and its to which a special interest attaches—the Church interest to the whole. When children are brought to and the Workshop. As the institution increased, great the institution, those who bring them are required to inconvenience was found in conducting the religious sign a document, declaring that they will not interfere services in one of the buildings which was devoted to with the education they are to receive--nor call them other purposes; and, in 1839, the managers proceeded away-nor force themselves into the place where they with the erection of a separate building called the are, without the permission of the superintendent. Betsaal. Contributions again poured in upon them The great majority of those who are taken in are the in their hour of need, and in this instance they unchildren of worthless and profligate parents, and have expectedly received help from America. A special themselves generally been guilty of some crime; yet ceremony took place at the laying of the foundationthe past part of their lives is never mentioned by way stone. No stone of sufficient size could be found of reproach against them; and to blot out the remem- within the grounds—but at last one was found by the brance of it as much as possible, they receive a new wayside which was selected. On it were inscribed name when they are enrolled. Those who have re- the words—“ Jesus CARIST THE SAME YESTERDAY, TOcently come, enter the Noviciate; of these, there are DAY, AND FOR EVER.” Excellent use was made of the two for the boys and one for the girls. After a suffi- circumstance to explain the passage which speaks of cient time has elapsed to evince what their character the stone which was despised by the builders being is, they are admitted into one or another of the families made the head-stone of the corner. As in other who occupy the separate dwellings already referred cases, great help was given by the boys themselves to. The design of this division is to separate those in the advancement of the work. of like character as much as possible; because they The internal arrangements are very simple and soonest come to understand each other, and to encou- unpretending, but well adapted for the purpose of the rage each other in iniquity. These families are five in building. The most remarkable thing is the service, number. Each one has a superintendent and assist- which is conducted when the whole institution assemants, who dwell in the same building, and one of bles. It supplies a good example of that spiritual whom is always present. The following is the order life which Wichern has blended with all his plans. of each day's proceedings:-At five o'clock, all the The inmates are arranged according to the circuminmates of the house are awaked, and the superin- stance of their having received or not that rite of tendent, whether male or female, offers up the morn- confirmation, which prevails in the German as in the ing prayer; after which the boys are taken to bathe English Church. Those who have been confirmed in the adjoining pond; an hour's teaching follows; occupy the outer seats, those who have not been conand then the whole house assembles in the church firmed occupy in regular order the five seats in front. for their religious service, to which we shall presently Each seat is superintended by its respective monitors, refer. When breakfast is finished, all assemble in the who are again directed by one of Wichern's assistfront of the workshops. They then divide themselves ants, to whom the arrangements of the religious ser-some of their number going to labour as tailors, vices are committed. shoemakers, bookbinders, &c.; while others go to the These services have very great interest and variety field, or to the garden, or to the buildings which may from the special allusions which they contain to difbe in progress. At mid-day they are all
again assem- ferent events in the lives of the children, the history of bled in their several families, under their respective the Institution, or the calendar of the German Church. superintendents. After dinner, a half-hour is allowed Let us briefly give some of the details. The daily for play on the open space before each house. Ato service begins with singing—after which three of the tached to each building is the garden, where each boy boys read three texts for the day, containing a docand girl has a separate plot to cultivate. Work is trine, a promise, and a prayer. After prayer, one of again proceeded with till half-past four, which is the the girls reads part of the small Catechism by Luther,
which is gone through once a-week. Thereafter one the labour of the boys, and hence different trades of the boys reads the passage from the Bible which has followed, until now the place is a busy hive of indusbeen selected in his special “ family” as the lesson of try. All the more common occupations are carried the week. The same course is followed with regard on-such as those of tailors, shoemakers, bakers, to the other families—and thereby a special know- masons, gardeners, &c. The girls also are as regu. ledge is acquired by each with regard to the lessons larly employed in washing, cooking, serving, &c. that are being taught to the rest. The second part Last of all, a most important addition has been made of the service is a practical address by the master, by a printing and bookbinding establishment. The from a portion of the Bible. A book of Scripture is expense of this was defrayed by some friends of the generally gone through—and the passage spoken Rauhe Haus, and work was begun in January 1842. from is read aloud by all at the close. The third The first thing that was put to the press was the 23d part of the service consists in celebrating the birth. Psalm. The press is of vast service in publishing days of the children on their anniversaries. Each the different reports which are being constantly child on entering the institution receives a little book issued, as well as supplying the materials of in. inscribed with an appropriate text, to which special struction for the school. One publication printed attention is then called. The same course is followed in the place deserves especial notice, entitled, “Die on the anniversary of their baptism, and of their liegende Blätter des Rauhen Hauses.” These admission to the institution. The design of these registers contain full accounts of the proceedings arrangements is to keep such events constantly before of this institution as well as of similar instituthe mind, and to impress on the children the great tions in other lands, and their design is to awaken a spiritual lessons connected with them. In addition to more general interest in the whole work of the Ger. these, there are occasionally occurring the anniver: inan Home Mission, as explained in previous Numbers saries of particular events connected with the history of this Magazine. An agency has also been attached of the Riuhe Haus, like those which we have referred to the institution in Hamburg for the sale of the proto. These serve well to kindle the hearts of the ductions which issue from the press. Many small children into gratitude for the deliverance wrought publications are being printed, fitted especially for out for them in being rescued from destruction, and those in the position of the children who attend the in being made to partake of such special kindness at Rauhe Haus. the hands of their benefactors. At the beginning One department of the Rauhe Haus we have not and close of a month, special reference is made to yet noticed, namely, the Brüder- Anstalt, which is ockindred institutions, and prayer offered up for those cupied with the training of young men for the differconnected with them. In addition to all this, the ent departments of Christian labour-as in sick instiordinary feasts of the German Church are regularly tutions, in prisons, in the work of colporteurs, city observed, such as Christmas, Easter, and Pentecost. missionaries, missionaries to emigrants, and the like. It must be evident that every thing is done by such Up to last year, above 70 of this class had passed arrangements to interest the children in the religious through Wichern's hands, and we believe that about services in which they daily engage, and we cannot 30 are generally resident with him. His institution wonder that much spiritual fruit has been brought has thus the double character of a ragged school, and forth where so much of the good seed has been sown. also of a normal school for training those who devote We know not a better example than that supplied their lives to such a work. They are generally men here of what Christian education is-by which we taken from the working-classes, who pursue their do not mean the making the lessons of religion stand several callings at the same time that they are recoldly apart from every thing else, nor the regarding ceiving instruction for their higher avocations. them as one thing to be taught among many—but ra- Wichern superintends their mental and moral trainther the pervading the whole economy of the school ing, and directs them in their whole labours among with Christian doctrines, and motives, and duties. the children. He devotes special attention to the
Another of the buildings we spoke of was the work of grounding them in the principles of home place where the work of the different trades is car- missionary labour, and has abundant opportunity to ried on. Wichern makes the motto of the institution illustrate these practically in their whole intercourse 66 ORA ET LABORA”—and the closest connection with the several pupils. subsists between religious services and daily occupa- His own language is, that “the whole institutiontions. By this union, he seeks to train up those the Brüder-Anstali — would fall to pieces if it were committed to his charge for a life of active exertion thought that he was merely to instruct them in the here, and a life of happiness hereafter. The two practical part of education. The truth is, that we live buildings stand side by side, as if to teach them that and labour together for the sake of the children, and we live under the law of labour, and under the higher that our just calling is to love the children in the love law of prayer. He himself says, that the difference of Christ—to watch over them now that that love consists in this—that labour separates men into diffe- may become more strong, whatever their future occue rent groups the further the division of labour goes, pation may be.” but that prayer unites them again into one holy We must draw to a close by noticing what the family in the Lord. This Arbeitshaus was erected in general results of the labours of the Rauhe Haus 1836. From the very first, something was done to have been. The entire number of inmates is train the boys to habits of industry, whilst they re- about 120. Multitudes of children have passed ceived the lessons of education, and the higher lessons through the institution, and no better proof can of religion. One of the first efforts of this kind was be given of the good it has done than the fact, the making of wooden shoes like those worn in the that many of them have revisited it—that those north of Germany. A large poplar tree in the gar- who may be employed in Hamburg often spend their den was cut down, and all proceeded to the task Sabbaths there--and that those whose lot is cast in with boyish glee. It was soon discovered that many some distant place have sent it some lasting memorial items of expense in the institution could be saved by of their gratitude. Many look back to it as the place where they were first taught to hate sin and to love well feel that his task is indeed an arduous one, dethe Redeemer, and by its blessed influence they are manding for its right and successful accomplishment now enabled to maintain, in their several spheres, a powers, acquirements, and graces of no common kind life and a conversation becoming the gospel. Above and degree. It may be useful to prosecute for a little 80 teachers have been sent forth to labour in different the view thus suggested. parts of the vineyard—carrying with them the spirit The attempt to write an introduction to any pora and the plans of the noble.learted founder of the tion of the New Testament implies an accurate acRauhe Ilaus. Some of these are labouring among the quaintance, not only with the language in which it outcasts in he large towns of the continent—some was written, but also with the manners and customs have followed their countrymen to the banks of the of the people, and all the peculiarities of their condiOhio and the Mississippi, and some have gone to the tion at that special period. Without such knowledge, heathen of the South Seas and of Hindostan, to pro- | the attempt would be absolutely preposterous. claim the glad tidings of salvation. It is impossible Scholarship, both extensive and accurate, is thereto survey this whole work without feeling, that how fore quite indispensable for the production of such a ever humble a sphere of Christian activity be, it yet work; and that, too, not the mere knowledge of words supplies abundant scope for the exercise of the and idiomatic forms of expression, which constitute bighest talents and energy, and Christian worth. Of the body of a language, but a clear perception of this, the life and labours of Wichern supply a precious those minute turns and shades of meaning which are example. We give all honour to men like Sheriff its life and spirit. Even this is not enough; for Watson, the Earl of Shaftesbury, and Dr Guthrie, though it might produce a very good grammatical whose names are associated with this cause of Chris- | inquirer, it would not enable its possessor to undertian philanthropy at home; but we must not forget, stand and explain either references to manners and that as far back as 1833, a Ragged School was estab- customs, or historical allusions, which are often nelished in Germany, and that it has the honour of more cessary to a full conception of the text.
Such an fully developing the principles and illustrating the acquaintance with these matters as might almost enpractice of such schools than any in Great Britain. able the writer to transfer himself to Jerusalem, or
Athens, or Corinth, or Ephesus, or Rome, and to re
produce their characteristics as if present and alive, DAVIDSON'S INTRODUCTION TO TIIE NEW is, if not indispensable, at least highly necessary for TESTAMENT.*
the writer of an introduction,--the design of which
is to place us in the best position for understanding Tue third and concluding volume of this learned and
an epistle written to, or even from, any of these elaborate work has recently appeared; and consider places. Few, indeed, are the scholars, either in this ing the important and extensive subject which the
or in any other country, who can thus conceive and author has bad to investigate, it is not without rea- reproduce the past. But a still higher qualification son that he expresses liis “devout thankfulness to
is necessary. When we think closely on the subject God that he has been able to complete his arduous of the epistles, in particular, we can scarcely fail to task.” That the task was indeed an arduous one, perceive, that having, in the first instance, a special must be evident to every person who has even but a aim in view, and being designed to convey instrucpartial acquaintance with the numerous and difficult tion expressly adapted to the state of heart, thought, questions included within thescope of what are termed and habit in those to whom they were addressed, and Introductions to the Sacred Scriptures. Such topics, coloured by the mental peculiarities of those by whom for example, as the following fall to be discussed, as
they were written, they cannot be fully understood introduction to almost any given epistle:--Author and explained without a very intimate and profound ship of the epistle-Its canonical authority-The perception of all that was peculiar, both in those to persons or church to whom it was addressed – The
whom they were addressed, and in those by whom time and place of writing-State of the parties ad- they were written. To comprehend fully the Epistle dressed — Object which the writer had in view
to the Romans, for example, it would be necessary Agreement of the contents with the specified pur- to become, on the one hand, a member of the church pose of the writer-Its original language-Its integ- at Rome, and, on the other, the apostle Paul. Or, rity and genuineness — - Its authenticity. Other in those epistles which refer to the incipient Gnostia topics may come under observation in the case of cism of certain churches, to understand and intropeculiar writings; but every person must perceiveduce them fully and correctly, it would be necessary that any thing like a full discussion of such as we to feel all the insidious tendencies of Gnostic opinions, have enumerated, cannot fail to involve matters of and the clear, strong, searching power of the counthe utmost importance to every reader of the Sacred teracting divine truths produced for their refutation. Scriptures. There is not, in short, a single topic on A man unacquainted with Gnosticism could not write which Scripture can be either assailed or defended,
a suitable introduction to an epistle addressed to which opponents can darken and misrepresent, or people tainted with that early heresy. A man unable defendants can illustrate and vindicate,-that may to soar into the lofty spiritualities of the apostle's not legitimately be investigated under the general reasoning, would be as incompetent to the task. To title of " Introduction.” In such a work, therefore, all be able, therefore, intelligently to understand the the arguments of infidel and rationalist writers may position, feelings, opinions, beliefs, and character, be brought under review, and treated according to both of the writer of the epistle, and of those to the judgment and discretion of the writer; and any whom it was written, would appear to be a qualificaman who ventures to undertake such a work, may tion absolutely indispensable for any man who aspires * An Introduction to the New Testament; containing an Exa
to the achievement of writing a suitable iutroducmination of the most important Questions relating to the Autho- tion. Thus viewed, we know of but one suitable inrity, Interpretation, and Integrity of the Canonical Books, with reference io the latest Inquiries. By Samuel Davidson, D.D.
troduction to any portion of the Sacred Scriptures, Volume III. - The First Epistle to Timothy, to the Revelation. namely, the Epistle to the Hebrews, which is an ins