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trophies to truth, by his sanctified fervour, even literary, and theological study, had been for years among the Areopagitæ.
haunted by a single word. He had long been able to Yet it is indisputable that there are some phases preserve his self-control, and had carried his secret of madness which connect themselves with a kind of with him in the discharge of his daily duties. But religion; and, in modern times, this subject has at the horrid word was continually before him. Everytracted no little attention. Materialists have tried thing suggested it, or led him to fear it would be to find in it a proof of their assumption that man's suggested. It appeared to pursue all his concepwhole constitution is homogeneous—all gross and tions with the untiring activity and relentless perseearthly. Others have used it as a sophism against cution of a demon. It gained upon him every day, spiritual religion; while others have investigated the until at last it met him in every line he read, and phenomena of madness, in connexion with religion, seemed to lurk under every placard, sign-board, and with a view to discover the best remedy for the sad door-plate. Every sound suggested it to his terrified visitation. It may tend at once to guide the minds imagination. He could not listen for fear that each of some who watch for souls, and cannot but weep word might be the one he so much dreaded, and with those that weep, and to soothe the sorrows of feared to speak lest it should escape from his own some who suffer in the mournful way to which we lips. This monad became at last the terror of his now refer, if we consider a few examples of the evil. existence; and he could no longer trust himself alone,
Without at all adopting the opinion-in which, lest he should be impelled to some desperate act, to however, there is, perhaps, a substratum of truth- save himself from his loathsome and inveterate foe.” that no man is absolutely şane on erery subject, or Nor can we omit another case, equally illustrative without asserting that all eccentricity is incipient of the more than Protean forms of insanity. “A madness, we remark, that the extent to which de- young man of intelligence, industry, and piety, and rangement prevails is known to very few. The very distinguished by much warmth of affection for his names by which the various shades or kinds of men | family, was caught in a single act of intoxication. A tal disease are made known indicate how diversified reproach from his master led bim to throw up his and wide-spread it is. There is mania or fury, and situation. He became dissatisfied with himself, restmelancholia or gloomy dejection. There is mono less, and changeable; and, after an incubation of six mania, where some one topic is found invariably to months, his disease manifested itself distinctly, by unhinge the mind; and that, again, is subdivided into alienation of affection for his family, fits of abstracmonomania of suspicion, or pride, or superstition. tion, ravenous appetite, suspicion, fear, and distrust; Then there is demonomania, when the diseased deem and ultimately, after three months in this state, a themselves possessed, and erotomania, mad, passion short time previous to his admission, he was saved ate, destructive. There is amentia, literal mindless from the commission of suicide by the sudden interness, or idiotcy. There are dementia, delirium tre position of his friends. ..... mens, and delirium ferox. There is, moreover, moral “Soon afterwards he took to bed; his pulse fell to insanity—but we need not prolong the catalogue. forty, his inclination for food appeared to leave him, Some psychologists, as well as medical practitioners, and all attempts at feeding by the ordinary means were have so subdivided the disease, or so classified its fruitless. He seemed to have lost the sense of taste, appearances, as abundantly to show that it must be | and the power of deglutition, and lay speechless, rare indeed to escape from every form of aberration, motionless, and apparently insensible to all that was if these subdivisions and distinctions be not the result done to him, or that went on around. In this state of professional theories rather than of established | of apparent lethargy, amounting almost to coma, he facts.
continued for five months. In some of the cases to which professional men! “The day before his death, the fire which had thus advert, the most touching exhibitions of poor smouldered so long, and burned so low as to escape humanity are made. For example, it is not very un. all observation, was suddenly lit up, and he raised common for those who are visited with mental malady himself in bed, spoke, took'a bason of broth, and to apply for admission to asylums, during a lucid in- supped it with apparent relish. On questioning him, terval, to “ obtain protection from themselves.” In I found, to my surprise, that, during the whole of this one of these receptacles for the wretched, out of two period of apparent insensibility, he had been alive to hundred and fifty-one admitted in a year, three were all that had gone on around him that he remembered of that class. One of them was a lady, who had for- the different attendants who had had charge of him, merly been an inmate of the asylum. When she and appreciated the attentions of each according to felt that her excitement was recurring, she volun- their respective merits. I further discovered that tarily fled to immure herself again in the sad abode, he had refused food, believing that God had comwhere she knew her calamity would be cared for manded him not to eat, and that he could live and her sorrow alleviated. The other two were without food. The most minute objects appear to affected by the common impulse to suicide, and re. I have been watched by him, and the operations of a turned to the asylum, that they might “ be watched spider, which occupied a corner of the ceiling above and preserved from their own hands.” Of all the his bed, seemed to have been the especial object of pictures of disconsolate humanity which can be fan- | his solicitude and observation. A few minutes after cied, there is none more touching than this. Even he first spoke, he who had so long lived withou “ Moody madness laughing wild
eating, apostrophized the spider in a tone of commi. Amid severest woe*
seration, saying, “Poor thing! it has not had a meal is not more shocking to all our sympathies.
for two days.' "On the following day he died." But one of the cases we have instanced deserves But, instead of limiting our attention to these to be more minutely described. “A young man of diversified phases of the distempered mind, let us high promise, of amiable dispositions, superior intel. contemplate those more directly connected with re lect, and fine moral perceptions, who had pursued, ligion. The proportion of these is not very great, with ardour and success, a long course of classical, although the general clamour regarding them wo
lead us to suppose that their number is overwhelm- , aberration engrossed his whole mind, and he lived ing. Out of about eighty-four cases of insanity, about for years in a state of mock-majesty, receiving the five may be connected with religion; but, on a close mock homage, and bearing the mock sway of royalty. inspection, it will appear that even these are not to Now, who would argue that that man became insane be ascribed to the influence of truth, but, on the because of his loyalty to George III.? That decontrary, to some perversion of it.
lusion fastened on his mind after it had been disturb. It is well known that, owing to physical causes, ed by other causes, most probably physical in their wholly upinfluenced by moral considerations, the nature ; and the case is a perfect analogy to many of human frame is more susceptible of impressions at the instances of reputed mania in connexion with one time than another. The nervous system, in half religion. The mind was excited by other influences. the human family, is subject to an excitement the It was at least susceptible from physical causes, periodicity of which is as regular as the phases of the which might or might not be moral in their characmoon, and whatever affects the mind at all, tells upon ter, and religion then took hold of it, just as a it at such seasons with tenfold influence. Sounds ap- passion for teaching has continued to rule in the pear to be more loud, because the nerves are more minds of teachers, or a passion for diplomacy in the sensitive; dangers seem more near or more appalling, minds of statesmen, after they were enfeebled or because the mind, through the nervous system, is mentally mutilated by derangement. more easily affected-in short, periodically, with That religion is not the exciting cause, but rather great regularity, except in cases of disease, the the engrossing result, in many cases, may be shown in minds of many pass into this sensitive or nervous another way. Many who have been excited to an condition.
extreme degree on the subject, have been relieved by And it is scarcely necessary to say, that whatever the physician and not by the divine. Indeed, we think takes hold of the mind when in that state, will reign that in many cases of alleged spiritual distress, it is supreme for the time, with a sway that is unchal- the former and not the latter that should be appealed ledgeable-at least with a power that is resistless. to. We have known individuals, whose minds were, It may be some opinion the most abnormal, or some to say the least, abnormal on the subject of religion, delusion the most baseless; it may be some veriest first relieved, and eventually cured, by cupping, periotrifle, or some mighty truth; but, whatever it be, fordically resorted to-a result which clearly indicated the time it is paramount, and covers the whole soul both the seat and the nature of the disease. It was with its influence, whether it be to excite to violent not so much “ ministering to a soul diseased," as to mirth or sink into gloomy and cheerless dejection. a body distempered by inflammation, plethora, or a
Let it be supposed, then, that, in that condition, re- | pressure of blood on the brain, that was required ; ligion-the only topic which should be engrossing to and the best and most judicious physicians, among every human being—is presented to the soul, or whom we would give a prominent place to the late pressed on its attention; let an active conscience Dr Cheyne of Dublin, have regulated their practice and an excited system combine their influence and by that maxim. urge forward in the same direction-need we wonder But another proof of the baselessness of the though agitation lead to intense anxiety; and intense world's charge against earnest religion, as if it tended anxiety, when misdirected, even to despair; and de to generate madness, is found in the fact that, in the spair to excitement, or to melancholy, according to best conditioned asylums, religion enters largely the temperament of the patient? What marvel into the treatment of the convalescent. Hope to though the question, “What must I do to be saved ?" the desponding, and consolation to the distressed, are or,“ How shall man be just with God ?"_which it has thereby supplied. Men of large experience assure baffled minds the most sane to solve-should stir and us that the unhappy victims of morbid fear, superagitate the inmost depths of the already excited spi- stition, and despair, have their sorrows soothed by rit on which such questions take hold? The won such influences as nothing but religion can impart; der is not that about five in eighty-four are thus in and in more than one asylum we have witnessed its stigated to insanity: our only wonder is, that the hallowing effects. We once addressed an assem. ratio is not inverse--that is, eighty-four to five; and blage of about one hundred and twelve lunatics, in notbing but man's death like indifference to the different stages of their disease, in the chapel of an things of God, of eternity, and the soul, can prevent asylum, and never spoke to more attentive listeners, them from being thus excited to an earnestness so or more earnest men, than there. The religion of intense that reason would totter on its throne, were Christ visibly soothed and gently calmed the body it not for the divine panacea, the gospel.
through the mind. Yet, let it be observed, that it really was not the And the proof that the world's charge is a fallacy, religion of Christ that excited these minds. Such becomes yet more conclusive, when we go on more patients only seized upon that overmastering topic fully to show that even where mania does stand after their minds were excited by other and physical connected with religion, it is some perversion of the causes. We once saw a maniac who stoutly de- | truth, and not the truth itself, that fosters the aberraclared that she was Lady Brougham, and would not tion. The case of the poet Cowper is often quoted be convinced of her delusion. She deemed herself here. It is well known that for many years he was the partner of our eccentric statesman, but who the victim of a strange hallucination. At one period would dream of alleging that that delusion was the he even attempted suicide, and long subsequently to cause of her madness? It took possession of her that, he deemed himself utterly cut off from the mind, previously unhinged or maddened by other privileges of a Christian on earth, and equally de. causes; and thus it was a symptom, not a producent barred from his hope beyond the grave. Now, those of disease. At one period we had frequent occasion who do not distinguish between things that differ, to visit an aged maniac, who was full of the con sweepingly ascribe all this to religion. It is . viction that he was George III., the reigning monarch broadly asserted that it was his Calvinism that drove of his youth. When the patient became lunatic, that I poor Cowper mad, and that froze up bis exquisitely
genial powers in a long winter of nine or ten years' thus: “Our Father which art in hell.” Her misery duration. But nothing would be easier than to show was thus rendered excruciating; and amid the pecuthat it was not religion that led to that result; it was, liarities of her case that temptation, or tendency, on the contrary, a mischievous perversion of religion. | would appear to have been paramount. Now, who Instead of having his peace of mind obscured or will say that that madness was the result of religioni eclipsed by truth, it was because the truth was not In fact, the woman had no religion, properly so received that all his trouble came, and continued called; and only those who know not the gospel would upon him. The religion of God, which in the Irish deem her religious. It was mere emotion-mere tongue is called “The Story of Peace,” is designed impulse-a thing which all began in her own heart; to diffuse serenity and joy through every soul that and there is no greater wonder that that, when welcomes it; and wherever it is welcomed these are wrought upon by physical causes, should end in its “ peaceable fruits." It is a divine prescription madness, than that intoxication, or sudden and for spiritual health-so that there is neither a truer severe loss, or some overwhelming calamity, shoul nor more beautiful verse in all the compass of poetry make reason reel, and at last abandon its place as than that in David's psalm
the guide of the mind. To impute such things to “ In dwellings of the righteous
Christianity is as illogical as to argue that the dainIs heard the melody
ties of the epicure, or the wine of the drunkard, could of joy and health; the Lord's right hand Doth ever valiantly;"
produce pure and undefiled religion. Who can be
persuaded that such fanatical insanity as that of Cow. and so completely is this the purpose—the final effect
per, who stuck a penknife into his side, because he of true religion, that we may as rationally impute
thought he was commissioned from heaven to do so, he warmth of June to the frost of January as its
was really the result of religion? Such things are cause, as allege that the religion of the Prince of
physical results, the effects of functional or organic Peace, when belieced, can lead to aught but purest and
disorder; and, we repeat, it is not the ministers of serenest joy. There may be religious aberrations religion.but the o
trons religion, but the guardians of our health, that should which begin in eccentricity and end in downright be consulted in the matter. One of the most com. insanity. That has, perhaps, been the case with some petent judges has said, that men are to be delivered heresiarchs. Men of a sensitive temperament, as
from such temptations by gentle cathartics, alkaline Cowper was, may be either awed or agitated, till the
bitters, and country air; for every instance of amenmind lose its equilibrium. Fatuity, we know, has
tia, delirium, or insanity, is connected with supersometimes followed some crushing calamity. Those
added disorder of the body.” who were once most fondly loved, have become most
But what are some of the data on which men who intensely hated when mental disorder supervened ;
are anxious to fasten a charge of producing insanity and if even the natural affections have been thus dis
on the earnest religion which the Word of God delocated and deranged by strong causes, who will
scribes and inculcates, rest their conclusions: One wonder though the strongest of existing powers, when
of them is, that, prior to the French Revolution, a percerted, should discom pose, distress, derange? But
large proportion of the insane in France were monks. still it is religion abused, not religion used, that is the Now, we grant at once that superstition, like that of origin of that result.
Rome, may lead to madness. The history of raving To establish the position which the world so como “ecstatics," whose wild and hysterical procedure placently holds on this subject, it would be requisite
proves that reason was extinct or eclipsed, abunto prove that the gospel, in its offers, its invitations,
dantly shows how such results may attend the its promises and love, tends to produce madness. excitement of miracle-workers, of exorcists, and These embody the simple truths of the gospel; and all
the swarming impostors fostered by the Church the doctrines of our faith are but the channels through
of Rome, wherever men are so morally dark which salvation is to be conveyed to the soul. What
as to admit of such exhibitions being made with sucare even the divine decrees but the method adopted
cess. But, to infer from these that the religion of by divine love to make salvation sure? These and
peace, of love, of mercy, of holiness,' in one word, similar portions of the truth may be insulated, dis
of Christ, leads to such results, is just to ascribe torted, caricatured, and then presented to the mind in
darkness to sunrise. God's truth, as revealed by his a way that would bewilder. But let them be unfolded
Son, is designed to hush every disorder of the soul in their scriptural relations and harmony, and they
and conscience-to spread the peace of God, which ever tend to build up believers in holiness and com
passeth understanding, through the else troubled. fort through faith unto salvation. Far from disturb
bosom of man; and to suppose that such a system ing the mind, they become like the rock against which
could occasion woe, or madness, or aught but purest it may lean--the pillow on which it may repose in the
joy, is both to charge God foolishly and put bitenjoyment of that gladness that is provided for the
ter for sweet. Godless men may sneer at "saints," upright in heart.
and impute every mental aberration to that which is No better illustration of this subject occurs to us,
the only power that can produce true moral and than the case of a young woman, mentioned by Dr
mental order; but all who know the truth in its Cheyne. Her devotional feelings were strong, but
power, and receive it in love, will feel undisturbed she was ignorant of the doctrines of the cross; in
by such a charge-it will prompt only pity for him other words, she did not understand the religion of
that urges it, for “God keepeth that man in perfect God: like thousands everywhere, she put natural
peace whose mind is stayed on him." Peace, the very emotion in its place. When her illness, which ended
peace of Christ himself, is his legacy to all that trust in insanity, began, she was liable to be disturbed in
in him. prayer; and as she grew worse, she was constantly
It is, perhaps, needless to dwell longer on this assailed by the temptation to begin her petition
topic. It must be abundantly clear to all, that the * In his Essays on Partial Derangement of the Mind, in supposed
religion of Christ can never of itself be the cause of connexion with Religion,
| disorder. Take it in its extremest forms; think, for example, of the text which alludes to our <laving down our lives for the brethren." or being ANALYSIS OF THE CATHOLIC DIRECTORY crucified to the world," and the whole is pro
FOR 1849.* motive of man's highest interests — man's purest
The Catholic Directory contains a vast amount of inpeace : it would transmute our groaning and travailing world into a vestibule for heaven. But, in addi
formation of importance to Papists, and not without tion to what has been stated, let it be remembered
interest to Protestants. We propose to give a short that, when decidedly religious men become insane,reli
analysis of the book-chiefly of that part of it congion often ceases for a time to be regarded-its ascen.
taining the statistics of the Catholic Church in Great
Britain. dency returns only when the paroxysm has passed away. As a brave soldier has been known to become
- The volume commences with the usual almanack a skulking coward, and men of large and open
and ecclesiastical register for the year. There is hearted liberality to become selfish and niggardly,
first of all an “Explanatory Preface” descriptive of while derangement continued, so religious men have
the offices and festivals of the Church, with direcbeen known to become impious blasphemers, even
tions for the use of the Mass-book and the Vesper. till the ears that heard them tingled. Was it their
book. Of the nature of the explanations, an idea religion that produced that result ? No more than
may be gathered from the following extract :it was the heroism of the brave man that made him
| “The words double, semi-double, and single, occurring in a coward, or the liberality of the generous that trans
the Directory, show the different degrees of solemnity with
which the offices of the Church are performed. The word formed them into churls.
double subjoined to a festival, denotes that the office of that A lady, a hearer of some Swedenborg preacher, festival is more solemn than that of a semi-double or single. went to the sacrament of the supper. When the cup The order of the festivals is as follows:-Double of the first reached her, it was empty. She regarded it as a class; double of the second class ; double-major; double; token that she was rejected of God, and became de- / semi-double, and single." ranged under that conviction. Did religion produce By these and similar instructions the faithful are that effect? We mean, did the glad tidings of great taught the exact degree of devotion with which to joy, or more briefly, the gospel (for that is the only worship, not the most high God alone, but also the religion-all else is superstition), produce that mad. Blessed Virgin, and the cloud of saints in the Romish ness! A worldly man has quoted the case as a proof calendar, whether with a double-major,” or “semithat it did.
double,” or “simple" solemnity! Here is the preAgain; a lady under sore affliction was urged by a sent week of the almanackfriend to seek alleviation in religion, and the urgency “ January was supported by" spiritual arguments, interniixed 14. 2d after Epiph. The Holy name of Jesus d. (double) with many abstract doctrinal points.” “ Shortly, com
of 2d class, white; Com. of Sunday and St Felis plete insanity was developed.” Such is the record.
M., &c. But again we ask, Was not disease at work? or was
15. St Paul, Ist hermit, d., white.
16. St Marcellas, P. M. (Pope, Martyr), red. not the mind turbid by reason of perrerted religion?
17. St Anthony, Abp., C. (Confessor), white. And is it not just a proof of the folly of men, deemed 18. St Peter's Chair at Rome, gr. d., while. wise in their generation, to quote these as instances 19. St Wolstan, B. C. (Bishop-conf.), d., white. of the connexion between madness and true reli 20. SS. Fabian and Sibastian, MM., d., red, abstinence." gion as it came from heaven to guide men to it?
The words white, red, purple, green, and black, in But we must close. When this land was lately italics, denote the colour of the vestments of the day. visited by revivals and seasons of refreshing from the How tame the Anglican controversy of black and presence of the Lord, the baseless charge wbich we wbite seems after this variegation of vestment! have here considered was rifely circulated. Formalists, Passing over the “ plenary indulgences granted to who felt rebuked by religious zeal-worldly men, who the faithful in England during the year," and other could caricature the very Word of God, and, much religious announcements, we proceed to examine the more, religion, as exhibited in the life of his people, "STATISTICS OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN GREAT cold-hearted infidels, with a profession of religion on | BRITAIN," i. e., England, Wales, and Scotland, apart their lips, spoke in sage laconisms on the subject, and from Ireland and the Colonies. almost told you that they were the people, and wis. Great Britain is divided into 11 districts; Eng. dom would die with them--the revivalists were mad. land 7, Wales 1, Scotland 3. The division of the At Perth, at Aberdeen, and other places, the excite- districts is as follows :ment was so great, that, had we believed the rumours “1. LONDON-including Middlesex, Berks, Hants, Herts, circulated, we must have concluded that the asylums Essex, Surrey, Sussex, Kent, and Isle of Wight, Guernsey were crowded in consequence of the revivals. We and Jersey.--Pop. 4,101,806 (Census 1841.) have seen the baselessness of the allegation. Physical, "2. CENTRAL.-Derby, Leicester, Notts, Oxford, Salop, and not spiritual, causes explain all such cases; and
Stafford, Warwick, and Worcester.-Pop. 2,284,240.
“3. ÉASTERN. ---Beds, Bucks, Cambridge, Huntingdon, we conclude in the words of the gifted physician al
Lincoln, Norfolk, Northampton, Rutland, and Suffolk.-Pop. ready quoted :-“We firmly believe,” he says, “ that 1.797.806. acces the gospel, received simply, never, since it was first **4. WESTERN.-Cornwall, Devonshire, Dorset, Gloucespreached, produced a single case of insanity; the ad. ter, Somerset, and Wiltshire.-Pop. 2,225,880. mission that it has such a tendency ought never to
“5. LANCASHIRE.--Lancashire, Cheshire, and Isle of Man. have been made to the enemies of the cross. We have
-Pop. 2, 100,689.
“6. YORK.-Yorkshire.-Pop. 1,591,480. granted that fanaticism and superstition have caused
“7. NORTHERN.-Cumberland, Northumberland, Westinsanity-as well they may; nay, derangement of the moreland, and Durham.-Pop. 809,054. mind may often have been caused by the terrors of “8. WALES.-Wales, with Monmouthshire, and Herefordthe law; but by the gospel-by a knowledge of, and shire.-Pop. 1,159,836." trust in, Jesus — NEVER."
* The Catholic Directory, Almanack, and Ecclesiastical Register for the year 1849. Permissu Superiorum, London, C. Dolman.
i Scotland is divided into the eastern (pop. 1,092,123), ) In England there are 10 Catholic colleges; and I western (pop. 998,231), and northern (pop. 529,748), in Scotland, at Blairs, Kincardineshire: There are districts, of which, Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Aber religious houses of men, 13. Convents for women in deen, are the respective bead-quarters.
England, 40; and 1 in Scotland. The religious houses The grand total of Catholic churches and chapels and convents belong to a great variety of orders. in Great Britain is 674, besides stations where ser Besides the Jesuits, whom no one knows where to vice is occasionally performed. In England 576, find, or rather where not to find, there are, male, Wales 11, Scotland 87. The greater number are in Passionists, Redemptorists, Cistercians, Dominicans, the following counties :
Conceptionists, Fathers of the Oratory, &c. Of Lancashire . .... 128 | Northumberland ... 22 female orders, there are Sisters of Mercy, Sisters of Yorkshire ..... 62 Durham . . . . . . 18
Charity, Benedictine Nuns, Dominicanesses, Sisters Staffordshire .. . 35 Cheshire. ..... 17 of the Holy Sepulchre, of the Sacred Heart, the . 27 Gloucestershire .. . 15
Faithful Companions of Jesus, &c. &c. Many of the Warwickshire .... 23 Hampshire and Kent . 14
convents are also places of education, or have board1 In North Wales there are 6; in South Wales, 5.
ing-schools associated, where Protestant as well as
Catholic females are admitted for instruction, In Scotland the distribution is,
The grand total of priests in Great Britain, includInverness . . .
• 19 | Perth, Stirling Argyll, ing the bishops, is 897. The increase over the preAberdeen
ceding year is 65. They are distributed as follows:: ið Dumbarton, Dumfries; Banff . . . . . Lanark . . . . .
Forfar, Moray, Wigton 2 London district ... 157 | Central district ... 160 Edinburgh . . . . .
Caithness, Kincardine, 5
ire do. . . . 189 | Eastern do. . Renfrey
ew ::... 41 Linlithgow, - Peebles, Yorkshire do. . . . . 68 | Western do. . . . . 69 Kirkcudbright. ... 4 Ross, Roxburgh .. Northern do..... 63/ Wales do...... 26 Berwick, Bute, Clackmannan, Haddington, Kin
In Scotland, 107. ross, Nairn, Orkney and Shetland, Selkirk, Suther. This list includes priests without any fixed station land, have neither chapel nor station. In Fife or mission. The number of those not avowed there is a missionary priest, but no chapel. In openly, but scattered throughout the Church of Caithness there is service at Wick only during the England, and other religious bodies in disguise, it is fishing season.
impossible to conjecture. of the English counties, there is no chapel nor! İn taking a general survey of the statistics of mission in Huntingdonshire, or Rutlandshire. Of the Catholic Church in Great Britain, various consi. the Welsh, Carmarthen, Radnor, Anglesea, Merio- derations suggest themselves, such as theseneth, Montgomery, are in a similar state of happy 1. The number of chapels and priests is greatest destitution. As the Directory writes, after stating the in those parts where Irish emigration is strong. population of these several counties, “no chapels ! Lancashire has 128 chapels, and in the district are no mission-houses! no school-houses ! no mission- | 189 priests. In Glasgow, and other towns of the fund ! no missioners !"
west, Popery flourishes among the Hibernian stranSome of the Welsh stations are supplied by priests ger population. from Brittany. Concerning Aberyst with, for in- 2. The Romish Church gains or retains footing stance, it is stated that the niission is undertaken by most easily in districts remotest from educational such priests, and that “the affinity between the and other civilizing influences. In the neglected Breton and Welsh languages, and the better feelings manufacturing towns of England, with rapidly grow. of the Welsh people towards Breton priests, than ing population, the people are unguarded by edutowards English and Irish, earnestly recommend this cation against superstition and imposture. In wild experiment to the zeal and charity of Catholics." | thinly-peopled parts, such as some of the highlands This hint is worthy of the attention of the Conti. and islands of Scotland, the light of truth has but nental Society, or others interested in the progress slowly spread, and ancient Popery still survives. of the gospel in France. If Welsh Calvinistic 3. The number of chapels and priests is not large Methodists could labour profitably among the Breton / in proportion to the actual Catholic population of population, a door of much immediate usefulness is England. The supply of religious ordinances is not apparent.
greater than in most other denominations of this Each of the districts in Great Britain is under a country, and less than among Catholics of almost vicar apostolic, with coadjutors or other assistant | any other country. dignitaries. The titles of the vicars and prelates are 4. The increase of chapels and priests is not much taken from assumed names of cities, such as (Bishop greater than the proportional increase of population. of) Cambysopolis, Apollonia, Limyra, Ariopolis, &c. Besides, judging from the names in the clergy list, The districts are divided into rural deaneries, with the number of foreign priests imported within the regular places of conference of the clergy under their last few years is unusually large. rural deans. The Romish Church has thus an orga. 5. While the increase, on the whole, is not more nization as complete in England as that of the Angli- than might be required for the population, the can Church, with the advantages of freer and more Roman Catholic Church is the only religious body, vigorous movement. The English Establishment except the Church of England, and the Free Church has no convocations nor official assemblies of the of Scotland, that has at all kept pace with the inclergy for deliberation or active enterprise; and, increasing census. The Wesleyans, Baptists, Iudepen. the present state of the Church, it is as well that dents, and other denominations, are barely able to such courts are in abeyance. The conferences of the hold their ground, and are doing little or nothing to Romish rural deaneries, commenced within the last overtake additional population. Romish and Anglithree years, are more analogous to the meetings of can zeal are putting forth more effectual efforts for presbyteries in Scotland, not, indeed, for jurisdiction, ecclesiastical extension than all dissenting denominabut for superintendence and consultation.