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or legal fiction—whereby, as in the analogous case of giveth me shall come unto me.” And so we might Adam, we were all that one man; and in virtue of adduce a hundred no less express and impregnable, that union, without which we cannot understand his and tell of the five links (Rom. viii. 29) which will be suretyship, or substitution, or imputation, his meri adored long after Morisonianism is sunk into oblitorious obedience, if we belong to the all, to the vion under the rebuke of that God whose glory it as. totality in whose room the Incarnate One appeared, sails; but we forbear. As a mark of conscious weakis as much our own as if we had done it all ourselves. ness, they have ceased to use the words of Scripture We should like to know what benefit accrues from on the questions of the divine sovereignty. For it is seeking to extend it beyond the company who will a rule with us, which we have never yet seen ground embrace it, especially for those who will have salva- to modify, that men feel they stand on ground more tion hinge upon a man's own will. But with an in. than equivocal if they cannot freely use, and use consistency the most extraordinary, they argue for without restraint, the words of Scripture on every an atonement for such as scorn to receive it. Cal. point. While the world lasts, the little flock will vin's* language is admirably precise where he ex: always rejoice, according to their Lord's direction, tends it to those who will embrace it. On this because their names are written in heaven ; and, point Dr Candlish’s hypothesis in reference to the while the world lasts, his ministers will love election possible postponement of the expiation till the close in the proportion in which they drink into the same of the dispensation, is one of the most valuable con spirit with Him whose first sermon in Nazareth was tributions ever made to this department of theology, impregnated with the glorious theme; and who, and on their principles we are at a loss to see how when he rejoiced in spirit, rejoiced, as we are exthey can escape its force. But they are, in truth, pressly told, because the Father had hid these things embarrassed by the mere element of time. There from the wise and prudent, and revealed them unto is no weight in the argument, that a fact of equal babes. breadth must lie behind the universal offer, and form And now we take leave of this system for the its basis. We have already pointed out that two present, but not altogether. It is not a system on such truths meet in a higher unity, and that it be. which any man may safely pillow his soul. That hoves us meanwhile, with all modesty, to view them excellent Puritan divine, T. Hill, was wont to say, as parallel.

'Every true Christian hath something here (in his We arraign this system as undermining the reality breast) that will frame an argument against Armi. of the Father's love. Mr Kirk,t in a holy indigna- nianism.” We say the same of Morisonianism. We tion, pitifully misplaced, exclaims, “Shall we limit have shown that it tends to subvert the whole effithe Holy One by confining his love to a cacy of the work of Father, Son, and Spirit ; and favoured few ? blessed be Jehovah, he does not thus now we conclude in the noble words of Luther :*limit the boundless blessings of his own free salva- “I confess for myself, that, eren if it were possible, I would tion!” He repudiates election, in the current lan- not hare free-will committed to me, or anything whatguage of infidelity, as God's partiality; but, what he ever left in my hand whereby I might endeavour thus distributes over all, is, from the very fact that after salvation: not merely because I could not, amid all do not partake of it, rendered effectual to none. so many adversities and dangers, and, moreover, opTo Mr Kirk's charge of partiality we let God himself posing devils, withstand and retain it, since one devil reply:“ Have not I a right to do as I will with mine is more powerful than all men, and no one man would own? Is thine eye evil because I am good!” As we be saved; but because, even if there were no hazards, observed above, in reference to the Divine sove. no adversities, no devils, I should be constrained perreignty in redemption, so here, we say, the contro. petually to labour in uncertainty, and to beat the versy turns, in the first instance, not so much on the air. extent of the Father's love, as on its reality; but this system, emerging from the bosom of an age not a little impregnated with a shallow scepticism, begins TIIE DUKE OF ARGYLL AND THE at the opposite point. As the advocates of the non

REVIEWS. elect, the citadel to which they rush when overtaken by a difficulty is, that all must share alike; and, by If an author must be regarded as fortunate when lois this primary axiom of theirs, they even presume to work attracts the attention of our leading Reviews, interpret the authoritative Word of God." They im- the Duke of Argyll must be admitted to be a repugn God's absolute right to bestow salvation, as men markably fortunate author. The

Quarterly, the North bestow their alms, to whom he will ; but what they British, and the British Quarterly, Reviews, have each gain in compass they lose at the centre. They bestowed an article on the recent work of his Grace, forget, in their anxiety for friendly union with the entitled, Presbytery Examined. It was to be ex. spirit of the age, that the advantage which they gain pected that the North British Review would take up by enlarging the extent of God's love is more than the subject of the Duke's Essay with a full and clear countervailed at another point-they strip it of its conception of its true nature, place it on the right efficacy and reality. They give to the world, at the ground, and treat it according to its proper principles; cost of undermining the security of the redeemed. and we need scarcely say, that such an expectation God's love finds out its objects.

has been admirably realized. We could not give his On this ground they tell not sinners of a gospel, Grace a better advice than that he would peruse and but of a mere inefficacious though benevolent desire re-peruse that review with the most earnest and pro. in the Divine mind. But, let the Master's voice be found thought of which he is capable, being well heard, and we challenge them to expound his words assured that such a study could not fail to prove sig. in their sense if they can : “All that the Father nally beneficial to both his knowledge and his judgreal merits of the question—not for want of general | fulfilled.'. (ibid.). The normal state of man, in his view, is ability, but because it is so peculiarly Scottish and that in which all the concerns of the spiritual kingdom-all Presbyterian, that no English Dissenter can readily that appertains to the discipline of the soul of man-shall be place himself in a position from which it can be condition only our corruptions prevent us from attaining, but

ment. There was not much reason to expect that + 1 John ii. 3. Expiationem a Christo partam ad omnes extendo qui Evangeliam fide amplexi fuerint,

the British Quarterly would be able to perceive the * Way of Life, p. 9.

* Luther, tom. iii., p. 229.

regulated by (doubtless devout) secretaries of State. To this rightly viewed. And so it has happened. The ar- it is to it that we are always to endeavour to approximate ; and, ticle dilates eloquently enough on the state of Chris- of course, for this purpose we must strive to elevate the charac. tianity in general at the present time; but displays ter of the State nearer and nearer to the Christian standard, a very meagre conc of the real nature and de. that it may be fitted at length to undertake the whole extent sign of the Duke's work, while it indulges in some

of its proper functions.

“ We will not stop to discuss the merits of a theory opposed, petty sneers at the Free Church, on matters which it

we conceive, to the universal sense of Christendom, though manifestly misunderstands. Some measure of appro- reproduced from time to time during the last two centuries in bation is also given to the strength of principle and the brains of ingenious but visionary students. We will not firmness of character displayed by the Free Church- ask how it is that the Duke of Argyll, who follows Dr which, indeed, it would have been somewhat difficult Arnold in contending that all Church power should be to dispute; and for that amount of approbation we

wielded by the State, abandons him in the first corollary which

he himself drew from his proposition, namely, that the legismust be as grateful as we can.

lature should be composed of Christians only, and, by speech But the Quarterly Review has done more than we and vote, endeavours to secure the admission of Jews to the could have expected—it has produced a complete and administration of a power as much spiritual as civil. But we unanswerable refutation of his Grace's historical must protest against that extreme of speculative wilfulness essay, so far as regards the leading principle of that into which talent and facility often bewilder their possessor, production. Our readers are already aware that the and which alone can coerce the history of Scottish Presbytery Duke of Argyll has promulgated a new theory of Let us, if we wish to find instances of approximations, more

into speaking the language that, of all others, it most abhors. the history of the Church of Scotland, entirely sub- or less marked, to the Erastian theory, repair to Henry VIII. versive, if it could be proved, of what has always and his Episcopal Commissions—to which, however, the Duke hitherto been regarded as the primary principle and of Argyll can never have referred, or he could not have writbasis of that Church, and that he has laboured most

ten as he has done (p. 285) that 'all the authority of the strenuously to prove that his theory rests on the bishops was vice-regal'—for the terms of the commissions authority of John Knox. We need not again dissect authority of the bishops—to the ordinance that constituted the

themselves make an express reference to the distinct spiritual the Duke's paradoxical argument; but we think it Westminster convention, in 1643—to Cromwell, who supright to make our readers aware of the manner in pressed the General Assembly--to the history of Germany which a thoroughly Anglican, but very able, writer and the peace of Westphalia—to the Emperor Nicholas and deals with it. For this reason we extract a few


his nominated Synod of select prelates; let us go back with sages from the Quarterly Review, which will be ad. him, if he so much desires it, to the undoubted precedent and

respectable authority of Nebuchadnezzar (Dan. iii.); let us go mitted to be both pointed and powerful:

anywhere rather than to the abode of Scottish Presbytery. It "In short, it appears to us that throughout his work the has made for itself a name and a place in the history of ProDuke of Argyll has, to a great extent, confounded two things testantism almost wholly by means of a very strong, continuwhich are entirely distinct-a disposition to admit laymen to ous, practical assertion of a real spiritual power in the world, a large share of power in the government of the Church, and given by our Lord, though not given to a priesthood nor by a tendency to draw but slightly, or even to efface, the demar- ministerial succession, and though totally distinct from the cating lines between Church power and State power. To the power of order in the hands of the civil magistrate, and to be first, the Scotch Reformers were well inclined; the last they exercised through the medium of a different organizationvehemently eschewed. It is from this latter tendency that given in fact to the body of Christians at large, and to be de their system took its historical character. It may, indeed, beveloped and exercised in such a manner as shall accord with true, that, without admitting the laity as colleagues in their their conscientious judgment, and shall own their free will Church courts, they never would have been able to resist with for its origin; and no sophism will suffice to cheat it out of any success the royal claim of jurisdiction. But although the an identity ascertained by nearly three centuries of chequered introduction of laymen into their courts was essentially con- and searching experience. ducive to the establishment of the independence of their “We need not follow the Duke of Argyll through his conChurch, expressed by them under the form of the 'alone densed narrative of the principal crises in the history, from headship,' the latter, and not the former, was really their the first outbreak of 1560 to the settlement at the Revolution. main principle and their governing passion, as it has also been He is entirely above misrepresentation; and he gets rid of the the most remarkable result of their labours. But it is un- facts, to which Presbyterians appeal as their continuous testidoubtedly a great feat which the Duke of Argyll has at- mony in favour of the alone headship’ of our Saviour in the tempted-no less than to show that all Scottish Church his- Church, not by artifice or suppression, but by his comprehentory has, by all former historians of all opinions, been turned sive doctrine that all these things were local and accidental." inside out and upside down, and that the broad theory of what they knew, they felt, they said, they wrote, they did, Erastianism-developed as it has been, beyond the conceptions was nothing to the purpose: there was inconsistency here, or of its author, by the ingenuity and the caprice of modern confusion there; and the most unfortunate of all was, that speculation-derives its most signal illustration and most em- they omitted the negative in their leading proposition (Conphatic support from the principles of those whom a blinded fession, chap. 30), which should run thus The Lord Jesus, world has hitherto supposed to have spent their best energies as King and Head of his Church, hath' Not therein apin resisting every approach to it. If bravery were the prime pointed a government in the hand of Church officers distinct virtue of an historical essayist, we should say none has ever from the civil magistrate.'. made a better title to be field-marshal. But, in truth, he is “We are far from meaning to assert that the dogmatic delabouring to overcome nature, to lord it over fact; he deals velopment of the principle as it stands has been uniform and with hopelessly stubborn and impracticable materials; and as consistent; on the contrary, it has been much otherwise. The he more and more vigorously applies the hammer, another and Confession of Faith, while it asserts the distinctness of the another chisel snaps upon the stone.

ecclesiastical from the civil power, defines so largely (chap. 33) “ There can be no mistake about what we have described the functions of the magistrate in sacris, that if we estimate as the Duke's own opinion. He conceives that a separation Scottish Presbytery only by what is on paper, there is some between Christians met to legislate for the visible society of partial colour for the propositions of the work before us. Curist, and Christians met to legislate for the society of the The Confession of 1560 may, as the Duke of Argyll contends, world' (p. 228), is necessary now, and may perhaps be neces- verge towards an identification of the ideas of Charch and sary until the end of time; but that it is a necessary evil. Commonwealth. Knox thought, no doubt, much more of

It is a division which, so far from flowing from the will of binding together those who were engaged in a common cause God, would be utterly done away were his will even tolerably -a cause for life and death, as they viewed it, both spiritually

and temporally-than about determining by anticipation the character. The last led her Assembly; but if we ask the relations which should be established by them among them- oracles of the popular sentiment,' he was as Falieri among selves when the battle was at an end, and when victory would the Doges, or Ganganelli among the Popes. Her spirit may have opened to them the perspective of a new world. But we have been intolerant—her theology, narrow as the glen and hold these two canons to be sound and indisputable--First, barren as the hill-top-her relations with civil society, unThat when we are endeavouring to appreciate the primary easy: yet the question is, what she was, not what we think and essential,' as distinguished from the local and accidental,' she should have been. And that question was answered, tendencies of a system, we should view them not in their crude, with tones clear and loud at least, if not melodious—as we irreflective, and almost anarchical beginnings, when the first Southerns esteem melody—in all the great epochs of her hisweapon that offers itself is seized for the purpose of the tory-in 1560, in 1580, in 1638, in 1689, and last, not least, moment; but when they have acquired some degree of de- in 1843. We mean no aspersion upon the more moderate velopment, and have become conscious, deliberative, and and most justly respected body who now form the Established mature. Secondly, That as we must not estimate the Church Church of Scotland; but speaking with regard to matter of of Rome by the Iridentine Canons alone, we must not esti- fact only, not to praise or blame, it is among the ranks of mate Scottish Presbytery by the mere words of its Confession, those who have seceded from them that we must seek the hut admit its whole life and actions as a commentary upon descendants of Knox and Melville, of Henderson and Rutherthem. In the Duke's own language, the history of a Church ford, to say nothing of Cameron or Cargill. Let us frankly is no bad exponent of its dogmas. (P. 163.) On these prin- accept all men and all systems, when we travel back into the ciples he himself proceeds when his foregone conclusions will past, in their own sense and their own spirit. If we attempt profit by them. For the institution of superintendency, to make them the exponent of ours—if we are resolved that adopted by Knox, but not by Melville, is explained away as be- history shall be a mirror in which we are only to see ourselves longing to the crude period of transition and its peculiar exi- reflected, instead of a telescope to enable us to bring near, to gencies. But then, when Knox identifies the Church and scan, and to realize, the thoughts, words, and deeds of those State, and Melville divides them, and even lets us hear the now distant from us, we shall have our reward in losing all clank of the keys', the later phenomenon is the local and ac- fruit from our ingenious toil-we shall find ourselves returned cidental one, and the earlier the primary and essential. Now, upon ourselves, and that, too, not as our natural selves, such we ask, why are second thoughts to be preferred in the one as God has made us and fitted us for our own time and place, case, and first thoughts in the other-and either Knox or but ourselves travestied and distorted-trees transplanted Melville to be ratified or repudiated, according as each may without their earth, their foliage thin and discoloured, their serve that alternating process of compression and expansion, roots having no grasp upon the soil. Such are the results of of elongation and curtailment, by which the stout progenitors eclecticism-of a determination to teach facts what they shall of the Free Kirk are to be metamorphosed into sickly be, instead of learning what they are to pick historic order patients of Erastus?

in pieces, and reconstruct it according to the newest fashions." “ By the alone headship,' says the Duke of Argyll, the Scotch Reformers meant to express a principle of the great

The noble Duke will not, we apprehend, be much est value and importance—the right of the visible Church to gratified with the reception which his historical the principle of self-government' (p. 166), though he subjoins labours bave met with from the Quarterly Review. that this is rather a natural right than a scriptural one. (P: But we should rejoice were it to have the effect of government, if it be predetermined that in the best condition leading him to resume his studies, freed from the of human things the whole affairs of the Church are to be fascinating influence which the theories of Arnold managed by those whom the voice of the nation may have and Bunsen have exercised in blinding and misleadintrusted with civil rule? It would be a much simpler way ing him; and were it also to induce him to lay aside of expressing this doctrine to say,The Church is not properly that tone of petulance and self-confidence which is a society at all, except while the nation refuses to be Christian. alike uncourteous in a man of rank, and unseemly in When the nation has become Christian, its religious affairs become a portion of the public interests, which are managed a young and inexperienced author. His real knowby its government; and its religious liberties, like its com- ledge, we trust, will increase, his judgment ripen, mercial

or its judicial liberties, are only a portion of its poli- and his literary ability acquire additional skill and tical rights. The word Church is a word intended for a crude power. But when these points shall have been atand incipient state of things, anterior to that in which the tained, we are very sure that he will be most heartily gospel has penetrated the mass. When the community has willing to permit his recent historical essay to sink been thus pervaded, that word serves no purpose but to confuse the uninstructed mind, or to afford an opening for the

into utter oblivion. assumptions of priesteraft.' National unity requires that the

Had our space permitted, we meant to have governing power should be one, and as Parliament is still directed the attention of our readers to some very Parliament, whether it legislate for trade or finance, or art able articles in the British Quarterly, which weil or war, so let it still be Parliament when it receives petitions maintains its high reputation; and also to the recent upon the Homojusion, or passes a bill to prevent misappre- Number of the North British, which is one of general

We again, and finally, protest against this mode of dealing excellence, containing well selected articles, some of with history. It is not in these pages that the religious prin which display great power and precision of thought ciples of Presbyterianism, Scottish or other, are to be vindi- and language. cated. But let us, at least, take them as they are ; let us not

mper with the records of the past : either they were right, as some say they were, or at least they had their own lesson to teach, and their own warnings to convey. Whatever may

THE LANGUAGE OF THE LIPS; OR, A NEW be said or thought of it, at least it is definite, masculine, and MODE FOR INSTRUCTING THE DEAF positive. It has a character of its own a countenance of lines deep drawn and ineffaceable. It has shown a tenacity

AND DUMB. of life, a substantiveness of view, an earnestness of purpose. The ordinary method of holding communication with the Continental Reformation. With art, with philosophy, those of our unfortunate fellow-creatures who are bewith literature, with refined and polished life, it has had little reaved of the

faculties of speech and hearing is, confessor no connexion. Where these have grown up within the edly, a very imperfect one. The plan usually followdomain of. Scottish Presbyterianism, it has not been by her ed is the employment of arbitrary signs made with aid—it has often been under her frown;

and they have uni- the fingers, denoting the different letters of the alphaTake the contemporary lights of nearly an hundred years back bet-at the best, a clumsy contrivance, and one which -Hume, Smith, Fergusson, Thomson, Home, Robertson. can only be practised by the few who have studied Some of them were in open, in deadly war with her ; not one the mystic evolutions of finger and thumb, by which represented in any degree the really distinctive features of her the words are painfully spelled out with the aid of shrug and grimace. It is not meant, however, to sense of other means of communication with the condemn the use of this or any mode of communica- external world, the faculty of sight is uncommonly tion which may be adopted. Far less do we propose acute; and on this peculiarity we calculate largely in to supersede the necessity of instructing the deaf and estimating the probable success of our scheme. dumb in the arts of reading and writing, or even to What we propose, therefore, is, that the mute be throw discredit on the attempts which have been taught these visible symbols in much the same way as made to teach them the use of speech, painful as it the child is taught the audible sounds. Beginning may be to hear the discordant and inarticulate sounds with the alphabet, let him be taught to associate each produced by these attempts. The plan which we letter with the peculiar formation which its pronunnow mean to suggest relates entirely to the mode of ciation induces on the organs of speech. From letters holding communication with the deaf and dumb. let him advance to syllables, from syllables to words, And it must be admitted, we think, that, desirable as from words to sentences. In conducting this mode it may be to open up such a medium of communica of tuition, diagrams representing the signs might be tion as would enable them to impart their ideas and useful, but nothing can excel the living mouth of the feelings to others, it is still more so, that they should teacher himself. By a little practice, and inducing enjoy a medium whereby the ideas and feelings of the pupils to imitate the different formations re others may be communicated to them; in other words, quired, it will be found that they will become deeply it is better that we should supply the want of learning interested in the study, and soon acquire the art of to them than the want of speech; for, without en understanding what is spoken before them, and ultitering on the nice question which of their wants is mately of holding converse with each other. the most deplorable, it is obvious, that when both the The writer of these lines may state, that this is no faculties are actually wanting, and can only be parti- untried theory. Besides other cases which he has ally supplied, it is of far more importance to the un. heard of, he knew one, that of a young woman from the fortunate individual himself that he should be put in country, Mary — , lately deceased, who, though per the way of acquiring oral instruction from others, than fectly deaf from a very early period in life, contrived that he should be able to communicate, in a rude and to instruct herself in this art of understanding what imperfect form, his own ideas and impressions. If may be termed the language of the lips. To such pereven with those who possess both the faculties, it is fection had she arrived, that she could not only coma point of wisdom to be “swift to hear, slow to speak,' prehend with ease every question put to her from scehow much more with those whose ears God has shut ing it pronounced, but could follow the whole services against the voice of man, and who can only aim at of the Sabbath, and give a most intelligent account speaking “with stammering lips and another tongue!” of the sermon, noticing those passages which struck

The plan we have to propose rests on the fact, not so her as peculiarly appropriate or impressive. Of generally attended to as it deserves, that every

letter course, her own minister, whom she was accustomed of the alphabet not only has a distinct sound of its to see speaking, she understood best; and she found own, but requires, in order to its pronunciation, a dis- considerable difficulty in following those speakers tinct formation of the mouth, lips, and other organs who did not articulate distinctly, or who had got inof speech. Every one may easily satisfy himself on to a slovenly guttural pronunciation, hard to be unthis by pronouncing, or observing another pronounce, derstood even with the use of one's ears. Mary was distinctly the letters of the alphabet. It will be found able to articulate a little herself, though indistinctly; that even those letters which appear to approach most and being a woman of some spirit, when engaged in nearly to each other, differ as much in regard to look controversy, she would attack her adversary first in as to sound-that is impossible two different sounds front with a volley of argument or rebuke, and instead can be uttered without a corresponding change in the of waiting the rejoinder, she would, like the Sikhs in position of the muscles and organs of speech. The the late Indian campaign, turn her back on the enemy, same remark applies, of course, to words. Every and present the impenetrable shield of “the deafest word has its visible symbol or series of symbols, ac- side of her head” to the meditated assault. Lest this cording to its syllables, by which its pronunciation should be thought a singular or too favourable case, it may be rendered as visible to the eye as it is audible may be mentioned, that a trial was made on a few to the ear. These symbols are either facial, labial, deaf and dumb children connected with an institution dental, or lingual; in other words, formed by the face, in town, and met with the greatest success, though, in lips, teeth, or tongue. Let any one try it, and he consequence of that institution having been given up, will soon, after a little practice, become satisfied that it never got fair play. not a single word can be uttered without its peculiar It is extremely difficult to prevail on certain parties visible sign, distinguishing it from every other word. accustomed to move on in the old ruts of education, to It is in obedience to this law of nature that we in- introduce anything that has the appearance of novelty, stinctively look in the face of the person who is ad- or which may strike them at first sight as impracticable, dressing us: the eye is unconsciously lending its aid or which some old stager has assured them has been to the ear in deciphering his discourse.

tried and found wanting. But the plan we have now Now, it must be very obvious that, with such a fact suggested is founded on nature. The language of the and such a law existing in nature, it is as possible, lips is Nature's own interpreter; and in the full assuwith an ordinary degree of study and attention, to rance of this, we wait with patience the time when preacquire the art of understanding these visible signs, judices will yield to facts; and when the deaf and as to acquire the knowledge of the audible sounds. dumb, no longer secluded from the intercourse of soThe latter, indeed, being the more natural mode of ciety, or doomed to exhibit their defects by oddcomprehending speech, must be the easier of the two; looking manipulations, will be enabled to share with but it is important to know that the one acquisition their more highly privileged fellow-men the pleasures may be made with as much certainty, though not of the social circle, the entertainments of the lecwith the same celerity, as the other. In the case of ture-room, and the higher enjoyments of the sancthe deaf and dumb, it is well known that, in the ab- tuary.



to halt and let the masses perish, or greatly to in

crease the Sustentation Fund, or endeavour to prevail In speaking of the peculiarities of the Free Church upon individuals interested in special localities to set in the Highlands in our last Number, we mentioned, apart sums of money for the permanent maintenance amongst other possible plans for dealing effectually of word and sacraments there. The first alternative, with the spiritual destitution there, the creation of of course, will be rejected in theory, although it is,

special endowments” for necessitous districts. in fact, the one that is at present adopted by all our We find that in certain quarters this expression has Churches in practice. Of the other two, a good been misanderstood and misrepresented. We shall deal may be said on both sides. There is, of course, not say that this has been done intentionally. In a danger of breaking in upon the unity of the Suscertain quarters there seems to be the very same tentation Fund as a bond of connexion amongst an kind of ignorant prejudice against the very word our congregations, by creating a class of Churches “ endowment” that a bull is said to have against that would have little or no interest in it; there a piece of red cloth. Let the word only be named, is the danger of lulling people asleep, and abatand off they set at once, all sorts of evils being im- ing their own efforts by doing all for them. But, on mediately apprehended-it must be from govern- the other hand, there is the certainty that many ment that such "endowments” are expected—the districts will never be anything else than heavy drags Free Church is about to go back to an alliance with on the Sustentation Fund, unless some such plan is the State, and perhaps even to make a compact with adopted-the hopelessness of raising the general Popery, that she may be quietly allowed to eat her fund to such an amount as will be necessary-the

out of the same trough with the Beast," fact that individuals take an interest in particular &c. We need scarcely say that such an idea never districts, and would give sums of money for them, entered into our mind. The endowments of which whilst they would not give an equal sum to the we spoke were those which individual benevolence general fund; and, above all, the consideration that might furnish, and all candid readers of the passage every such case, pensioned off by sinking £2,000 or must have seen it to be so. The delusion, it seems, £3,000 beside it, would set free a dividend for some was promoted by our reference to the operations of other poor and neglected district. Miss Hunter's the Committee on the “ Royal Bounty," although we liberality, for example, in giving £1,600 to build, think it was sufficiently plain, to intelligent persons, and £180 a-year to endow, St Paul's, Edinburgh, that we only referred to their rates of payment, and started a congregation where otherwise there would principles of distribution, which were very different have been none, and enabled them, from the first, to from ours.

get able ministers. Dr Chalmers' efforts and libeThe question, however, is really one of great im- rality secured the same result in the West Port; and portance, and we are not sorry to have thus an we know no reason why it should not be seriously opportunity of reverting to it. No class of unen- considered, whether the experiment should not be dowed Christians in this country have as yet fully repeated, where practicable, in all the poorer districts solved the problem—What shall be done with the of the kingdom. This is what we mean by “special poor and neglected districts of our country? The endowments." Free Church

seems to be the only body that has faced The question has often been asked, "Why do you it in anything like its national magnitude and done not fund money as a capital in connexion with the something, by means of its Sustentation Fund, to- Sustentation Fund itself?” The answer is plain. It wards its solution. Other bodies confine their at- would take a capital of £3,000,000 or £4,000,000 to tention almost exclusively to self-sustaining congre- yield the interest we require; and to lay up a smaller gations. Anything that is done for the outfield sum would only confuse the people, and lead them Inpulation, is done by mere city missionaries. to slacken their efforts. The common people have Even these missionaries are upheld by “endow- not much arithmetic—they would think £100,000 or ments, or sums contributed from without; and the £200,000 inexhaustible, although it would only yield only difference is, that such endowments are so £5,000 or £6,000 a year, and would forthwith, as in small, scanty, and precarious, as to secure the ser- the case of the Infirmary and other institutions, parvices only of a comparatively feeble and uneducated tially endowed, give up contributing. No such result, class of men, in districts which would require the however, would flow from a donation confined to a most vigorous, talented, and well-supported labourers particular locality, and the precise amount of which in the Church. The masses of our large cities and could be easily ascertained. In fact, this process has some of the poor outfield districts are to a great ex- already commenced, and no evil, but great good, retent utterly neglected by all the Churches, for want sults from it. A worthy proprietor gives £50 a-year of funds to meet the case. This is the undoubted

each to two of our ministers, and an excellent lady and melancholy fact, let us make of it what we has sunk a capital sum which will yield £50 yearly please. Now, it has been a serious question in the to the minister of another district. We know not Free Church-How should the case of such districts why some wealthy Highlanders or Orcadians should be met ? Certain things are plain in regard to it; not do the same for their native districts, and why as, for example, that without a regular ministry with the example of Miss Hunter should not be copied church and school, no good on an extensive and by some of our wealthy citizens. effective scale is to be expected-that such a ministry will not be secured in ordinary cases, unless

“ RUSTICATION OF THE POOR."... means are obtained for its support—that to throw many more of such districts on the Sustentation A SERIES of letters have lately appeared in the WitFund will go far to swamp it, whilst in the cities ness newspaper, written chiefly by Dr Begg, in which the mere dividend would be insufficient for the certain important plans are propounded

the pursupport of a minister, even if it could be obtained

pose of abating the growing pauperism and crime of that, therefore, only three alternatives remain, either Scotland, and finding a profitable outlet for the chil.

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