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coil. We would not, therefore, expect either from a we can see, there is no difficulty in reconciling his Churchman who had become a Dissenter, or from a principle with a connexion between Church and State, Dissenter who had become a Churchman, a peculiarly founded on the principle of co-ordinate jurisdiction; correct view of the essential merits and demerits of but we cannot see how it can possibly be reconciled either the position he had left or that which he had with the Voluntary principle. We frankly confess assumed, especially at the very time of his transition, that we are glad of this; and that we hope he will not because we would doubt the sincerity of the man never approach nearer the Voluntary principle than in either case, but because we would expect to find he is at present, but rather recede from it, and occupy him fixing his attention almost exclusively on the what we regard as much firmer, because more truly points of the two systems most strongly contrasted, scriptural, ground. It is not our present purpose, and attaching to these an undue degree of importance. however, as we have already said, to scrutinize very For this reason, we would not expect from Baptist narrowly that part of his work which treats of matNoel a very clear view of the essential merits of the ters requiring a much more full, searching, and calm principle of establishments, as compared with the investigation than he has hitherto been, or is yet, in Voluntary principle. He has not hitherto been in a a position to give. position, and he is not yet in a state of mind, to enter The work is divided into three unequal parts. The upon and prosecute the study of that important sub- first treats of the “ Principles of the Union between ject with the dispassionate calmness necessary for the Church and the State.” In the introduction to arriving at a sound conclusion. We will not, there the first chapter, the author gives a definition of the fore, at present, scrutinize very narrowly that part terms Church, State, and Union. His definition of of Mr Noel's work which treats directly of the prin the union is as follows :-“The union between the ciples involved in what he calls the “Union of Church Church and the State, of which I have to speak, is and State.” But one passage we feel impelled to ex- not the relation of each member of the Church, as a tract, as a proof that he does not yet, and we trust citizen, to the government under which he lives; not never will, hold the Voluntary principle, as it is held his subjection, in common with all his fellow-citizens, by its extreme advocates.
to the laws and to the sovereign; but it is the defi" It is the duty of each member of Parliament, of each
nite union between the Church and the Government, peer, of each minister of the crown, and of the sovereign, to
which arises from a national payment of the pastor, be a consistent Christian. Rank, wealth, and power, only in, and the consequent superintendence of him and of the crease the obligation upon any one to obey the will of God Church by the State. Our readers will do well to declared in the Bible, to set a Christian example, to be a
mark carefully the essence of this definition-a namember of a Christian Church, to govern his familyChris
tional payment of the pastor, and the consequent superintentian rules, to train up his children in the fear of God, to discountenance vice, to discourage dissipating and mischievous dence oj him and of the Church by the State. Scottish amusements, to promote Christian missions among the hea Presbyterians have not been accustomed to regard then, to aid the diffusion of evangelical instruction at home by the connexion which, till within these few years, subliberal contributions, and in all other ways to honour religion. sisted between Church and State in Scotland, as arisEach member of Parliament is no less bound to make the law ing out of the “national payment of the pastor;" nor, of God the exclusive rule of his public conduct. Each public though that element did exist, did they regard“ the measure should be considered with reference to the Divine will; each vote should be given in the fear of God; and every
superintendence of him and of the Church by the legislator is called to avow that he is governed in all things State” as a necessary consequence of such payment, by the authority of Christ. Whoever neglects these duties is or endowment. From the days of John Knox till misusing the gifts of God, and must give account to his Maker now all true Presbyterians held, that the principle of for that misuse. The same principles should obviously govern co-ordinate jurisdictions in Church and State was the the united action of all the members of the State. They must only principle on which their relations to each other for the glory of God and the good of the nation. Hence their could be established harmoniously and with mutual laws must be neither anti-Christian nor immoral-neither advantage. But it is true, on the other hand, that unjust nor oppressive; they ought to discourage all profanity Mr Noel's definition correctly describes the state of and ungodliness among themselves; they should afford to all matters in England, and the terms on which the union the agents of Government, to soldiers, sailors, and policemen, between Church and State in that country rested. opportunities and means of religious improvement. They are further called to protect Christians in their worship, to allow
The union so formed might be accurately enough no public hindrance to the preaching of the gospel, to secure
termed the incorporation, or rather, perhaps, the the safety of Christian missionaries throughout the empire, absorption of the Church by the State. Setting out to elevate the condition of the aborigines of our colonies, to be with that definition, Mr Noel proceeds to point out, upright and fair in their diplomacy, to condemn and to abstain in the first chapter, in six sections, as many “general from war, and to aid rather than hinder the prosperity of other considerations which condemn the union.” It is not, nations. Finally, while discharging these Christian duties, they no less owe to their Lord and Redeemer to leave his
as we have said, our present intention to examine his Churches free from all secular control, to intrude no ministers argument: we merely remark, in passing, that, though upon them, to impose no tax on the reluctant for the purposes his considerations may be sufficient to condemn such of religion, and to use no coercion whateer of their subjects a union as he has defined, and as has hitherto existed in any religious matters.”
in England, they may have no such force when applied Such is the theory held by Mr Noel regarding the against a connexion between Church and State foundposition and duty of the State with regard to religion, ed on the principle of co-ordinate jurisdiction. as stated by himself. We cannot very well see what The object of the second chapter is to prove that our Voluntary friends will make of this. The Volun- the "principles of the union between the Church and tary principle has often been succinctly expressed in State in England are condemned by the Word of the following terms :--The State, as such, has nothing to God.” These principles are stated and examined in do with religion, and religion nothing to do with the State. four sections--1. The Maintenance of Christian Mr Noel says, “ The State must legislate and govern Pastors by the State; The Supremacy of the State; in the fear of God, according to Scripture, for the 3. Patronage ; 4. Coercion. To the argument of the glory of God and the good of the nation.” So far as first section we would not attach extreme importance, though it proves very clearly one point, which may direction of his house. In allowing to the State this spiritual be pregnant with serious consequences ere very long dominion over it, the Church of England has become treason-Church property is entirely created by law, and the able, rebellious, adulterous, and unnatural; it is a community State has determined upon what terms it shall be with two spiritual kings- household with two separate held, or to what extent it may be altered, or even
masters-a wife with two husbands--a body with two heads." entirely abrogated, should the legislature so resolve. From this supremacy of the State, it follows, that But that is a topic on the consideration of which we the State can determine the number of prelates and have no wish to enter. The second section, which pastors, and select the men that the State pronountreats of the “Supremacy of the State,” enters fairly ces on the doctrine to be taught in the Establishinto the heart of the subject. “ One consequence," ment—that the supremacy of the State comes into says our author, "arising from the provision which is collision with the authority of Christ, respecting the made by the State for Christian pastors, is, that it worship of God; and that the State governs the claims and exercises the right of superintendence Churches and regulates their discipline, both with over the Churches.” It is not clear to us that this regard to ministers and to ordinary members. What, right of superintendence over the Churches, or supre- then, is left to the Church? Nothing but abject macy, arises out of the provision made by the State slavery. for Christian pastors. If the fact of support must
This enslaved condition of the Church is very necessarily give the right of superintendence, or strongly displayed in the section which treats of supremacy, to those who contribute that support, patronage :then the seat-holders and others who contribute “When a patron presents a minister to a bishop to be setmoney for the support of Voluntary Churches, must tled as the pastor of a Church, the Church has no voice in the possess the right of superintendence over those transaction. The bishop is almost as powerless; for, unless Churches. The supremacy claimed and exercised
he can prove the nominee to be legally disqualified, he must
admit him to the pastoral charge. That the nominee is offenby the State over the Church of England rests, we
sive to the people, infirm, indolent, with little talent, slender apprehend, on a different basis. It seems to us to theological attainments, and few virtues; that he is ill-tembe the Papal supremacy assumed by the English pered or eccentric; that he hunts and shoots, attends at balls, monarch. This could be proved incontestibly from and plays cards, are no legal disqualifications. Unless the history, were that our present purpose. At any rate, bishop can prove him to be heretical or immoral, he must adthe fact is certain, that the State claims and ex
mit him to be the pastor, or the patron would obtain damages ercises absolute supremacy over the Church of poral court; and the rejected nominee would obtain a judg.
against the bishop, in an action of quare impedit, in the temEngland. Mr Noel cites a number of acts of Par- ment against him, in the ecclesiastical court, by a suit of liament and canons to prove this point; and he thus duplex querela." states the result : “ These statutes plainly declare, that the Crown has all such spiritual and ecclesiasti
With the change of a few words, this would be a cal jurisdiction as bas ever been exercised by any lishment, under Lord Aberdeen's Bill:
very correct account of the present Scottish Estabspiritual power and authority, whether pope, synod, prelate, or Church-that the Crown may, therefore,
“ The mischief,” says the honourable and reverend author, exercise all Church discipline for the correction of “which is done to a Church by the appointment of an ungodly heresy, schism, and sin of every kind—that bishops whole Establishment must suffer from this cause. If it be as
minister, demonstrates the magnitude of the injury which the and pastors have no manner of spiritual jurisdiction intolerable an evil to an evangelical Church to have an ungodly within the Churches, but from the Crown---that the pastor, as for a flock to have a wolf for its shepherd, a crew, Crown may delegate its spiritual authority to eccle. when tossed by the tempest, to have a drunkard for their cap siastical lawyers, who may exercise all Church disci- tain, or for an army in an enemy's country to have a traitor pline within the Churches in its name. And by the for their general, it must be intolerable to the Establishment canons above mentioned, all ministers of the Church long as the system of patronage lasts, this evil must continue, of England must acknowledge this supremacy of the The rich patrons of this country are not generally evangelical Crown in spiritual things, must faithfully keep and and godly, and therefore do not nominate evangelical and godly observe these statutes, by which it has been declared pastors; and ungodly pastors can never form and build up and confirmed, and must not impeach any part of it, on evangelical and godly Churches. Thus this single evil of pa, pain of excommunication.” Further, it is proved that tronage secures that the Churches of the Establishment shall though this supreme executive power is in the continue, as they have ever been, to a great extent ignorant
and irreligious. Irreligious patrons are a corrupt foundaCrown, the legislature has a still higher and more tion for the Establishment, which no improvements in the absolute power over the Church. And when we detail of its administration can ever rectify; and patronage consider of what kind and character of men the must ever be a source of mischief so prolific, that the Churches legislature is composed, how utterly destitute of of the Establishment, without such miracles of grace as this religious principle a large majority of them are, it is disregard of the authority of Christ forbids us to expect, impossible not to regard the Church of England as
must still remain ignorant and irreligious." deplorably enslaved. The conclusion which Mr Dark as this picture is, it is not too dark for the Noel draws is inevitable, and it is truly appalling. reality, as the experience of even Scotland has testi
fied, though the power of patronage was never so “ This supremacy of the State, without divine authority, absolute in this country as in England till the enactis incompatible with the rights of Christ. The Scripture declares that Christ is the King of his Church, and, therefore, ment of Lord Aberdeen's Bill, which has rendered to allow the State to rule over it without his authority is as
the Scottish Establishment as thoroughly enslaved much treasonable as it would be in Ireland or in Canada to as that of England. elect a foreigner for its ruler, without reference to the will of The fourth section relates to the evils resulting our sovereign. Christ is the Head and Master of his Church, from the principle of coercion. On that section we as a man is head and master of his own household. And do not think it necessary to dwell, as every one must when any Churches, without authority from him, allow spiritual dominion over them to a stranger
, they are revolting feel that coercive proceedings cannot but create against his authority, as much as servants would be who, in strong prejudices against the system in support of their master's absence, should invite another to assume the which they are employed. The first part of the work concludes with a summary, from which we extract Influence upon Bishops.-“ From this enumeration of some the following clear and vigorous sentences :
of the functions of a prelate imposed by the State, it is too
obvious that a pastor suddenly raised by the fiat of the premier “ The union of the Churches with the State in this country to the prelatic dignity must undergo temptations of no ordinary rests upon four main principles-the legal maintenance of the force. How can one, whose position was so humble, become pastors, the supremacy of the State, patronage, and compulsion. at once so lofty without giddiness? That smile of a statesman În supporting this union, Christians, who are charged by the has made him at once a peer, the master of a palace, the authority of Christ to support their own pastors, have devolved owner of a lordly revenue, the successor of apostles. Thencethis duty upon the State; and being bound to interpret and en- forth he shines in Parliament, and moves amidst the most force Christ's law for themselves, they have committed to the splendid circles of the wealthiest nation of the h; or, retirState, that is, to the world, the right to superintend them--thus ing to his palace, he administers within its baronial precincts allowing the supremacy of the world to encroach upon the an extended patronage, wields an absolute sceptre over onesupremacy of Christ. It is Christ's declared will that they third of his clergy, and by an indefinite prerogative awes and should select their pastors with the greatest care, according to controls the rest, meets with no one to question his opinions the direction which he has left for this purpose; and they or contradict his will, and may look along a lengthened vista have left the nomination of their pastors to others who are for of enjoyments to the more dazzling splendour and prerogatives the most part men of the world, not reserving to themselves of Lambeth. If a man, under these circumstances, is not deeven the liberty of objecting to the intrusive nominee. And teriorated, he must have extraordinary wisdom and virtue. while every offering to God should be free, and Christian mi- | To the efficiency of most men as ministers of the gospel, these nisters ought to receive no contribution which can hinder their circumstances would be fatal. They would cease to be pasusefulness, Anglican Christians allow the State to alienate tors; their preaching would become lordly, heartless, and inthousands from the gospel by compelling them to pay for the frequent; and they would grow worldly, covetous, self-indulsupport of good and bad pastors indiscriminately on pain of the gent, proud, and imperious. If, under all circumstances, 'it spoliation of their goods. The support of the first of these is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than principles of the union involves Anglican Christians in the for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God,' wealth, dignity, guilt of a selfish and covetous disregard of positive duty. Their patronage, and prerogative thus combining, must greatly inallowance of the State supremacy is infidelity to Christ, their crease the difficulty. King and Head. The third principle which they support is de- Influence upon Pastors.--"Amongst pious Anglican passtructive of their spiritual welfare; and the fourth renders tors it is common to hear strong and even violent denunciation them schismatical towards their dissenting brethren, and un- of Popery, which requires no courage, because the thunderer charitable to every other recusant. All these four principles launches his bolts against a despised minority, and is echoed are unscriptural, corrupt, and noxious; and by placing the by admiring multitudes. But the ten thousand practical Churches of Christ under the influence of men of the world, abuses within the Establishment wake no such indignant thunhinder their free action, destroy their spirituality, and per- ders—the nomination of worldly prelates the exclusion of the petuate their corruptions.
gospel from thousands of parishes in which, by the union, un“ Were this union to be now for the first time proposed to godly ministers have the monopoly of spiritual instructionChristian men, I believe there is scarcely one who would not the easy introduction of irreligious youths into the ministryinstantly repudiate it. Custom alone can account for its con- the awful desecration of baptism, especially in large civic tinuancé. Christians have been familiar with it from their parishes—the more awful fact, that thirteen thousand Anglican infancy; romantic associations are connected with it; a thou- pastors leave some millions of the poor, out of a population of sand times they have heard it termed venerable; few ever study only sixteen millions, utterly untaught--the hateful bigotry of the directions of the Word of God upon this subject; govern- the canons, which excommunicate aÌl who recognise any other ments, patrons, prelates, incumbents, and expectants, are all Churches of Christ in England except our own-the complete interested in its stability; and numbers belonging to a large fusion of the Church and the world at the Lord's table--the political party dread all innovations, and especially those which obligation upon every parish minister publicly to thank God would strengthen the popular element in any of our institutions. for taking to himself the soul of every wicked person in the Erroneous opinions, eagerly embraced and assiduously reite-parish who dies without being excommunicated—the almost total rated, invest it with an air of sacredness. And many who neglect of Scriptural Church discipline-the tyranny of the resolutely shut their eyes to the evils which it entails, and who licence system—the sporting, dancing, and card-playing of many close their ears against all expositions of its corruption, applaud clergymen—the Government orders to the Churches of Christ to even the blindest and most headlong of its advocates."
preach on what topics, and to pray in what terms, the State Part Second of the work is occupied in stating the
prescribes-the loud and frequent denunciation of our brethren
of other denominations as schismatics—the errors of the articles effects of the union. It will readily be anticipated and of the prayer-book, and the invasion of the regal preroby every thinking person, that nothing but the worst gatives of Christ by the State supremacy-the total absqance of results can flow from such a union as that which has self-government, and, therefore, of all self-reformation, in the been described, since what is evil in principle cannot
Establishment, &c. &c. &c.: all these enormous evils are tolework any other than bad results. But few could
rated and concealed. Dissenters are often and eagerly attacked
because comparatively weak; but scarcely a tongue condemns frame any adequate conception of the extremely per
the tyranny of the State towards the Anglican Churches, because nicious consequences which have flowed, and cannot the State is strong and holds the purse. Some eagerly search but now, from such a union between Church and into the future, compel unfulfilled prophecy to reveal to them State as that which has so long blighted England. the fate of distant generations; but majestic and momentous The honourable and reverend author has set himself events passing before our eyes are overlooked. They keenly deliberately to describe these effects; and we have not
discuss what Jerusalem is to be in the millennium, but do not
ask what Scotland and the Canton de Vaud are now. There the slightest doubt that his heart bled as he traced is not a corner or nook of prophetic Scripture which they do the melancholy pages, directing the attention of his not explore, but they know little of what the same Scripture readers to matters over which every good man must declares of the constitution and discipline of Christian blush and mourn in shame and sorrow. This part is Churches, Books and pamphlets without end solicit attention divided into two chapters: the first showing the in
to the millennium, but scarcely a whisper suggests how existing fluence of the union upon persons; the second, the Churches are to be purified and revived. "The evils without influence of the union upon things. The first chapter evils within nestle undisturbed.”
the Churches are delineated with vehement fidelity, but the is subdivided into five sections, showing the influence “But what are the pastors of the Anglican Churches in of the union upon-1. Bishops; 2. Pastors; 3. Curates; fact? I grieve to write it. There are men among them of 4. Members of Anglican Churches; 5. Dissenters. In- great virtues, to whom I gladly do homage. I know and love stead of attempting to give a condensed outline of many faithful, energetic, and sincere servants of Christ; but those sections, we shall adduce a series of extracts, grieve to write
it. Chosen by peers and squires, by colleges and
when these exceptions are subtracted, what are the rest ? ! presenting the author's statement, in his own words, Church-corporations, by chancellors and State-made prelates, of the conclusions at which he has arrived :
many are made pastors by a corrupt favouritism, many are allured to an uncongenial employment by the income which it | from questioning any doctrine of the prayer-book, he must deoffers them, and many embrace the profession of a pastor be- fend the formula of his ordination to the priesthood. “Recause they are too dull, inert, or timid, for any other. They ceive the Holy Ghost for the office and work of a priest. have scarcely any theological training, they are pledged to all | Whose sins thou dost forgive, they are forgiven; and whose the errors in the prayer-book and all the abuses sanctioned by sins thou dost retain, they are retained.' By these words he the union. They dread reforms, they are servile to patrons, | is tempted to believe that he has received the Holy Ghost by they are intolerant to dissenters; their zeal is crippled by the imposition of the bishop's hauds. Then he is called to State restrictions, and their indolence tempted by unbounded ponder the ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth canons, which liberty to indulge it. Severed from the body of the people by condemn as schismatics all dissenting congregations, and extheir birth, by their early education, by their college life, by communicate those who own them to be Churches of Christ; their aristocratical association, by their zeal for their ecclesi- he reflects, also, that he is the legal pastor of the parish exastical prerogatives, they have little popular influence. Law- clusively patronized by the State; and when to this is added yers, men of science, and editors of newspapers, do not listen his exclusive training at an exclusive school and in an excluto them; chartists and socialists dislike and despise them; sive college, with exclusive reading and exclusive friendships, they scarcely touch the operative millions; they make few and the constant recurrence of exclusive charges of bishops converts among the devotees of fashion; and under their lead- and archdeacons, it is to be expected that each young curate ership the Christian army is inert, timid, and unsuccessful.” will imbibe Anglo-Catholic inflation. More especially, if he
Influence upon Curates.—“ This state of the law places has been thrust upon his parish in order to secure the family 5,230 curates entirely at the mercy of the bishops. If a curate living, without talent, kuowledge, or piety, he is almost sure is too evangelical or too friendly towards pious dissenters, or to protect himself against his non-conformist rival by lofty denies the doctrine of baptismal regeneration, or blames the pretensions, boldly and blindly denounce dissent as schism, canons, or offends the great by his faithful preaching, he may and thus unite with his timid servility to the great, an arrobe as blameless as Daniel and as devoted as Paul, but the gant exclusiveness towards the disciples and ministers of bishop may revoke his licence without assigning any reason, Christ.” (Pp. 318–322.) and may expel him altogether from his diocese. The worst Influence on Members of Anglican Churches.—“On the felon in her Majesty's dominions cannot be condemned with whole, it is most melancholy to contrast what the Anglican out trial before a jury; but a minister of Christ, of the highest Churches ought to be with what they are. They ought to be qualifications, the greatest capacity, and the most devoted zeal, composed of saints and faithful brethren,' under the superinmay be driven from his flock, deprived of his income, and sent tendence of able and faithful pastors. They ought to be the forth an exile from the diocese, without any trial-nay, with salt of the earth and the light of the world - epistles of Christ, out any reason, except the autocratic fiat of the ordinary. And known and read of all men'—the soldiers of truth clothed in this has been re-enacted within the present reign!
a divine panoply, and earnestly contending for the faith-each " It may occur to the reader that such a curate would, in separate member an evangelist to his neighbours, and all togereality, suffer no great hardship, since he would instantly be ther aiming at the conquest of the whole nation for Christ. welcomed by other bishops. But the forty-eighth canon enacts “ But they are a confused mass of believers and unbelievers, as follows: Curates and ministers, if they remove from one allowing strangers to impose upon them multitudes of ungodly diocese to another, shall not, by any means, be admitted to pastors, who bring a spiritual blight upon them, and whose serve without testimony of the bishop of the diocese whence ministry they nevertheless support. The scriptural discipline, they came, in writing, of their honesty, ability, and conformity which is essential to the purity and vigour of Christian to the ecclesiastical laws of the Church of England.' When, Churches, they have wholly abandoned. For the plague therefore, a bishop revokes his licence, and drives a curate stricken multitudes round them they do almost nothing. If from his diocese, as he will not countersign any testimony in the pastors
are often exclusive and schismatical, so are some his favour, and without his testimony no other bishop can of them. They associate freely, both at their own tables and canonically receive the curate, the arbitrary act which expels at the Lord's table, with his enemies, from whum they ought the curate from one diocese drives him, in reality, from all, to separate, and live in almost total separation from his nonand sentences him to dissent or starvation. Should he venture conformist followers, with whom they ought to be united. to preach without a licence, he would be liable to excommu- Few are evangelists to the poor; few teach in Sunday-schools, nication; whereupon, after forty days, a writ de excommuni- and of these few scarcely any are educated men. They see cato capiendo may issue against him out of Chancery, and, round them whole villages degraded by ignorance and vice, being imprisoned, he may have to endure all the consequences and suffer them to live and die untaught and unwarned. Fawhich the State has attached to Episcopal fulminations. It is mily and personal religion languishes. Few heads of families not clear that he can, with impunity, seek a provision for his expound the Scriptures to their children and servants, or pray family even as a layman, for, by the seventy-sixth canon, with them, except by the repetitions of a book. Trained in No man being admitted a deacon or minister shall from so heartless a manner, the children of religious parents frehenceforth voluntarily relinquish the same, nor afterwards use quently relapse into total worldliness; and the world recruits himself in the course of his life as a layman, upon pain of its forces from those who ought to have become the servants, excommunication.' Excommunication meets him whether of the Redeemer. Upon the masses of the working-class, the he exercise his ministry or renounce it, and he must either myriads of fashion, and the whole army of scientific and litesatisfy the bishop or starve.
rary men, Anglican Christians make scarcely any impression, “ Thus, on the one hand, if a curate conforms himself in while a latent and wide infidelity is making unchecked ravages every respect to the will of a bishop, zealously upholds the among them. In this Laodicean lukewarmness the Churches supremacy, maintains the unerring wisdom of the prayer ought to repent, to meet for discussion and mutual exhortabook, the immaculate truth of each of the thirty-nine articles, tion-should unitedly and fervently supplicate the gift of the and the
authority of the canons, then peace and plenty are Holy Spirit, and begin to labour for the conversion of sinners before him; nay, possibly, he may himself climb to the pin- and their own spiritual improvement. But, except to go through pacles of ecclesiastical greatness-to a peerage and a palace; the Sunday services, they never meet as Churches; they have but if he maintains the authority of Christ against the spiri- no brotherly association, no social prayer, no acts of humiliatual authority of the State, examines with hearty allegiance tion, no effort for spiritual revival. the truth, the doctrines, and the discipline of the Establish- “Nor is it easy to see how, under the union, any great ment; if he condemns the authority of the canons, and in any improvement can be effected. State supremacy and aristocraway comes into collision with the prejudices and the passions tic patronage secure that the Establishment shall continue for of the diocesan, then he is at the mercy of an irresponsible ever a worldly corporation. As a representative government autocracy, which may at any moment ruin his prospects and must ever reflect the attributes of its constituency, so long as blight his fame. Such circumstances interdict, if I mistake the majority of the people are worldly, the State must be not, to the curates of England all fearless, generous, and in- worldly too: a worldly Siate must generally raise worldly no dependent search after truth.
minees to the bench of bishops; and worldly bishops will * I have noticed before the influence of a complicated ordain, without scruple, young men as worldly as themselves. system of ecclesiastical law, and of unrestricted patronage, in Further, as the patrons, who are rich and great, are likely, as the same direction.
a class, to be worldly, and the pastors must generally resemble “There is, further, a very disagreeable addition likely to be the patrons by, whom they are chosen, the pastors must genemade to the character of a young curate by the circumstances rally be worldly; and as the Churches cannot generally
rise in of his condition. Deterred by consequences so tremendous spirituality beyond their pastors, the Churches must be worldly
too. So that worldly bishops and worldly patrons are likely “ Let all who fear and love God arise to accomplish this to secure in perpetuity worldly pastors and worldly Churches second Reformation. The work which our martyred forthroughout the land.** (Pp. 330-333.)
fathers began in the face of the dungeon and the stake, let us Influence upon Dissenters.—“Let us now recapitulate the in their spirit, complete ! evils which the union inflicts upon dissenters. By exalting a
We shall probably consider it our duty to resume rival denomination it necessarily depresses them, and by brand
consideration of this very important work in a subing them as schismatics shuts them out from the society and the sympathy of their fellow-Christians. It impedes their sequent Number, as there are some points of its efforts to instruct the ignorant; it allures the children of their argument which we have not been able to touch. wealthier members to desert them, and thus impoverishes their Meanwhile, let our readers bear in mind, that it is ministers, their schools, their colleges, and their missions; it not the work of one who has been accustomed to deprives them of their share of advantage from the ecclesiastical view the Church of England from a hostile position. property of the nation; it forces them, by the payment of Church-rates, to support an ecclesiastical system which they
It is the work of one who has long been one of the condemn; and, by compelling them to seek a political remedy brightest ornaments of that very Church, and who for a great political grievance, it exposes them to the censure might reasonably anticipate elevation to its highest and dislike of their fellow-Christians, as a turbulent political honours. Nor is it the production of a man of party who merit the severest reprehension. (Pp. 343, 344.) jealous or irritable temper, under the influence of
The second chapter, which treats of the influence feelings of disappointment or anger. It is the work of the union upon things, is subdivided into eleven of a man of singularly amiable, mild, and calm dissections, showing the influence of the union upon-position, still more highly refined and hallowed by 1. The Number of Ministers; 2. The Distribution of the gracious power of genuine Christianity. Yet, Ministers; 3. The Maintenance of Ministers; 4. The from such a man has the deep and deliberate conDoctrine taught in the Anglican Churches;
5. The viction of conscience wrung out a work, which seems Discipline of the Anglican Churches; 6. The Evange- like the solemn summing up of the Church of Eng. lization of the Country; 7. The Union of Christians; land's crimes, preparatory to the pronouncing of her 8. The Reformation of the Churches; 9. The Progress doom. The voice that has thus gone forth cannot be of Religion in the Country; 10. The Government; and, slighted, cannot be recalled, cannot be long arrested. 11. Other National Establishments throughout the Investigation must follow; and, in such a case, invesWorld.
tigation is judgment. Our space will not permit us to attempt any analysis of the topics contained in this chapter. We
THEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF have perused and reperused it with pity and terror- MORISONIANISM IN ITS CHARACTER pity, that such should be the condition of England
AND TENDENCY. and its Church, utterly, incurably, and hopelessly
No. II. corrupt; and terror, to think of the tremendous con
The indigested form of these opinions, we have seen, sequences that must ere long take place, if some
is only paralleled by the progress in error which remedial measure be not speedily found. A com
daily comes to light; and in proceeding with our plete separation between Church and State is the sketch, we have only to remark, that, while the inteonly measure suggested by Mr Noel; and we give, as
rests of truth permit no forbearance, we should be our last extract, a portion of the summary with which he concludes his mournfully solemn and impressive mand. It is with the tendency of the views that the
sorry to employ terms which accuracy does not dework:
public have alone to do; and the line of demarcation Conclusion.—“The union of the Churches with the State is where tendency tends, and the motives of their addoomed. Condemned by reason and religion, by Scripture vocates begin, shall be kept well defined before our and by experience, how can it be allowed to injure the nation
view. much longer? All the main principles upon which it rests are zinsound. Its State-salaries, its supremacy, its patronage, its
These opinions, however they may trace their compulsion of payments for the support of religion, are con- origin, are a singular compound of the Rowism of demned by both the precedents and the precepts of the Word this land, and the strange fire of American revivalism. of God. We have seen that it sheds a blighting influence upon There is all the visionary pardon without repentance prelates, incumbents, curates, and other members of Churches. It adds little to the number of pastors, it distributes them with
or return to God that comes to light in the former. a wasteful disregard to the wants of the population, and it pays
There is, along with natural feeling lashed into a least those whom it ought to pay most liberally. It excludes frenzy, all the proud claim to inherent ability that the gospel from thousands of parishes; it perpetuates corrup- forms the distinctive feature of the latter. These tions in doctrine; it hinders all scriptural discipline; it dese- two factors combined go to produce the rare result crates the ordinances of Christ, confounds the Church and the world, foments schism among Christians, and tempts the mini-ill assorted' but mutually destructive, while the pro
of a system, of which the several parts are not only politicians. Further, it embarrasses successive governments: elements will blend. We hear in almost every page, sters of Christ
both in and out of the Establishment to be eager pounders are sanguine in the hope that the two maintains one chief element of revolution in the country, renders the reformation of the Anglican Churches hopeless, hin- either the daring assumptions of a Finney, ders the progress of the gospel throughout the kingdom, and delusive good news of an Erskine. Sometimes the strengthens all the corrupt Papal Establishments of Europe.
one element predominates, and sometimes the other; “Worst of all, it'grieves' and quenches’ the Spirit of at one time the siren-song of a pardon without reGod, who cannot be expected largely to bless the Churches pentance
allures the victim to the rocks, at another “ But when it shall be destroyed, we have reason to hope time the claims of a natural ability, that may be that the Churches will revive in religion speedily. Sound called well-nigh divine, seduce him to his ruin. Now doctrine will then be heard from most of the Anglican pulpits; they place their followers on the giddy heights of an evangelists will go forth into every part of the land; scrip- unreal assurance, based on the
sandy foundation that tural discipline will be restored; schisms will be mitigated; Christ died for them; and at another time the flattering Christian `ministers will cease to be political partisans; we may look for a larger effusion of the Spirit of God; and Eng
unction of a superhuman power, and of a pride more land may become the foremost of the nations in godliness and than mortal, no less terribly assails them. The two virtue.
elements of which the system is composed are in