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is generally wrong in perspective, and destitute of taste. In HIC MERITVS FINEM MAGNIS DEFVNCTE PERICLIS short, nothing is wanting to prove its authenticity to any one HIC REQVIEM FELIX SYMIS COGENTIBUS ANNIS

conversaut with ancient art of an inferior class.

“ These facts are established by the picture: that in the HIC POSITYS PAPA SANTIMI00 VIXIT ANNIS LXX

third or fourth century certain persons, either from choice or DEPOSITVS DOMINO NOSTRO ARCADIO II ET FI

from necessity, selected caves in the neighbourhood of Rome, RYFINO VVCCSS NONAS NOBEMB.

and devoted much attention to embellishing them. One of

the subjects there painted was a solemn feast, at which Peace “You, our nursing father, occupy a perpetual seat, being and Love were supposed to preside. This is so often repeated dead, anil deserving an end of your great dangers. Here in sculptures and paintings, that the ceremony must have been happy, you find rest, bowed down with years. Here lies the common, and some time established. Who are these peaceful most holy Pope, who lived seventy years. Buried on the refugees, apparently too gentle for the iron times of Decius and Nones of November, our Lords Arcadius for the second Diocletian? To what system of philosophy belong those time, and Flavius Ruffinus being consuls.

magic words, Irene and Agape, altogether strange to heatheu"The date of this consulate is fixed at 392, in which year no ism, and indicating by their Greek form an Eastern origin? bishop of Rome died. Siricius was made pope in 385, and But one answer can be given to these questions. The most lived to 396. Yet the reference to a perpetual seat, added to malignant sceptic must confess that the ancient Church in the title papa sanctissimus, strongly indicates episcopal rank.” Rome, pacific and defenceless as it here appears, did conquer -(P. 185.)

the proud array of pagan and imperial power; and the ChrisHow the "perpetual seat " which this papa is said

tian, forced to admit a divine interposition in behalf of his to have occupied, “ being dead,” could " indicate epis- religion, beholds therein a testimony from Heaven to its copal rank,” we confess ourselves so blind as not of fifteen centuries, presents the same unworldly aspect as in

truth. Yet more, that religion, here seen through the vista clearly to see. We humbly opine, that it was only the sacred writings—a joyful serenity, worth all the jarrings in heaven where the good man could occupy a per- of Chalcedon, or the proud seraphism of the Thebaid. petual seat. And though there was no bishop of " The feast, at first held as a part of regular religious worRome at that time whose name is to be found in ship, was in course of time reserved for marriages and deaths. Romish catalogues, we see no reason to doubt that

At length the anniversaries of martyrdom became the chief there were many good pastors, to whom, especially

occasion of its celebration. These days were called natalitia,

or birth-days, because the saints were then borne to Heaven after reaching the patriarchal age of seventy, the from the world. As long as persecution was likely to befall title of papa, or father, might be very properly ap- the Church, there was policy in commemorating annually the plied, withont supposing him to be a bishop in the triumphs of her heroes. To meet by lamplight over the diocesan sense, though we are aware that at this time grave of a departed friend, and there to animate each other's that term had begun to be applied to the preses of faith by mutual exhortations;

to partake

together of the fune

real meal before the tablet which covered his bones : in all the presbytery, or leading presbyter of the Church.

this the faithful of that age found a constant stimulus to fortiDr Maitland informs us that a great many bishops tude and zeal. But the natalitia, celebrated after the conof Rome were interred in these catacombs. How version of Constantine, tended to secularize religious worship comes it to pass that he cannot give us a single in- in a lamentable degree. The festival was thrown open in the scription containing the title of Episcopus, Præsul, or

hope of obtaining converts ; and many of the pagan poor, any name denoting episcopal rank-any thing, in after having been fed at the expense of the Church, became short, but papa and presbyter, and pastor and deacon? suddenly convinced of the truth of Christianity." But in the absence of all elements of proof, it is im

The following is curious, from its having met with possible to prosecute this investigation.

something of a counterpart in modern times:The following is an interesting specimen of the “ We have a distinct statement of Cyprian's opinion recustoms of the ancient Church :

garding the eucharist, in his 63d Epistle, written to Cæcilius “ The original Agape, or love-feast, was a truly catholic

on a remarkable occasion. It had been advanced, by the Aquaelement of ancient Christianity. Begun in the purest spirit,

rian heretics, that wine, from its intoxicating quality, was unfit it shared the fate of some other ordinances, till, in the fifth

for the celebration of the Lord's supper, and water was by

them substituted for it. It must be borne in mind that the century, it became a scandal to all Christendom. It is first mentioned by St Jude, in the passage, " These are spots in

wine employed by the ancients at their meals was generally

mixed with water when placed upon the table; it is, there, your agapze," sy taus ayamos www, translated in our version, fore, to this day a matter of doubt whether our Lord used

feasts of charity. The feast, as held in the catacombs, is pure wine, or wine and water, in the institution of the suprepresented in a picture found in a subterranean chapel, in the

per. It is impossible to imagine any such opinion as that of cemetery of Marcellinus and Peter. In this painting the three the Aquarians arising in a Church that held the doctrines of guests are seen seated, and a page supplies them with food modern Rome. Cyprian's answer is also remarkable, and from the small round table in front, containing a lamb and a

quite unintelligible, on the supposition that he believed in cup. The two matrons who preside, personifying Peace and transubstantiation: 'Whereas Christ hath said, “I am the Love, have their names written above their heads, according true vine,” how can ought but wine be his blood ? and how to the Etruscan practice.

can the cup appear to contain blood, when destitute of that “In a city rich as imperial Rome in historical associations, wine which throughout Scripture is the type of it?'" where the very stones are piled in chronological succession among triumphal arches and trophi among the ruins of In concluding our brief notice of these “Memotemples and palaces, can the miserable painting of a subter- rials,” we cannot help expressing our fervent desire ranean cell offer any thing worthy the attention of the travel that they may yet be investigated by—what has ler? Let us try.

hitherto been a rare character in literature-a genu“In a dismal cavern, only accessible to the well-provided ine Presbyterian antiquary, or, what we would esteem explorer, among tombs and vaulted chambers, where every thing bears marks of high antiquity, is found a rudely-designed

the same thing, one whose imagination is not prepicture, attributed by the most skilful connoisseurs to the occupied by the dream of a regular hierarchy having third or fourth century; and this on excellent grounds. Its existed in Rome from the days of Peter. Now that style marks the decline of art soon after the time of the Anz- recent events have thrown open the Vatican to more tonines. Its subject is connected with a religion not brought liberal investigation—now that there is no College of to Rome before the reign of Nero, and which did not employ Cardinals jealously watching over tese symbols of painting till the third century: The ceremony it represents was almost universally discontinued in the fifth, and the pic

the Primitive Church, to hinder the inquirer, as it torial details closely correspond with the descriptions left by

did Dr Maitland, from carrying away the full impress the poets of the Augustan age.

The design, so carefully of thein, for fear of the disclosures they might makefinished in its parts, and every where abounding in information, I it becomes the duty of the Church to ascertain the

real language of these tombs. And it will be very In this posture of affairs it may not be uninteresting remarkable (though very like the ways of flim who if we glance for a little at the strangely providential 5 maketh the wrath of man to praise him," and who way in which India became subject to Britain. History “ ordaineth strength out of the mouth of babes”) if contains no more instructive chapter than that which the Vatican should thus be made to testify against relates to our Indian empire, and the mode of acquiritself, and the infant Church of Rome should rise up, ing it. Hindustan has from century to century been as if from the grave, in judgment against its dege- subject to foreign dominion; and it has been pronerate successor.

nounced an historic law, that whichever nation possessed for the time the sovereignty or chief sway in

India held the foremost place among the nations. So OUR INDIAN EMPIRE-ITS RESPONSIBI.

unvarying has that law been in itsoperation, that states, LITIES AND PERILS.

or even cities, in other respects insignificant, often asFor more than a year, Europe has been alternately cended to grandeur in consequence of their connexion astonished and awe-struck by the rapidity with which with the East. Arabia, Syria, Macedonia, all illustrate revolutionary movements have taken place. The best the remark. Alexandria, Bagdad, and Constantinople, established thrones have been overthrown, almost in all felt the effects of India's immense resources, as they the twinkling of an eye. Governments that had ga- were transported by thousands of merchants who rose thered around them the hoar of ten centuries have sud- from poverty to princedoms, in a manner that seemed denly passed away, and by the last of these spasmodic to realize the gorgeous fables of the East, by interchanges, the pompous, yet withal expressive, language course with its people, and traffic in its productions. of the Constituent Assembly of Rome is well-nigh The results of these enrichments were felt far justified—“the glory of the republic is resumed.” The beyond the limits of the nations which we have Rome of to-day is connected, by manifestoes at least, named. Through various channels the wealth of with the Rome that was before Julius Cæsar crossed India, at least in specimens, found its way to western the Rubicon, and marched with his legions through Europe. Cities there also sprang suddenly into im. the sacred territory against the Imperial city. portance, and became incalculably rich by the spoils Butour eyes are now turned from the west to the east. or the traffic of the exhaustless East. Venice, on the The changes that have swept like a whirlwind over shores of the Adriatic, and Genoa, Pisa, and other Europe appear to have produced their usual effects places along the Mediterranean, felt these effects; and even on the banks of the Sutlej and in the Punjaub. such was the stimulating result that all ranks of men The Prince of the kings of the earth is pointing atten- began to turn their attention to the land whence riches tion to India, and warning us in providence of our of such incalculable value could so easily be gathered. immense responsibilities in connexion with that land It is well known that it was India that Columbus of fable and of death. The unreflecting ferocity of a sought in his first adventurous voyage. His ardent British soldier has given an advantage to a tribe whose mind had partaken of the fervour, amounting almost to dogged heroism is unspeakable, because it is based on mania, that prevailed in his age; and as he sailed in fanaticism, and in a few hours ten thousand immortal quest of India, his first discoveries were named the beings have been swept from the earth. Some of the West Indies, and their inhabitants Indians—a misbravest of British soldiers are laid in an early grave. nomer that is perpetuated to this day. But what CoMothers are robbed of their sons, wives are made lumbus did not discover, Vasco di Gama accomplished. widows by the ruthless hand of war, and, in the esti- Towards the close of the fifteenth century he doubled mation of some, our dominion in the East, if not in jeo- the Cape of Good Hope, and landed on the western pardy, has at least received a violent shock. Another shores of the Indian peninsula. And speedily theremail may bring intelligence that the Affghans are after the effects of that voyage began to appear in again in arms; and should they and other disaffected Europe. Portugal took up a position among the tribes combine with the Sikhs—who, in fact, beat and nations such as only adventitious circumstances could insulted the British in the recent action on the Jhelum confer. She superseded Venice and other cities, to be -then the most splendid empire under the sun, ruled in her turn superseded by Holland; and for a time the over by the senate of Leadenhall Street, might begin wealth of India found a European depot in the to pass away from the hands of Britons. Alexander city of Amsterdam. Fostered and enriched thereby, the Great defeated Porus near the spot of the recent Holland became a first-rate nation, and rose at once engagement. The fabled Hydaspes saw him undoubt from her fens and marshes to be the queen of the edly a conqueror, while the triumph of the modern

ocean, and perhaps the richest among the nations.* is ambiguous and equivocal. Yet that conqueror passed But Holland is contiguous to Britain. The spirit away- no vestige of his victory remains, except in of enterprise speedily crossed the sea that divides history; and shall we expect a different doom from them, and forth with that spirit roused and stimulated all that heretofore have been the masters of India ? the whole nation, as Portugal had formerly been Hitherto our march in that land has, on the whole, roused, to seek a share of the fabled or really precious been forward and aggressive. But our recent checks productions of the East. Experimental voyages folwarn us that it may not be always so, and it becomes lowed in quick succession. Disaster could not damp us to pause and listen to the voice that is now address- the spirit of enterprise. In this instance hope deing us from the Punjaub. There may be some exag- ferred did not make the heart sick. Men were urged geration in the sentiment, and yet we cannot help onward from this island to seek a share of Indian recording it, that so critical is our position in India, wealth, guided, we believe, by the unseen hand of that the welfare, if not the existence, of our empire Him who sees the end from the beginning. The there, depends on the person who shall henceforth lead miseries endured by squadron after squadron could our armies. Shall it be a man like Lord Gough, or not repress the survivors. The possession of India a man like Sir C. Napier? On the answer is suspended was still the master aim, and from that nothing could our tenure in the East, and such a tenure, it will be confessed, is sufficiently precarious.

• See Dr Duff's India and India Missions; or, for more full details, Mill's History of British India.

divert the national mind. Passages were sought by amid an escort of a thousand elephants, with similar the east and the west; schemes the most gigantic accounts, more than fed men's love of the marvellous. were projected; and some of the most enterprising They produced that strong passion towards India men whom the world ever saw embarked with their which has never wholly subsided, and gave it such a whole soul in these attempts.

place in the minds and the affections of Britons as After many disappointments, which, however, pro- render it well-nigh as sacred and as dear as the duced no relaxation of zeal, a fleot sailed in the year island of our home. 1601 from Britain for India, by the Cape of Good Such was the hold which these things took on the Hope. The East India Company, chartered by Queen national mind nearly two centuries ago, that nothing Elizabeth in 1600, acquired possession of the trade could appease or satisfy the passion but actual posfor which it had so long panted, and suffered, and session of the land whose facts outrivalled fable. toiled. And not only so. In consequence of events Measures begun in ambition led to cruelty-to strathe most remarkable that the history of the world tagem-to bloody war, and often dire oppressionrecords, our island not merely got possession of the and ended in the subjugation of India to the sway of commerce, but became in a sense proprietors of the Britain. For a length of time all was unpromising. soil of India; and now, at the expiry of two hun- The Portuguese had pre-possession-the Dutch were dred years, our Queen reigns over à territory there powerful rivals—the French were astute deceivers, which seems to make the empire of Alexander or and our forefathers in India were, for a time, driven Charles V. dwindle into a puny province. In as far from station to station, often degraded, and always as regards the great objects of human ambition—the suffering. Thirty years after the signing of the Characquisition of wealth, and gratifying the lust of power ter, a town began to be built under Mr Day, an Eng. -Britain might be satiated with what it has thus | lish resident, and slowly the interests of Britain took acquired. Not merely has India become a new root, till now they seem, for the present, naturalized fountain of poetry to the imagination, so as in truth to the soil. The distance of half the circumference of to have stamped a character of tameness and cold. the globe could not damp the national spirit, urged on, ness on the poetic literature of the west-not merely as it was, by the thirst for gold; and at last the vast has it regaled the mind and heated the fancies of region, with its myriads of inhabitants, has, to its men, by the immense productiveness and the gigan. uttermost border, been subjugated to the uncontrol. tic scale of nature-not merely has it checked our

led dominion of the British sway. Whether we insular vanity by making us acquainted with a kind look at the grandeur of the prize thus secured, when of civilisation that was far advanced when Britain weighed in the balances of earth, or think of the was peopled by roaming hordes and naked barbarians: really paltry means by which all this dominion is far more than these :

-India gave rise to a new set maintained, we are equally surprised. Dr Duff has of ideas--ideas which rule the mind and decide the made it appear, that the myriads of India are guided destinies of man--and so helped forward the grand and controlled by not more than forty thousand consummation when the dwellers on the globe shall Europeans. Under such a sway, European principles recognise the God that made it, and when the hun. of government, European science, European landreds of millions of Indian gods shall be swept away guages, and European habits, are slowly and silently as surely as the flowers and the foliage of the summer diffused over that vast peninsula; and he is blind inthat is past have decayed into rottenness. True, the deed who cannot see in this one of the most marvellous process by which all this has been advanced has of all the political or moral phenomena which the infioften been such as to make humanity shudder--and nitely diversified history of man can present. And treasure up a store of retribution against the day of what is the design of such a conjuncture? We find wrath. But meanwhile the consolidation of India an answer in the parallel case of the Roman empire, has pioneered the way to its Christianization, the when the Saviour came to our world. It then formed wrath of man will yet praise Jehovah there.


grand and compact whole, so that what was done We cannot minutely narrate the progress by which at Rome was soon carried throughout the world, as Britain thus became possessed of India. Portugal | then known. A highway had been prepared that men paved the way those who had gone from that might run to and fro, and knowledge beincreased. They kingdom to the

East transferred thither their chivalry, ran-knowledge increased — and, in three centuries, their love of martial display, and soon found or the religion of the Nazarene sat down on the throne fabricated pretexts for aggressive wars. Kingdoms of the Cæsars. Without pretending to predict, we were conquered-thrones were upset--new systems may yet infer from the past to the future, that introduced--and in all this Portugal was just sowing Jehovah designs, in the fulness of time, to repeat that Britain might reap: and had she not enough to what the Roman world witnessed, when the desire of provoke her cupidity, in the accounts which her all nations came, and the bright and morning star travellers and diplomatists transmitted regarding the arose on the hearts of men. state and possessions of Indian princes? Thrones We have said that we would abstain from any covered with diamonds, pearls, and rubies; tables of formal account of the mode in which India was subburnished gold, and plate of the same metal set with jugated to Britain, yet one incident we may mention pearls; swords and bucklers covered with diamonds as illustrative of the whole. Even prosaic men and rubies; on one side of a turban a ruby as large caught a portion of ardour under the sun of India. ss as a walnut, on the other a diamond of the same size, if all must needs be romantic or impassioned there. in the centre an emerald larger still :—these and In the year 1751, war was raging in tho Carnatic. similar details, not circulated by romancers merely At that time the British were despised as cowards ; to astonish, but dispassionately reported by a British and the native tribes, officered by Frenchmen, threatambassador, sufficed to inflame the avarice and excite ened to eject our countrymen from the province. the minds of men. A single throne, moreover, which Matters seemed desperate. On the 30th of August, is said to have cost more than one hundred and sixty two hundred British and three hundred sepoys took millions of our money, a single prince marching possession of Arcot, the capital of the Carnatic, in consequence of a panic that had seized the garrison. on our part as it is debasing on the part of the The band was led by a young clerk, of limited educa- native princes. We cannot compel them to be tion and ungovernable temper, who, without military virtuous; we can still less force them to be Christraining or experience, had entered the army just at a tians, and should not attempt it though we could ; time when the prospects of England were dark and but these diplomatic relations of ours appear to be lowering. Having got command of the detachment such as to implicate us in not a little of the guilt of now referred to, with eight officers, of whom four these “ besotted” rulers. Despots and oppressors had never left the desk, and two had never been in as they are, our Residents and Government counteaction, he marched against the fortress, manned by nance and perpetuate the oppression. more than a thousand troops, and took it without But we linger too long on what is after all only prefiring a shot. It was one of the incidents on which liminary. That Britain has now possession of India mighty destinies hang. He kept possession of the is at once its boast and its glory. Baffed long, and fortress against appalling odds. Eighty Englishmen, sometimes in danger of losing its costly prey, it seems and one hundred and twenty sepoys, at length as if her power, up to the period of the recent checks, formed his army. Yet he kept the place against ten or reverses, had been paramount and consolidated. thousand besiegers, aided by one hundred and fifty And need we ask, Why it is that so colossal an Frenchmen. He kept it, we say, for the little band empire is intrusted to our sway? Is the seer's gift with a bravery that was chivalrous, drove back the needed to enable us to tell why we have become the assailants, who might have crushed them by brute stewards of so much power, the wielders of such force. That intrepid clerk was Clive, subsequently wide-spread influence? Is the design of the whole

governor of Bengal—a British peer—the boast of merely this—that Britain, like Palmyra, Tyre, Baghis country—the hero of his age ; . . but his life of dad, Venice, and other cities, after being enriched victorious aggrandizement and fame was closed by for a while with the spoils or the produce of India, suicide.” His position, however, and his heroism, shall sink at last, as those cities did, under guilt and were employed by Him who rules over all, to give riches accumulated in equal proportions? Or is not Britain that prominence in India which will tre- hers a higher vocation, for she is the keeper of that mendously swell her responsibility when the King of pearl which transcends even those of the throne of nations shall arise to demard an account of the the Grand Mogul? Is not Britain, in short, meant to stewardship with which he has intrusted nations, as be as one vast missionary to India, imparting the well as individuals.

light and the knowledge before which its brilliant Another case will illustrate our mode of governing suns will pale, and its fabled science be detected as India, as that of Clive illustrates our mode of acquir- indeed science falsely so called? True, this bigh ing it. Though the entire peninsula may be said to mission which we believe to have been entrusted to be subject to British sway, there are rajahs and her is tardily carried out. It was on the last day of princes who enjoy a kind of mock independence, and the sixteenth century that Queen Elizabeth signed the terms of our alliances with these are sometimes the first charter of the East India Company. Two such as should make us blush. Instead of using centuries and a half have thus rolled away since we our influence to raise India from its degradation, had a footing in that empire ; and yet, when this there are cases not a few in which we lend it current century began, desperate struggles on the to stereotype and perpetuate the vices of that one hand were needed, and lynx-eyed watchfulness land. We might refer to the patronage of Ido- was exhibited on the other, ere a missionary, with the latry, still so rife, and the countless channels through glorious gospel in his hand, could plant his foot upon which the government of India becomes partaker the soil of India. Instead of fulfilling our high comof the sins of its people ; or we might speak of mission-instead of beckoning India to the knowledge the widely ramified sin of imparting knowledge di- which has made Britain what she is among the navorced from religion to the Hindoos. But passing tions—we have hid the light under a bushel, and from all these, we glance rather at our civil and poli doonied the myriads to a prolonged darkness, we tical relations with some of the native princes, and have actually patronized Juggernaut rather than on this point we consult a highly competent and propagated pure religion—the worship of Kali, with impartial witness. Mr Macaulay, in his recently her ghastly necklace of human skulls and her hideous published History of England, speaking of a period banquet of gore, has been countenanced rather than when a king of England had 'degraded himself and that of Him in whom all the families of the earth his kingdom by becoming the pensioner of Louis will yet be blessed. Our responsibility, instead of XIV., observes, “ The king's relation to Louis being discharged, has been utterly neglected, and we would closely resemble that in which the rajah of have waded through blood to conquest and aggranNagpore and the king of Oude now stand to the dizement, instead of advancing the kingdom of the British Government. Those princes are bound to Prince of Peace. aid the East India Company in all hostilities de- And, if we look at the matter more in detail, our fensive and offensive, and to have no diplomatic responsibility is enhanced—our peril, if that responrelations but such as the Company shall sanction. sibility be neglected, is proportionally augmented. The Company, in return, guarantees them against In India, it is computed, there dwells a sixth part of insurrection, as long as they faithfully discharge the world's inhabitants. Every sixth child that is their obligations to the paramount power; they are born is born in India; every sixth soul that departs permitted to dispose of large revenues, to fill their to judgment departs in India; every sixth wife that palaces with beautiful women, to besot themselves in becomes a widow, every sixth child that becomes an the company of their favourite revellers, and to orphan, is a native of that land. On the other hand, oppress with impunity any subject that may incur that land is subject to our sway. Speaking humanly, their displeasure.” Such the relation in which we the Word of God might have free course through all stand to these Indian rulers; and even this passing its borders did

Britain pronounce the word. And shall allusion is sufficient to show that it is as disgraceful that word be withheld | Shall we not rather manfully

look at the responsibility which we underlie, and adverse powers. Swartz could with difficulty find a believingly seek to discharge it, that the blessing of pious Christian in India. Our religion was seen only them that are ready to perish may come upon us? | in gross superstition or grosser vice-Englishmen We do not speak now of governments. We address were less devoted to the living God than to the idols ourselves to Christians, to those that love the Lord of Hindustan; but this is largely changed, and perJesus in sincerity and truth, and cannot therefore haps some of the most devoted followers of the Lamb withhold their love from sinners, and we say, Should are now to be found in India. Infidelity, we say, has not every man ponder and pray over the responsi- noticed and deplored it. A French writer, De Warbility in which every man has a share! We do think ren, thus caricatures the religion of India in 1840, that India does not bulk as it ought to do before the while contrasting

it with what it had been during a Churches as a missionary field. We are spending former visit :-“The saints,” he says, “have spread our strength too often for nought, in comparison with themselves like a leprosy over all society. A dark what might be achieved. Just as India has been the fanaticism, excusable when it is sincere, but odious key to the world for many centuries, we think it when it is a hypocritical mask, assumed by avarice would become the key to the world's heart were it or ambition, has invaded every thing." He addswon to the Saviour; and we cannot too earnestly “In place of dinners and balls, which once cost them record the conviction, that the cause of missions much, they now entertain you with sermons, which would be largely accelerated were the British cost them nothing. Young men who wish to advance Churches discharging to the full their responsibility | in life also put on the same mask, that they may find to that land to which we owe so much.

favour with the powerful, and obtain appointments Some have begun to hint that our empire there for them.” Now, this is a scoffing unbeliever's mode begins to show symptoms of decay. We pronounce of confessing that the truth is prevailing. The no judgment yet; but sure we are that no more direct lives of such Christians will preach even more than course can be adopted to accelerate that end than to their lips—the living epistle will convey the mind of neglect or postpone the Christianization of India. Him that sent it-and European Christians will thus We are responsible first for that, and secondly, for be blest to bring Hindus to Him who has an elect the right government of that empire; and, should people in every tribe, and country, and kingdom, and the sun of Britain set in its Eastern dominions, sure we tongue. are, that, amid the dark clouds behind which it sinks, A few years ago serious fears were felt lest our the densest will be the guilt contracted on account of Indian empire were about to be so convulsed as to be a hundred and fifty millions left in heathenism, while endangered. That fear was hushed, but it has just we as a people revelled in the riches amassed in that been revived; and these periodic alarms give premoland. British justice and British protection are ex- nition that the day may soon come when we must tended alike to all: why, why should British reli- hear the providential verdict,“ You may be no longer gion not follow in their train ?

steward.” And surely that should rouse the Churches But, in truth, whether we will or no, the religion to activity in behalf of India. But, though no such of the Redeemer is spreading in that land. God will danger threatened, there are others to be dreaded. work, and none can hinder. When he gives the “ The sorceress in scarlet”— Rome-is in India, as word, great is the company of those that publish it. elsewhere, plotting against the truth; and that forms The strongholds of superstition are gradually under another reason for the energies of all believers being mined; and an eye that is at all philosophic in its combined in an effort to rescue that land from the survey, can see that the bold navigator, the indomi- galling vassalage of sin. Hinduism and Popery are table soldier, the sagacious legislator, have only been in nature homogeneous; and if we would not see the the pioneers and precursors of the truth that will stupendous system of Pantheism, which bas made finally triumph. Godless men may found godless Hindustan a moral waste, reinforced or buttressed colleges—the heathen may rage—and apostate Euro- by the system which has inflicted so deep a curse on peans may guide them in their assaults against the Christendom, we should give God no rest till he make truth; but, in spite of all, the principles which revo- Jerusalem a praise in all the earth. lutionized the Roman empire will revolutionize Hin- There is no more instructive lesson for the mind dustan. The Lord will be exalted, however heartless of man to ponder than the fall, the utter extinction, or supine multitudes may be.

of nearly all the ancient nations. Where is tbe emAnd this is no theory-no airy, unsubstantial pire of Alexander? Scattered like the dust of the dream. The progress of the cause of truth is marked conqueror himself. Where is the dominion of that and cheering. First, the old and hackneyed objec. proud king whom all hell was moved to welcome! tions against missions to India are fast disappearing. It exists only in some masses of ruins, where the It is years since we heard any one repeat the stale antiquarian can, with difficulty, spell or syllable a sophism about the impossibility of breaking up caste

Where is the dominion of Greece! where -or the power of usage—or the fixedness of Indian the world-wide empire of Rome! All has erumbled manners, religion, and institutions. Even the gross into ruins—and the mumbling of a priest has, for est worldling that returns from that land of the sun, more than a millennium, supplanted the sway of the speaks more temperately than his predecessors did a Cæsar. Our empire in the East resembles some of quarter of a century ago. The plain reason is, caste, these in extent. Shall its history be a parallel to with all its magic power, has been dissolved-Hindus theirs in what remains ? The answer depends on the have been converted—their habits have been tho- use which we make of our power. Be that use what roughly changed. Nay they have, in considerable reason and religion alike prescribe and we have numbers, actually become preachers of righteousness; chosen the blessing, and perpetuity. Be our power and before these stubborn facts even godless men abused-and we have chosen the curse, with evenhave been quelled into a sullen silence.

tual extinction. Secondly, the very infidel notices and laments the progress which truth is thus making against a thousand



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